Skip to main content

Full text of "User's manual for HESCOMP, the helicopter sizing and performance computer program"

See other formats


CR 



r' 



^ c -^^ ^! y 



J? J- ,^ > 





CC.PUIiia ^i(0G5,V^ (Soein:, ^-L.^^ Lw.. , 



Philaieli^hia, Pi.) '^^-'^ P 



1^77-80570 



00/05 34742 



1 



REPRODUCED BY^ 

NATIONAL TECHNICAL 
INFORMATION SERVICE 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
SPRINGFIELD. VA. 22X61 



A- 



/!/.( 



Cr, l^^^< . ■ 



USER'S MANUAL FOR HESCOMP 
THE HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 

COMPUTER PROGRAM 



N 



Developed under 

CONTRACT No. NAS 2-6107 (Study of the Methodology for Evaluation 

of an Interurban and Intraurban V/STOL 

Transportation System) 



By S. JON DAVIS 
and J. S. WISNIEWSKI (Weights) 
Prepared By 



A DIVISION OF THE BOEING COMPANY 

P.O BOX 16858 

PHILADELPHIA. PENNSYLVANIA 19142 



FOR THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field. California 94035 



D210-10699-1 
September 1973 



FOREWORD 

??oS; prlv?des":i1coptlr"Lt?'' "^^^^--^nce computer 

ity for sizing and perfoS^fLf "?"^f^ ""^ the saSe oapabil- 

provldes for fi=c^-llU°^TcT.fV',llilliTs', t»" V^coj'zi' 

JnS"ro^ to'^Lc^f'^ZTsoliiLSla"?!/" ?H^"^" "^ "^^-^^n, 
advanced helicopters, thiruseJ'= m "^'hods of simulating 
to facilitate updating olthfprlgS?^^ "" loose-leaf bouni 

prlgSf"^"' ^^ -^ Boeing personnel developed the HESCO^«. 
HASA ftmea R».»= irch Cert^^ 

sSL%'?ii?S '^"°-"i"l Systems Branch, Systems 
Boelna-Vertm ^»ipip.- 

Program Formulation and Data Development: 
S, J, Davis r* 

Research and V/STOL Aerodynamics 

E. M, Low, IT rj^T ■ 

' " Helicopter Performance Unit 
C. A. Widdison w«i; 

Helicopter Performance Unit 

A. H. Schoen Preliminary Design 
J. S. Wisniewski R , D weights Unit 
Programming^ 
R. Knopf 
H. Shah 

S?tL1n%^ Ll^JliSlls'!'^ ^"'-^^ =•>-" ^^ =^i-=ted to the 



11 



CONTENTS 



Page 



FOREWORD ....... 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



LIST OF TABLES 



1,0 INTRODUCTION 



1.1 Background . 

1.2 Application 



2.0 SPECIFICATION OF HELICOPTER CHARACTERISTICS 



2, 

2. 

2. 

2 

2 



Helicopter Geometry . . . , 
Propulsion System . . . . . 
Helicopter Weight Siammary 
Aerodynamic Characteristics 
Rotor Characteristics . . 



3.0 PROGRAM OPERATION 



• « • 



3.1 General 

3.1.1 
3.1.2 
3.1.3 
3.1.4 
3.1.5 



The Option Indicator \ , ^ . . . . . 
Description 6T Mission Profile 
Special Flight "Path Control Option 

Propeller "Efficiency 

Ilbl-or Power Required Calculation 



3.2 Program Options 



3.2.1 
3.2.2 
3.2.3 
3.2.4 
3.2.5 
3.2.6 
3.2.7 



Propulsion Indicators . . . . 
Aerodynamics Indicators . . . 
Size Trends Indicators ,_ . . • 
Mission Performance Indicators 
Flight Path .Contrbrihdicators 
Atmosphere Indicator .... 
Optional Print Indicator . . 



3.3 Program Flow 

4.0 DETAILED PROGRAM DESCRIPTION 



4 
4 
4 
4 



Main Control Loop . . ... . . 

Atmosphere Subroutine . ... . 

Drag Calculations Subroutine . . 
Engine Library and Engine Cycle 
Subroutines ■ 



11 

vi 

ix 

1-1 

1-1 
1-2 

2-1 

2-1 

2-2 

2-10 

2-10 

2-10 

3-1 

3-1 

3-1 
3-2 
3-5 
3-6 
3-6 

3-6 

3-7 
3-9 
3-10 
3-12 

3-13 
3-13 
3-14 

3-15 

4-1 

4-1 

4-15 

4-17 

4-19 



iii 



4.5 Rotor Performance Subroutine .,.-..- 4-46 

4.6 Rotor Limits Subroutine 4-63 

4.7 Propeller Performance Calculations .... 4-66 

4.8 Size Trends Subroutine 4-81 

4.9 Aerodynamics Calculations Subroutine . - . 4-103 

4.10 Engine Sizing Subroutine 4-122 

4.11 Weight Trends Subroutine 4-135 

4.11.1 Weight Trend Data 4-135 

4.11.2 Aircraft Balance 4-177 

4.12 Performance Calculations Subprogram . . . 4-186 

4.12.1 Taxi Calculations Subroutine . , , 4-192 

4.12.2 Takeoff, Hover, and Landing 
Calculations Subroutine ..... 4-195 

4.12.3 Climb Calculations Subroutine . - 4-200 

4.12.4 Cruise Calculations Subroutine , .- 4-215 

4.12.5 Descent Calculations Subroutine • 4-23,9 

4.12.6 Loiter Calculations Subroutine . . 4-251 

4.12.7 Change of Weight Subroutines , . . 4-259 

4.12.8 Transfer Altitude . . 4-262 

5.0 PROGRAM INPUT ■ 5-1 

5 . 1 General 5-1 

5.1.1 General Information 5-1 

5.1.2 Aircraft Description Information . 5-1 

5.1.3 Mission Profile Inform.ation - . . 5-2 

5.1.4 Engine Cycle Information 5-2 

5.1.5 Propeller Performance Data .... 5-3 

5.1.6 Rotor Performance Data 5-3 

5.1.7 Supplementary Information .... 5-3 

5.2 Specimen Input Sheets 5-45 

5.3 Program Input 5-60 

5.3.1 Program Variables 5-60 

5.3.2 Program Indicators 5-78 

6.0 PROGRAM OUTPUT . , . . 6-1 

6.1 Description of Printout 6-1 

6.1.1 General Printout 6-1 

6.1.2 Input Data 6-2 

6.1.3 Sizing Data 6-2 

6.1.4 Mission Performance Data 6-11 



IV 



6.2 



List of Diagnostic Error Printouts . . 
6«2^1 Errors A ffec ting Main Control 



Loop . • . . V r • . . . . V . 

6.2.2 Errors Related to Tabulated 
Inputs . . 

6.2.3 Errors Occur ing in Performance 
Calculations . 



• » • . * 



7.0 PROGRAM USAGE .......•< 

7.1 Comments on Program Usage 



7.1.1 Rules . • 

7.1.2 Suggestions 



7.2 

7.3 
7.4 
7.5 
7.6 



Discussion of Rotor Performance 
Calculations 



Discussion of Rotor Limits . c . . 
Discussion of Propeller Efficiency 
Discussion of Progrcim Tolerances 
Sample Cases ... 



. » ___* 



Page 
6-18 

6-18 
6-21 
6-24 

7-1 

7-1 

7-1 
7-2 

7-3 

7-9 

7-11 

7-13 

7-15 



References 



R-1 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure Page 

2-1 Typical Helicopter Geometry "^ Single Rotor 

Helicopter 2-3 

2-2 Typical Helicopter Geometry '^' Tandem Rotor 

Helicopter • • 2-5 

3-1 Sketch of Program Geometry . 3-15 

4-1 Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart . • - . 4-2 

4-2 Atmosphere Subroutine, Flow Chart 4-16 

4-3 Drag Calculations (DRAG) Subroutine Flow 

Chart 4-18 

4-4 Typical Reynolds Number Correction Factor 

for a Turboshaft Engine Cycle 4-24 

4-5 POWAVL Subroutine, Flow Chart 4-26 

4-6 POWREQ Subroutine, Flow Chart 4-29 

4-7 POWAVI Subroutine Flow Chart 4-30 

4-8 POWRQI Subroutine Flow Chart 4-37 

4-9 THRAVL Subroutine Flow Chart 4-39 

4-10 THRREQ Subroutine Flow Chart 4-42 

4-11 ENG 1 Subroutine, Flow Chart 4-43 

4-12 ENG 1 I Subroutine Flow Chart 4-44 

4-13 Comparison of "Short Form Aero" Rotor 

Performance and Flight Test Data 4-47 

4-14 ROTPOW Subroutine Flow Chart 4-49 

4-15 ROTLIM Subroutine Flow Chart 4-64 

4-16 Comparison of "Short Method" and Detailed 
Calculations for Propeller Cruise 

Efficiency • • • 4-69 

4-17 THRUST Subroutine Flow Chart 4-70 

4-18 POWER Subroutine Flow Chart 4-74 

vi 



Figure 
4-19 
4-20 
4-21 

4-22 
4-23 
4-24 
4-25 

4-26 
4-27 

4-28 
4-29 
4-30 
4-31 
4-32 
4-33 
4-34 
4-35 
4-36 
4-37 
4-38 
4-39 

4-40 
4-41 



POWERI Subroutine Flow Chart . . 
Tail Rotor Diameter Sizing Trend 



Tail Rotor/Vertical Tail Fin Interference 
Data .... 

Size Trends (SIZTR) Subroutine Flow Chart . 

Parasite Drag Buildup Options . .... . . 

Typical Hub and Shank Drag Coefficients . . 

Rotor Hvib/Shank Geometry Used in Program 
for Hub Drag Calculations . • 

Typical Parasite Drag Trends 

Aerodynamics Calculations (AERO) Subroutine 
Flow Chart ....... 

Engine Sizing Subroutine Flow Chart . . . . 

Weight Trends Subroutine ... ■ 

Weight Trends Subroutine Flow Chart 

Rotor Blade Weight Trend ...... 

Rotor Hub and Hinge Weight Trend . . 

Rotor Group Weight Trend 

Body Group Weight Trend . 

Drive System Weight Trend-Primary 

Drive System Weight Trend-Auxiliary 

Cockpit Controls Weight Trend . . . 

Rotor Controls Weight Trend .... 



• « • 



Rotor System and Hydraulics Weight 
Trend • 



Auxiliary Rotor Controls Weight Trend 

Performance Calculations Subprogram Flow 
Chart 



Page 
4-77 
4-83 

4-85 
4-90 
4-104 
4-107 

4-109 
4-112 

4-118 
4-125 
4-136 
4-138 
4-151 
4-152 
4-154 
4-157 
4-165 
4-167 
4-169 
4-170 

4-171 
4-173 

4-187 



vii 



Figure Page 

4-42 Taxi Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart • . . 4-193 

4-43 Takeoff, Hover, and Landing Subroutine 

Flow Chart . • . , 4-196 

4-44 Climb Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart . . 4-202 

4-45 Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart • - 4-217 

4-46 Descent Boundaries 4-240 

4-47 DESPOW Subroutine Flow Chart 4-243 

4-48 Descent Calculations Subroutine Flow 

Chart • • 4-245 

4-49 Loiter Calculations Subroutine 4-252 

4-50 Change of Fuel Weight Subroutine, Flow 

Chart 4-260 

4-51 Change of Payload Weight Subroutine, Flow 

Chart 4-261 

Transfer Altitude Subroutine, Flow Chart . • 4-263 

Short Form Aero Rotor Performance 

Equations Simmary 7-5 

Download Sensitivity to Ground Proximity . . 7-7 

Thrust Augmentation in Ground Effect . , . . 7-8 

Summary of Typical Rotor Limits 7-10 

Design MSN - Sample Case No, 1 7-15 

Design MSN - Sample Case No. 2 7-48 





■52 




-1 




-2 




-3 




-4 




■5 




-6 



Vlll 



TABLES 

Table Page 

1-1 Helicopter Configurations which may be 

Studied Using HESCOMP . • . . 1-4 

2-1 Typical Geometric Characteristics - Single 

Rotor Helicopters 2-7 

2-2 Typical Geometric Characteristics-Tandem 

Rotor Helicopters 2-8 

2-3 List of Engine Cycles 2-9 

2-4 List of Rotor Cycles ............ 2-11 

3-1 Summary of Subroutines 3-16 

4-1 Engine Cycle Data Format 4-19 

4-2 VASCOMP II Engine Library . 4-20 

4-3 Coefficients for Propeller Equivalent 

Polars 4-80 

4-4 Hub and Shank Drag Coefficients Correction 

Summary 4-110 

4-5 Drag Breakdown for Hypothetical Single 

Rotor Compound Helicopter Re/Ft = 1.56 x 10^ 

(V = 189 Kt) 4-114 

4-6 Summary of Aerodynamics Input for Compound 

Helicopter of Table 4-5 4-115 

4-7 Drag Breakdown for Hypothetical Tandem 

Rotor Winged Helicopter Re/Ft » 1.49 x 10^ 

(V = 181 Kt) 4-116 

4-8 Summary of Aerodynamics Input for 

Helicopter of Table 4-7 ..... 4-117 

4-9 Weight Summary Form . 4-137 

4-10 Helicopter Weight Information . 4-146 

4-11 Landing Gear Weights 4-159 

4-12 Engine Installation Weights ......... 4-163 



IX 



Table Page 

4-13 Fixed Equipment and Fixed Useful Load 

Weights 4-174 

4-14 Multiplicative Factors 4-176 

7-1 Program Tolerances 7-14 




Section 5.3 contains a definition of program 
input variables and indicators; section 6.2 
lists the major diagnostic error printouts and 
describes their probable cause. For ease of 
reference, these sections are printed on blue 
and green paper, respectively. 




XI 



1X) INTRODUCTION 

1 . 1 BACKGROUND 



HESCOMP is a helicopter sizing "and performance computer 
program very similar in format and operation to VASCOMP II, 
the V/STOL Aircraft Sizing and Performance Computer Program, 
describedin Reference 1, This similarity is dictated by the 
requirement to obtain compatibility in both usage and results 
when using HESCOMP and VASCOMP II in helicopter-V/STOL air- 
craft comparative design studies. The program's purpose is to 
rapidly provide helicopter sizing and mission performance data. 
The program can be used to define design requirements, such as 
weight breakdown, required propulsive power, and physical di- 
mensions of aircraft which are designed to meet specified 
mission requirements. It is also useful in sensitivity 
studies involving both design trade-offs and performance 
trade-offs. 

During formulation of the program, the following guidelines 
have been followed: 

1. The program should maintain generality and flexibility - 
Aprogram of this type must be comprehensive and flexible 
in order tdpemit an accurate simulation of many types of 
helicopter configurations. It must be capable of approxi- 
mating the design process involved in layout and sizing of 
a wide variety of helicopters and synthesizing the per- 
formance of these aircraft. 

2. The program should be easy to use - In order to minimize 
hand_cppputation of input data, the input to the program 
l^^imarliy consists of a series of single point values ^ 

" specif ying7 for example, main rotor disc loading, solidity, 
twist, aspect ratio, taper ratio, etc. of the wing, tail, 
and rotor pylons (where applicable), the geometry of the 
fuselage, the type of propulsion system, a description of 
the mission profile, and weights of fixed equipment, fixed 
useful load and payload. Where necessary to adequately 
describe certain functional relationships, the input is in 
tabular form. However, since preparation of data for 
tabular input is generally more cumbersome and time con- 
suming, this form of input has been kept to a minimum. 

3. The program should minimize computation time - In order to 
minimize computation time, the program makes ample use of 
optional computation paths. To eliminate large quantities 
of null arithmetic, it avoids calculations which do not 
apply to the particular aircraft being studied. This is 
accomplished by means of a series of input indicators that 
specify the calculations to be performed. 

1-1 



4, The program should be well balanced - The program should 
not be extremely sophisticated in one detail and yet ex- 
tremely simple in another. To offset the possibility of 
this occurrence, great care has been taken to examine 
methods used to describe the helicopter and its operation. 

5. The program should be compatible with VASCOMP II - In 
order to insure program compatibility, care has been exer- 
cised in planning the input/output format. The input 
sheets are similar (and in a few cases - identical) to 
those of VASCOMP II, The output format is the same except 
for the additions of those output quantities peculiar to 
helicopter performance. Further, this User's Manual is 
identical in format to the VASCOMP II User's Manual. In 
addition, HESCOMP utilizes (unchanged) the engine cycle 
library, propeller tables, and propeller short form per- 
formance method developed for VASCOMP II. 



1.2 APPLICATION 

The program has two primary independent applications and a 
third which is a combination of the first two. It may be used 
for the sizing of helicopters for which the type of aircraft 
and the mission profile are specified. Alternatively, it may 
be used for mission calculations for aircraft for which sizing 
details (gross weight, fuel available, engine power and fuel 
consumption, etc.) are known. As a combination of these two 
capabilities, the program may be used to first size a heli- 
copter for a given mission and then calculate the off-design 
point performance for other missions. The option of calcula- 
tion to be used is specified to the program by means of an 
input "option indicator," 

The program has been written in a manner to make it directly 
applicable to sensitivity studies to determine the effect of 
variations in weight, drag, engine characteristics, etc. This 
is accomplished by use of incremental multiplicative and addi- 
tive factors applied to the gross weight, component drag and 
fuel required equations. For the most part, the multiplicative 
factors are nominally equal to unity and the additive factors 
are nominally equal to zero. However, to determine the effect, 
for example, of a 10 percent increase in drive system weight, 
the appropriate multiplicative factor can be set to 1.10 and 
the sizing program rerun. 

The program contains size trends equations which reflect the 
variation of helicopter dimensions with gross weight, detailed 
statistical weight trends equations, a routine for sizing of 
engines to match airframe requirements, a comprehensive 
library of engine cycle data, a library of rotor cycle data, 
and a variety of optional procedures for calculating rotor and 
propeller (cruise only) performance . 

1-2 



The program can be used to study any single or tandem rotor 
pure, winged, compound, or auxiliary propulsion helicopter 
(see Table 1-1) . 





1-3 







-P 


























0) 
























CO 


»-D 












X 








X 




>i 0) 


























M c 


Eh 










































































rH C 
























• 


•H W 


C 






















g 


3^ 


<0 

P4 












X 








X 


o 


< c 


\ 






















a 


0) 


H 






















w 


M-l 'O 
























M 

E 


c 

0) 
















































0) Q4 


-P 






















o 


CU 0) 


MH 






















2: 


>iT3 


fO 






















H 


Eh C 


x: 












X 








X 


CO 


H 


CO 






















D 




\ 






















Q 




Eh 












































H 
























H 


-P 






















Q 


>i C 






















ID 


M 0) CO 






















Eh 


fO 'O <U 






















CO 














XXX 








XXX 


pa 


•H 04 tn 






















m 


X 0) c 






















>^ 


< c 






















^ 


H 














































C 






















tri 


M >i 

























0) ^^-H 






















H 


•H V^ -H rH 






















S 


<y H p 








X 




X 




X 




X 


CO 


X 






















2; 


U 13 M 

























0* <; 04 




































































s 


^ 






















D 


•H 




X 




X 




XXX 













S 






















H 
Cm 
























. / 






















S 


S c / 































c; 








c 






U 


M £ rrj u/ 










•H 










•H 






p:; 


1 t^ '■^ / 








CO 








tn 






w 


ropu 
nts 
Add( 
Pure' 

) 








CO rH 






Jh 


tn ^ 






Eh 








OJ ::( 


-p 




OJ 


Q) :d 


HJ 




0^ 








G a 


c 




-p 


G O4 


c 













•H 


<u 




0. 


■H 


a; 




u 


f^ <y 0) r/ ^ 








en U 


TJ 


fl) 





en U 


03 


(U 


M 


> ^ ^ y 








C O4 


c: g 


d 





C O4 


CJ g 


c 


h^ 


4J '^ / -P 








0) 


Q) S 


■rH <U 0) 


•H 


0) 


0) 0) 


•H <U 0) 


M 


m B*^ / Q 








>1 


04+J 


tn C C 


r-\ 


>. 


04-P 


tn d c 


s 


•H g ^ / Pd 








• u 


0) CO 


C-H H 


0) 


• Vh 


0) CO 


C -H -H 




i-q 3/ 








g rd 


^ >1 


0) tn en 


ffi 


g (d 


'O >1 


0) en U 




U ;S^ e 








■H -H 


C 03 


c c: 




•H -H 


C CO 


d d 


• 


^ n 0) 








)H rH 


-rH 


-P <D (U 


a 


M rH 


■H 


4J CD (U 


M 


(C g / TJ 






M 


a-rH 


c 


m 





04-H 


c 


MH 


1 


CO)/ c 






0) 


^ X 


>1 


d d -P 


•H 


-- X 


>i 


<d d -P 


rH 


-P/ fTS 




M 


+J 


d 


M--I 


x: fd (I) 


en 


'^ 


U -H 


x; fd (u 




-H W/ Eh 




cy 


04 


TJ (tJ ^ 


fd en 


CO Pm h) 


rH 


T3 (d -- 


fd en 


CO [x^ l-D 


w 


-P >/ 


M 


-p 





<U g 


•rH rH 


\w 


:3 


0) g 


-rH nH 


w\ 


h^ 


-H C/J i^ 


Q) 


Q4 


u 


rH 0) 0) 


rH :3 


tn &H Eh 


04 


rH (U 0) 


rH :3 


e Eh t^ 


PQ 


n3 / 


4J 





-H 


04> hP 


•H O4 







O4 > H-> 


•H 04 




<l 


T3 / 0) 


a 





H 


;3 -H en 


X 


^-^ .-^ ,^^ 


u 


Id H CO 


32 


*-»s <— s, ,— > 


Eh 


</ M M 





•H 


Q) 


M > 


t :3 M 


(d ^ u 


04 


Jh >i 


35- ii 




/ Q) Cn 





rH 


m 


U T3 CO 


<; Oi 






CJ TJ CO 


< 04 






/ 4J C 


•H 


OJ 










>1 










/ 04 (U-H 


rH 


ffi 


TJ 


.^'-^ 


,^^ 




Sh 


^^ 


^-^ 






/ O4CO 


0) 




C 


rH 


CM 




<d 


rH 


CN 






/ >^ 


tc 


nd 


:3 


^-' 


"^^ 




•H 


N-' 


^^ 






/ -H Eh ^ 




<u 


1 








rH 










/ rH +J 


(U 


XJ^ 








•H 










/ 0) 


u 


c 










^ 










/ ffi ffl 


:3 


•H 





















04 


5 


u 








< 









1-4 



2.0 SPECIFICATION OF HELICOPTER CHARACTEmSTICS 



Specification of aircraft chara^cteristics to the program is 
made in a variety of ways: through use of input indicators 
which specify the types of calculations to be made; through 
use of weights factors and constants; aerodynamics data; pro- 
pulsion information; and mostly through use of nondimensional 
geometric information . 



2.1 HELICOPTER GEOMETRY 



It is assumed .that a typical sizing a naTy sis starts with known 
payload charactefTs tics, both in terms~of payload weight and 
volume requirements. The volume requirements are usually re- 
flected in length/ height, and width of the constant diameter 
(cabin) section of the aircraft. Adding a nose and tail sec- 
tion of reasonable fineness ratio onto the cabin sections 
would complete the fuselage geometry if this were an airplane 
(as sized by VASCOMP 11). In a helicopter, however, addi- 
tional geometric characteristics must be determined before the 
external fuselage dimensions are completely defined. 

For example, in the case of the single rotor helicopter, the 
total fuselage length (in addition to the nose, tail, and con- 
stant diameter sections) includes the tail boom, the length of 
which, in turn, is established by the tail rotor diarneter and 
the need to nainta-^n a reasonable gap between "the main and 
tail rotor discs. AdcUtionally , the tail boom length itself 
is affected by the relative position of/the on the 

fuselage. Vertical tail geometry is determined both by dimen- 
sional constraints and the need to fulfill directional sta- 
bility requirements (e.gr. , sufficient vertical tail area to 
counteract main rotor torque in the event of tail rotor loss) . 
So, although the basic cabin internal dimensions are fixed, 
the external overall dimensions can vary widely, depending on 
how conflicting requirements are resolved. 

In the case of the tandem rotor helicopter, not even the 
internal cabin dimensions are necessarily constant. For ex- 
ample, the need to require a certain level of external config- 
uration compactness (by specifying a high overlap/diameter 
ratio) can result in overall fuselage dimensions which 
directly conflict with internal volume requirements. 

Wing geometry may be dictated by maneuver "g" requirements, a 
specified wing loading or aspect ratio, or even propeller tip/ 
fuselage clearance (in the case of a compound helicopter with 
wing-mounted propellers) . 

Primary and auxiliary independent engine nacelle size is set 

2-1 



by the type of engine and its size (which, in turn, is 
dictated by power requirements) . 

Figures 2-1 and 2-2 of hybrid single and tandem rotor heli- 
copter configurations illustrate the type of information con- 
cerning the helicopter geometry which may be required of the 
user. Tables 2-1 and 2-2 illustrate typical values of selected 
geometric characteristics for various aircraft. A complete 
list of input geometric variables is included in Section 5- 3.1, 



2.2 PROPULSION SYSTEM 

This program permits the use of either a single, primary 
propulsion system or a combination of a primary system and an 
auxiliary independent propulsion system. For the primary sys- 
tem, turboshaft cycles are always used. For the auxiliary 
independent system, either turboshaft, turbofan, or turbojet 
cycles may be used. The program includes the applicable 
cycles (shown in Table 2-3) from the standard library of 
eighty-one different generalized engine cycles developed for 
the VASCOMP II program. The user of the program may either 
select the desired engine cycle (s) from the standard library 
or input the characteristics of any arbitrary engine cycle he 
may choose. 

The library engines are unrestricted in performance over their 
operating system range (dictated by power setting limits) . 
However, the user, at his discretion, may include limits on 
engine operation by setting maximum values of fuel flow, 
torque, or gas generator or power turbine shaft rpm. In addi- 
tion, nonlinear scaling effects of real engines may be included 
by input of Reynolds number-based correction factors. Degra- 
dation in performance of turboshaft engines operating at 
nonoptimum power turbine speed will be calculated by the pro- 
gram at the option of the user. The library engine cycles may 
thus be used with no additional input; or, by appropriate 
additional input, may be made to include the effects of multi- 
ple operating restrictions and other factors characteristic of 
real engine cycles. 

During a sizing calculation, the engine cycles may be "scaled" 
or fixed in size. That is, if the user desires, the program 
will calculate the engine size required to meet the mission 
requirements; or, alternatively, he may input engines of 
specified size. In the case of helicopters employing multiple 
propulsion systems, the primary system may be sized to provide 
power to the main rotor (s) for producing lift and part of the 
total propulsive thrust required; and the auxiliary independ- 
ent system will be sized to provide the remaining propulsive 
thrust or power. 



2-2 





0) 

-p 
a 
o 
o 

■H 

rH 

0) 

U 
O 

-P 

o 
Pi 

Q) 

r-i 
CP 

c 

C/3 



>i 
0) 

§ 

o 

M 

a 

o • 
u — 

•H CN 
0) M-l 



■H M 

Pu OJ 



I 

Cm 



2-3 




2-4 






u 
<u 
•p 
Cu 
o 
o 

•H 
.H 
<U 

o 

•p 
o 

B 
(D 

C 



-P 
OJ 

o 

o 

0) 

-p 

o • 
u -- 
-H rsi 

K O 



Eh --- 



I 

M 
en 
t4 



2-5 






s 















u 








Q) 








^-^ 


+J 








% 


04 



:2; 






r< 





o 


04 






•H 


H^ 


< 


<N 


+ 


rH 


>^ 


0^ 


04 




0) 


pi* 


u 


-C 


iH 


tC 




\ 


CN 


*w 




cd 


PU 




^ 


U 


o 


< 







Eh 


^ 




P^ 


-p 


o 







u 





P^ 






p:; 




II 


II 


• 


EH 






s -- 


^ 


cu 


P4 


0) fM 


< 


< 


TJ 




^ 


% 


elicopter Geometry ^ Tan 
Ion Geometry) (Part 2 of 


2; 






ffi >i 









Oi 


1^ 








rH 








04 


(d u 



P:^ 






f-< 


04 Q 




i 


P4 
pe^ 




+ 


^s 





x: 


rH 




\ 


C4 


^-' 


• 


2; 


Pi 
Ph 




04 


CN 


H 


9h 
U 




pc; 
u 


CN 


tf 


II 


II 









04 

1 


:3 

•H 


i 








p:; 

















^ 











2-6 



TABLE 2-1. 



TYPICAL GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS - SINGLE 
ROTOR HELICOPTERS 




^^T-* ^T_H 



K ""fp^ 



VERTICAL 
FIN 



MAIN 

ROTOR 

PYLON 




'Rpp 1 




^FP - c 



'Tpp 



hr, 2 



ARpp = 



Spp 



^VT 



ARvT = 



^T 



Sfp = Planform area j_ 

F 



Wp + hi 
2 

DATA 



SvT 
^VT ~ Planform area 



TYPE 


AIRCRAFT 


.p/lf 


.t/3f 


Xm/^8 


.^g/dfB 


dTTB'''^TB 


FP 


ARpp 


■vt 


ARvT 


"PURi: LIGHT HELICOPTERS 


BOE BO-IGS 
BELL 0H-5flA 


1.02 

1.12 


.75 

,71 




7.00 
8. SO 




.41 

.53 


.30 


.33 

,64 


1.37 
4.37 


-PURE" LT. TRANSPORT HEL . 


BELL 'JH-:8 


.64 


.77 




5.55 




.88 




.Zl 


i.98 


-PURE- 
MEDIUM TRANSPORT 
HELICOPTERS 


SIK H-34A 


.S2 


.67 




2.42 




.44 




.64 


.96 


SIK CH-3C 


.78 


1.13 




4.45 




.83 




.75 


1-72 


SIK CH-UA 


.76 


1.47 




4.38 




.74 




.62 


2.14 


SIK H-3TA 


.60 


- 




2.30 




.45 




.63 


3.36 


WINGED HELICOPTERS 


BELL Aii-IG 


2.47 


.44 




4.91 




.70 




.48 


1.53 


SIK S-67 


2.22 


1.98 




4.17 




.83 




.48 


1-90 


cqpiPouND h{:licopters 


LOCK XH-51A 


1.29 


.98 




5.92 




.89 




.60 


.73 


LOCK AH-56A 


1.40 


1.36 




4.43 




.77 




.46 


1.29 



2-7 



TABLE 2-2. TYPICAL GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS 
TANDEM ROTOR HELICOPTERS 



STAGGER 
^0/L — 



I*- AX, 




Vfp 



TP 



Cr 



FP 



ARpp = si^ 

Spp = planfonn area 



dp = 



Wp + hp 



^AP 



^AP 



'^P2 

aRap = s" 



AP 
2 



AP 



^AP " planform area 



TYPE 


AIRCRAFT 


SLp/dp 


^T/dp 


0/L 


GAP/STAG 


;.xi/ep 


'.Xj/t^ 


>PP 


ARpp 


^AP 


ARap 


"PURE" LIGHT 
TRANSPORT 
HELICOPTER 


B-V HUP-1 


.73 


1.03 


.37 


.08 


1.00 


1.00 


.38 


.35 


.57 


.78 


B-V H-21 


.64 


2.19 


.04 


.00 


.89 


.02 


.35 


.45 


.23 


.43 


"PURE" 
MEDIUM - HEAVY 
TRANSPORT 
HELICOPTERS 


B-V CH-46A 


.71 


1.53 


.33 


.07 


1.16 


.51 


.63 


.34 


.69 


.61 


B-V CH-47C 


.69 


1.29 


.34 


.12 


.85 


.59 


1.00 


1.10 


.81 


.53 


B-V YH-ISA 


.84 


1.81 


.37 


.16 


.48 


.84 


.34 


.25 


.58 


.84 


B-V MOD 347 


.85 


1.37 


.23 


.15 


.73 


.55 


.98 


.43 


.84 


.66 



2-8 



TABLE 2-3. LIST OE 


' ENGINE 


CYCLES 






1970 


Intermediate 


1980 


Primary Propulsion 








Turboshaft 








Engine press, ratio 


13, 16 


13, 16, 


13, 16, 






19 


19, 22 


Turb. inlet temp. 


2600''R 


2900«R 


3200''R 


Auxiliary Independent Propulsion 








Turboshaft 








Engine press, ratio 


13, 16 


13, 16, 


13, 16, 






19 


19, 22 


Turb. inlet temp. 


2600°R 


2900°F 


3200°R 


Turbojet 








Engine press, ratio 


13, 16 


13, 16, 


13, 16, 






19 


19, 22 


Turb. inlet temp. 


2600'F 


2900" 


3200*R 


Turbo fan 








Engine press, ratio 


16, 20 


16, 20, 


16, 20, 






24 


24, 28 


Turb. inlet temp. 


2600''R 


2900*R 


3200»R 


Fan bypass ratio 


2, 4, 6 


2, 4, 6 


2, 4, 6 



2-9 



2.3 HELICOPTER WEIGHT SUMMARY 

A detailed helicopter weight summary is provided by the 
program through use of statistical weight trend equations. A 
description of, and justification for, these equations is 
given in Section 4.11. Three major categories of weights are 
calculated: the propulsion group, the structures group, and 
the flight controls group. 



2.4 AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS 

The aerodyncimic data which are calculated by the program are 
the helicopter drag and (in the case of winged or compound 
helicopters) the lift curve slope of the wing (used for cal- 
culations of the gust load factor) . Drag data may be input 
to the program in a variety of forms including a single point 
value of flat plate area, drag trends, or by a detailed drag 
summary. Scaling effects on drag based upon Reynolds number 
corrections are included. Wing spanwise loading efficiency 
(Oswald's factor) may be either input to the program or may 
be program calculated. 

2.5 ROTOR CHARACTERISTICS 

Rotor performance may be calculated either by the short form 
aerodynamic performance method or by using input rotor maps. 
The short form method employs input rotor "cycles". Correc- 
tions for the specific rotor and helicopter configuration 
geometry, (e.g. , blade twist, number, cut-out, rotor overlap, 
etc.) being analyzed are made by the program. Included with 
the program is a brief library of currently available "cycles" 
(Table 2-4 lists their pertinent characteristics) . 

Rotor maps may be used in two ways. In the first case, 
isolated rotor data derived for a specific rotor configuration 
is input and, as in the short form method, blade and config- 
uration geometry corrections are applied by the program. In 
the second approach, a rotor map generated from total config- 
uration rotor power data (e.g. in the case of a single rotor 
helicopter, this would be the sum of main and tail rotor 
power) is input. No corrections are applied. Thus, the par- 
ticular blade and helicopter configuration geometry inherent 
in the data from which the map is generated is reflected un- 
changed in the calculated rotor performance. 



2-10 





tr 0) 










C 04 










•^^ 

















*-^ 




iH CD 






CN 




04^5 






VO 




1^ 




r^ 


1 




ffl 




''a* u 


u 




w 


<< 


rn m 


X 




u u 


r- PQ < 


r^ 


■^-^ 




0) 


^ H en 


Tf . r^ 






+J -p 


f 1 1 


1 a 1 


a 




04 


s s s 


MOO 


h5 




tf 
o 


u 5 CO 


U S ffl 


s 












rH -H 










0) x: 










ffi &^ 








Eh 








<u 











0) 1 rH 


^ 


O4 


H 04 




CO 0) o 


9 


•H 


9 "^ 




•H M >i 


^A 


g ^ 


p^ -p 




> 04U 


* 





• 




C 0) 


U 


M a> 


h^ (U 




(d Ck^ M 




MH 'd 


.; "^ 


CO 


O4 • 


g 


to 


U fd 


u 


C/3 M -P 


Q 


00 rH 


in r-\ 


Hi 


+^ 5 


M O4 


u^ ^ 


goo Xi-- 


u 


0) CO a< 


m -H 


« 


• 


>H 


TJ-H 


-P 


rH 


>^ 4-» 


u 


fd Q c; 


CN 


I -P 


MH fd ♦ 




rH -H 


rH 0) 





II r-^ 


^ 


OQ -H 


fQ 


H ^t 


r^ 00 




-H 'O 


(d 





1 P^ t 11 


^ 


MOO) 


r^ 


m ps3 


^\ Pt5 _ 


o 


M-l +J 


ri:^ 


<N • 


> M > cr; 


p:: 


4J M C 


U 


(^ 


\ 




-H 0) 


< 


> • 


> > u 


§ 


P5 < cn 


2 -P 


OQ U 


CQ +3 ffl — 














a 


-- XJ 


H 









0) 


cn 






•H 1 


•H N 'd CO 


H 


H C 


1 


■P -H 


C ^ < -H c -P 


fJ 


•H 


l,i. 


MH 


CO u H g td d 

CO — ' < -H -H <U 




0-H 


0) -H ro 




M-( -P 


CO -H 


CO TJ CN CO 


d s -P -P g 

fd d ^MH O4MH 


• 


M O4 


fd 


^ 0) d 


'^ 


■H -H 




0) g < -H 


M 6 Jh -H g 


1 


< M 


H <; 


T^ U M -H 


4-> -H -H rH 


<N 


U 


(d u a 


(d >i< (U -P 


--- 4-J M fd TJ en 




Q) tn 


d < 


rH ^ :S to U 


MH d g d 


w 


'Tl QJ 


2: -H 


S> 0) 


TJ 0) CO fd 3 -rH 


i-q 


(tJ Q 


•H +J 


TJ MH ^ to 


0) to Tt 0) g x: 


S 


rH 


-P H 


13 0) -P 


(U 0) -H CO -H 


CQ C 


C (d Q) 


0) O4 -H rH 


04rH a M d X +J 


t^ 





0) CO 


M d C^-H 


to 'H CD fd -H 




M -H 


> 'H 


(!) rH -H 

^ <U -H TJ MH 


rH to -H g O4 




-M 


4-> 'H 


x; MH 0) -p 




+J 


g > -P M 


tn M > 1 M > 




0) 


U 0) 


Jd 0) rd tn -H 


•H -H 0) <U 




• 


s i IM 


u n3 ^ Id 


K fd Tl ^ CO MH rH 


^ 


'd 


T3 




u 


M 


M 


M 




fd 





Q 







0) x; 


x: 


x: 


x; 




'd u 


u 


u 


u 




fd 


-p 


-p 


+J 




« u 


c 


d 


d 







(d 


cd 


^. 




U M-l 


-P 


+J 


-P 




c 


CO 


to 


CO 




+J rd 


C 


d 


d 




rH 













^ 04 

M 0) 





u 


a 










-1 










+J u • 










>i 


rH 


<N 


en 




Oc^ U 2 









2-11 



3.0 PROGRAM OPERATION 

3.1 GEIJERAL 

3.1.1 The Option Indicator 



As previously described/ the program has two major options 
and a third which is a combination of these two. The specific 
option to be used is selected by means of an input "option 
indicator" abbreviated OPTIND. 



OPTIND = 1 



This is an iterative routine which determines the aircraft^ 
weight, dimensions," and required power to satisfy a prescribed 
mission flight profile. In addition to the flight profile, 
certain characteristics describing the type of aircraft are 
specified, such as the wing aspect ratio, thickness ratio, the 
wing loading or disc loading, the engine cycle, etc. 



OPTIND ^ 2 or 3 



These options are used to calculate the flight performance of 
an aircraft for which the size is fixed. In addition to the 
aircraft characterist ics described above, the power available, 
aircratft dimensions, etcT are input to the program. A flight 
profile is^also specified. The program then calculates the 
performance history of the aircraft for the specified mission. 

If OPTIND = 2 is selected, the aircraft gross weight is input 
and the fuel required to fly the specified mission is det~er- 
mined. ThTs^ option iT^iTseful for solving many different per- 
formance problems where it is desired to constrain gross 
weight, such as calculating climb performance, cruise perform- 
ance ,^ or payload-lTarige^ "capability . 

If OPTIND = 3 is selected, the operating-weight-empty is input 
and takeoff gross weight and required fuel load is determined. 
This option is useful for calculating various overload off- 
design weights and for determining ferry performance. 

Combined Option 



This option permits the user to size an aircraft for a "design- 
point" mission and then to calculate the off-design-point 
performance of the sized aircraft for a variety of additional 
missions. Basically, this option causes the program to run 
option number one (OPTIND =1), save the sizing data generated 
in that option, and then input this information into the per- 
formance option (OPTIND = 2) . 



3-1 



3.1.2 Description of Mission Profile 

The performance calculation subprogram in HESCOMP, consisting 
of nine individual subroutines, permits the simulation of air- 
craft performance for virtually any mission flight profile. 
A typical performance analysis is made up of a series of ele- 
ments which, in building block fashion, allows the user of the 
program to perform a wide variety of studies. The elements of 
a typical performance analysis are: 

1. Segment - A segment of a mission profile is a unique 
portion of the mission such as a cruise or a climb. A 
segment starts with a set of initial conditions of one 
or more of the variables of state (altitude, range, 
weight, etc.) and ends when a terminal condition (or 
conditions) has been satisfied. 

2. Hop - A hop is defined as a set of segments ending at 
some logical terminal locations (such as ground level at 
the desired range). Thus, a hop might consist of flying 
from location "A" to location "B" by means of combining 
the following segments: taxi, takeoff, climb, cruise, 
descent, landing, and taxi. 

3. Leg - A leg of a mission is herein defined as a set of 
hops ending in a re-fueling of the aircraft. Thus, a leg 
might consist of flying from location "A" to "B", then to 
"C", at which point the aircraft is refueled. 

4. Mission - A mission is defined in this program as a set 
of legs (or hops or segments) which satisfy some specific 
operational requirement. In this program, the mission is 
the basic element for which the aircraft is sized. 

5. Case - A case is a consecutive series of missions for the 
same aircraft. This program permits the user to analyze 
a case which consists of a mission for which an aircraft 
is sized, followed by a different mission which the now- 
sized aircraft performs, followed by yet additional 
missions. 

The performance calculations subprogram consists of nine 
individual performance segments, specified by means of an in- 
put indicator, SGTIND. The segments are taxi (SGTIND = 1), 
hover (SGTIND = 2), climb (SGTIND = 3), cruise (SGTIND = 4), 
descent (SGTIND = 5) , loiter (SGTIND = 6) , an increment in 
weight of fuel (SGTIND = 7) or payload (SGTIND = 8) , and a 
transfer of altitude (SGTIND = 9) . The end of the mission is 
specified by an input SGTIND =0. An array of segment indi- 
cators is input to the program to specify the mission being 
studied. Thus, a typical array might be: 



3-2 



SGTIND » 



1,2,3,4,5,2,1,1,2,3,4,3,4,5,2,7,2,3,4,5,4,5,6,2,1,0, 




y I 



hop #2 



Refueling 

hop #3 



-i-leg #2 



mission — 



At the end of any leg, the sum of segment fuel required to 
perform that leg is stored in the computer. At the end of the 
mission, the largest of these stored values is used to deter- 
mine the aircraft sizing requirements when OPTIND =1. An end 
of a case is specified by an input SGTIND = 100. Since an 
end-of-case is also always an end-of -miss ion, it is not neces- 
sary to end a case by a SGTIND =0 followed by SGTIND = 100. 
SGTIND = 100 always takes precedence over SGTIND = 0. The 
distinction between a mission and a case is most useful when 
it is desired to size an aircraft for a specified mission 
followed by analysis of the off-design-point performance of 
the "sized'' aircraft on other missions. As an example, with 
SGTIND = 1 (sizing option) the following array of SGTIND might 
be used : 



SGTIND = 



,2, 0, 2, 0, 1, 0, 1, 100 



1st mission 



2nd mission 3rd mission 
— Case ■ 



4th mission 



The program will size the aircraft for the first mission and 
then analyze the performance of the "sized" aircraft for the 
second, third and fourth missions. Up to 50 consecutive seg- 
ments may be included in a single case, arranged m any arbi- 
trary series of hops, legs, and missions. Up to 10 of any 
specific segments may be included in any case. Thus, a case 
might consist of several missions, each mission having several 
different cruise segments. 

Each segment is a discrete element of the mission, independent 
of any other segment with the exception of the influence on 
the altitude, range, weight, and time. That is, the first 



3-3 



cruise of a case might be at cruise power at standard atmos- 
pheric conditions and the second cruise could be at best 
specific range for a nonstandard day. 

At the start of a case, the user inputs values for initial 
conditions of altitude, range, weight, and time. The first 
segment of the case uses these values as initial boundary con- 
ditions and the segment ends at a specified terminal condition. 
The final values of altitude, range, weight, and time then be- 
come, in turn, the initial values for the following segment. 

The final, or terminal, condition varies depending upon the 
segment. Terminal conditions for each segment, input by the 
user, are: 

Taxi - increment in time 

Takeoff, Hover, and Landing - increment in time 

Climb - altitude at end of climb 

Descent - altitude at bottom of descent and, for certain 
options, range at end of descent 

Loiter - increment in time 

Change of Fuel Weight - increment in weight and increment in 

time 

Change of Payload Weight - increment in weight and increment 

in time 

Transfer Altitude - final altitude 

Segments 2 through 6 (takeoff, hover, and landing through 
loiter) require, in addition to terminal conditions on one of 
the variables of state, an input value for the step size to be 
used in the calculations. The step size specifies both the 
increment in the primary variable which is used in the calcu- 
lations and the increment between successive printouts. 
Printouts occur at even integral multiples of the primary 
variable. Thus, if an aircraft is required to climb from a 
starting value of altitude of 6300 feet to a final value of 
29,500 feet, and the step size is specified as 1000 feet, the 
program will calculate and print at 6300 feet, 7000 feet, 8000 
feet, etc. to 29,500 feet. As the step size is decreased, the 
program accuracy improves, but the computing time lengthens. 

Atmospheric conditions may vary from segment to segment. For 
example, the first segment, a climb, may be for a standard 
atmosphere; the second segment, a cruise, may use a constant 
increment in temperature above standard; and the third segment, 

3-4 



another climb, may use a nonstandard temperature versus 
altitude table ♦ The third atmosphere option requires a tab- 
ular input of temperature ratio versus altitude. Only one 
nonstandard tabular atmosphere may be used in a single case- 
Segments 1 through 6 (taxi through loiter) may be used to sim- 
ulate an additional requirement for reserve fuel. The reserve 
fuel calculated in this manner is used as part of the total 
fuel required to size the aircraft. However, the aircraft 
weight is not reduced by the amount of the reserve fuel. This 
option is specified by inserting a value of 10 x SGTIND for 
the particular mission segment indicator where reserve fuel is 
to be calculated. For example, if it is desired to calculate 
reserve fuel at a specified cruise condition, SGTIND = 40; 
i.e., (SGTIND = 4) x 10 is input. 

3.1.3 Special Flight Path Control Option 

hopT^ND - This indicator will permit the user to fly a mission 
at the optimxam altitude for best fuel consumption. The pro- 
gram will automatically determine the. best altitude for any 
cruise segment which is preceded by either a climb segment or 
a transfer of altitude. If the cruise is preceded by a climb, 
the program will determine the flight altitude which minimizes 
the sum of the fuel for climb and cruise. If tjie cruise is 
preceded by a transfer altitude, the program will determine 
the altitud_e for the best fuel consumption during cruise only. 

In addition to ^ecifying that optimum altitude flight is de- 
sired during the mission, the user may specify a maximum 
altitude permitted for each cruise segment. This is specified 
by means of the hM^x input for the preceding climb or the 
hpxNAL input for the preceding transfer altitude. ^ The maximum 
altitude specification is useful in studying missions for 
which some of the cruise segments are to be optimized while 
other cruise segments are to be flown at known altitude such 
as the high-low-low-high mission shown below in which the low 
altitude segments represent sea level dashes. For this mission, 
the user specified hpujAL = ^ for the transfer altitude segment. 



CRUISE 



CRUISE 



CLIMB 




.TRANSFER 



^ALTITUDE 

HOVER 
CRUISE / CRUISE 




CLIMB 



3-5 



3.1.4 Propeller Efficiency 

Propeller efficiency can be calculated in three different ways 
for compound and auxiliary propulsion helicopters. The option 
chosen is specified by means of a propulsive efficiency indi- 
cator, npIND. The options range from (a) input of a set of 
point values of efficiency to (b) input of a prop map table 
to (c) automatic calculation of propeller performance. The 
option chosen will depend on the type of problem being studied 
as each of the means of calculating prop performance has fea- 
tures which may be desirable under certain conditions. These 
options are described in more detail in Section 4.7. 

3.1.5 Rotor Power Required Calculation 

The method most likely to be used, and certainly the most con- 
venient, from the point of view of inputs, is the short form 
aerodynamic performanc method. Rotor blade performance data 
is input in the form of "cycles", with corrections for the 
specific rotor and helicopter configuration under study being 
applied by the program. 

Two types of rotor maps may be input. The first utilizes 
isolated rotor data derived for a specified rotor configura- 
tion, but corrected by the program for the specific rotor 
and helicopter configurations under study. The second uses '- 
total configuration rotor data (i.e., in the case of a single 
rotor helicopter, this would include both main and tail rotor 
power) and applies no corrections to the data. 

It should be noted that the first two methods are suitable for 
use both in sizing and performance only calculations, since 
corrections for variations in rotor and helicopter configura- 
tions are applied. The third method, however, must be re- 
stricted to use only in non-siting applications. Possible 
areas of use could be, for example, the case where (a) it is 
inconvenient for the magnitude of the particular application 
to generate the data required for creating a rotor cycle or 
generalized rotor map, or (b) in calculating the mission per- 
formance of existing helicopters (e.g. the HH-43B, WG-13, UH-2, 
etc.) utilizing rotor maps derived from Flight Handbooks, etc. 



3.2 PROGRAM OPTIONS 

Flexibility of operation and generality of approach have been 
accomplished by use of many optional computation paths. The 
path to be used is selected by the user through use of a series 
of input indicators. Besides the option indicator, previously 
described, the program indicators fall into seven categories: 
propulsion indicators, aerodynamics indicators, size trends 
indicators, mission performance indicators, flight path control 

3-6 



indicators, an atmosphere indicator, and an optional print 
indicator. The indicators and their use are described below. 
A summary list of all indicators and their values is included 
in Section 5.3.2. 

3.2.1 Propulsion Indicators 

AIPIND - Indicator which differentiates betweeh compounds with 
and without auxiliary independent engines. AIPIND = 1 denotes 
a compound helicopter having a single set of engines connected 
both to the main rotor and auxiliary propulsion systems. 
AIPIND = 2 indicates a compound helicopter with independent 
engines for auxiliary propulsion. 

ENGIND - Two different classes of cruise engines are included 
in the program. They are "horsepower producing" engines and 
"thrust producing" engines. The horsepower producing engines 
which are included in the standard engine library are turbo- 
shaft engine cycles. The thurst producing engines in the 
engine library are either turbojet or turbofan engines. If 
ENGIND = 0, a power producing cycle is selected. If ENGIND - 
1, a thrust producing cycle is selected. 

ESCIND - The program permits the user to size the primary 
engines either for takeoff conditions only or for the more 
critical choice of takeoff or cruise. This is specified by 
means of the engine sizing indicator, ESCIND. If ESCIND - l, 
the program will size the engines for takeoff conditions only. 
If ESCIND = 2, the program will size the engines for takeoff, 
then cross-cneck the engine size required for cruise condi- 
tions, and pick the more critical of the two conditions. 

FIXIND - Engines selected for aircraft being studied in the 
program may be either "fixed" in size or ."rubberized. " If. the 
engines are "rubberized," the engine sizing subroutine calcu- 
lates the maximum power or thrust of the engines required to 
satisfy certain specified criteria. If the_ engines are fixed 
in size, the user inputs the level of _ maximum. power or thrust 
for the engines and the engine sizing sularoutine is bypassed. 
The user specifies the option of calculation by means of the 
input indicator, FIXIND. If FIXIND = 0, the engines are fixed 
in size. If FIXIND = 1, the engine sizing subroutine is used 
to calculate the size of the "rubberized" engines. 

FIXINDI - FIXINDI serves the same function for the auxiliary 
independent engines that FIXIND does for the primary engines. 

POWIND - This indicator specifies the limiting power setting 
to be used in climb, cruise, and for engine sizing at cruise 
conditions: maximum (POWIND = 0), military (POWIND = 1) , and 
normal (POWIND = 2^ . A separate value of this indicator is 
input with each climb and cruise and for engine sizing. 

3-7 



WDTIND, QIND, NlIND, N19IND, N2IND - These indicators specify 
to the program that the primary engine performance is re- 
stricted by a maximum level of fuel flow, torque, gas generator 
shaft rpm, gas generator referred shaft rpm, or power turbine 
(output) shaft rpm. An input zero value for these indicators 
will permit operation restricted only by power setting (turbine 
temperature) limits, A unity input for any of the indicators 
will cause the engine operation to also be restricted by a 
maximum level of the appropriate variable • More than one of 
these indicators may be set to unity at the same time, thus 
simulating performance of an engine operating with multiple 
restrictions. N2IND has a third possible value which the user 
may input for turboshaft engines, N2IND = 2. This input 
specifies that the engine is operating at a known discrete 
value of output shaft speed (in general, not the optimum 
value) . If this option is used, the user inputs the level of 
Nil f^^ each flight segment, and the program will calculate 
the effect on engine performance. 

WDTINDI, QINDI, NlINDI, N16INDI, N2INDI - These indicators 
specify to the program that the auxiliary independent engine 
performance is restricted by a maximum level of fuel flow, 
torque, gas generator shaft rpm, or power turbine (output) 
shaft rpm. An input zero value for these indicators will per- 
mit operation restricted only by power setting (turbine tem- 
perature) limits. A unity input for any of the indicators 
will cause the engine operation to also be restricted by a 
maximum level of the appropriate variable. More than one of 
these indicators may be set to unity at the same time, thus 
simulating performance of an engine operating with multiple 
restrictions. N2INDI has a third possible value which the 
user may input for turboshaft engines, N2INDI = 2, This input 
specifies that the engine is operating at a known discrete 
value of output shaft speed (in general, not the optimum 
value). If this option is used, the user inputs the level of . 
Nji for each flight segment, and the program will calculate _^,,: 
the effect on engine performance* 

RNOIND - The performance of real engines is sensitive to 
scaling effects. That is, doubling the maximum static power 
of the engine at sea level for standard atmospheric conditions 
by increasing the physical size of the engine will not cause a- 
corresponding doubling of the power at other operating condi- 
tions. This nonlinear behavior is due to the influence of j 
variations in the Reynolds number at the compressor inlet. 
RNOIND permits these effects to be accounted for on turboshaft 
engines through use of an input table of a correction factor 
on power available. If the indicator is set to unity, the 
tabulated correction factor may be input and will be used by 
the program to account for scaling effects. A zero input for 
the indicator will cause the program to assume that perfect 
scaling occurs. 

3-8 



R NOINDI - This indicator serves the same purpose for the 
auxiliary independent engines as RNOINDI serves for the 
primary engines. 

ROTIND -Controls the selection of the rotor performance 
computation^ method . If ROTIND = 1, rotor performance is 
calculated by the short form aerodynamic performance method 
(requiring the input of a rotor "cycle"). If ROTIND = 2, a 
rotor map is input with corrections being applied by the pro- 
gram for the specific rotor and helicopter configuration 
geometry being studied. If ROTIND = 3, a rotor map is input, 
with no corrections being applied. 

TipIND - This indicator permits the user to select one of three 
different methods for predicting propeller performance for 
compound and auxiliary propulsion helicopters. If npIND - 0, 
the user can specify a set of point value efficiencies for 
each climb and descent and a table of efficiency versus Mach 
number for cruise and loiter. An input of HpIND - 1 will 
permit the user to load in a propeller performance map to be 
used during climb, cruise, and loiter while an input of 
npIND = 2 will permit use of an automatic subroutine within 
the program for calculating prop performance. It is antici- 
pated that this latter option will be used for the majority 
of sizing and performance studies. The input prop map option 
will typically be used in cases where detailed test data is 
available on prop performance and it is desired to closely 
represent a specific propeller. The first option, permitting 
input of point values, is most useful for sensitivity studies 
or where propeller choice has not yet been made and only 
representative values of efficiency are desired. A more de- 
tailed discussion of these options is contained in Section 4.7. 

3.2.2 Aerodynamics Indicators 

DRGIND - The method of determining the total parasite drag of 
the helicopter is specified to the program by means of the 
indicator DRGIND. If DRGIND = 1, configuration parasite drag 
is built up in component fashion, with Reynolds number scaling. 
If DRGIND = 2, the parasite drag is calculated from a parasite 
drag trend derived from the inputs (GW/Fe) and ^-pEB' 

O SWIND - The span loading efficiency factor (Oswald's effi- 
ciency factor) may be calculated by the program from an 
approximate relationship as a function of wing aspect ratio. 
If the user prefers, he may input a fixed value of the effi- 
ciency factor to the program. An input of OSWIND = permits 
the user to input a fixed value for efficiency. An input of 
OSWIND » 1 will cause the program to use the approximate 
equation to calculate the value for efficiency. 



3-9 



3,2.3 Size Trends Indicators 

APHIND - The aft rotor pylon height of a tandem rotor heli- 
copter is specified by use of this indicator. If APHIND = 1, 
aft pylon height is input directly in feet. If APHIND = 2, 
the tandem rotor gap/stagger (g/s) ratio is input and aft 
pylon height is sized accordingly. 

AUXIND - Four versions of both the single and tandem rotor 
helicopter may be specified through this indicator. They are: 
a pure helicopter (AUXIND = 1) , a winged helicopter only 
(AUXIND = 2) , an auxiliary propulsion helicopter, only 
(AUXIND = 3)/ and a compound (wings and auxiliary propulsion) 
helicopter (AUXIND =4). 

bwIND - For a configuration having wings, this option deter- 
min^S the manner in which wing span is calculated during the 
sizing process. If b^^IND = 1, wing span/rotor diameter ratio 
(bw/D) is input. If bwIND ^ 2, wing aspect ratio (AR) is 
input. If bwIND = 3 (used when dealing with wing -mounted 
propellers) wing span is determined from propeller tip/ 
fuselage clearance considerations. 

CNFIND - This indicator specifies the helicopter configuration 
to be analyzed. These are: the single rotor helicopter 
(CNFIND - 1) and the tandem rotor helicopter (CNFIND = 2) . 

FDMIND - Determines the manner is which a tandem rotor heli- 
copter fuselage is sized. If FDMIND == 1, tandem rotor overlap 
((0/L)/D)and forward and aft rotor positions (AXi/lp, AX2/1t) 
are specified.- If FDMIND = 2, overlap and cabin length dc) 
are input. If FDMIND = 3, cabin length and forward and aft 
rotor positions are input. 

HTIND - Permits the user to input fixed-size horizontal tail 
surfaces to the program or, optionally, to have the program 
calculate the tail surface size based upon an input tail 
"volume" coefficient. If HTIND = 0, the program will assume 
no horizontal tail exists. If HTIND = 1, the tail area may 
be input directly. If HTIND = 2, the program will calculate 
the size based upon a tail "volume" coefficient, 

MRPIND - Specifies the placement of the main rotor of a single 
rotor helicopter on its fuselage. If MRPIND = 0, the user 
inputs directly the main rotor position (aft of the nose) as 
a fraction of body length (Xm/1b) • If MRPIND = 1, the program 
does a simple mass balance calculation and determines the 
rotor position relative to the aircraft eg. If MRPIND = 2, 
the same procedure is carried out as with MRPIND = 1 with the 
exception that the program assumes the auxiliary drive system, 
propeller, and auxiliary independent engines (if any) to be 
located on the wing. 

3-10 



RDMIND - Specifies manner in which main rotor is sized. If 
RDMIND = 1, main rotor diameter and solidity are input di- 
rectly. If RDMIND - 2, disc loading and solidity are input, 
diameter is calculated, llf RDMIND « 3, d iameter and Ct/g are 
input, solidity is calculated. If RDMIND = 4, disc loading 
and Cp/a are input and both diameter and.splidity are 
calculated. 

S^IND - Specifies options available for wing sizing. These 
are: wing area input directly (SWIND = 1) , wing area sized 
based on an input wing loading (SWIND =2) , and wing area 
sized by rotor/wing maneuver requirements (SWIND - 3). 

TRDIND - Determines ^manner in whicfe^ |iiil rotor diameter is 
sized. If TRDIND =1, tail rotor diameter Is" calculated from 
a trend of Dj^r/Dtr contained in the program. If TRDIND = 2, 
tail rotor diameter is input directly. If TRDIND = 3, a value 
of net tail rotor disc loading, (T/A) NET/ is input and tail 
rotor diameter is determined through an iterative procedure. 

TRSIND - Tail rotor solidity sizing indicator. If TRSIND = 1, 
tail rotor solidity is input directly. If TRSIND = 2, Crjs/a is 
input and tail rotor solidity is sized based on either hover- 
antitorque or hovering turn requirements. 

VTFIND - Vertical tail area sizing indicator. If VTFIND = 1, 
vertical tail size is based on input values of aspect ratio 
(ARvt) and tail fin/ tail rotor overlap (hvT) • If VTFIND = 2, 
tail fin/tail rotor overlap and directional stability require- 
ments, (sufficient tail area to counteract "main rotor torque 
in cruise flight, if tail rotor is lost), dictate vertical 
tail area- If VTFIND = 3, the same requirements must be met 
as with VTFIND ='2, with the exceptions" that ARyT is specified 
and tail fin overlap is calculated along with vertical tail 
area. 

XMSNIND - Indicator that controls drive system transmission 
sizing- If XMSNIND = 1, main, tail and auxiliary drive system 
ratings are specified as a fraction of primary engine in- 
stalled power (in the case of a compound helicopter with aux- 
iliary independent propulsion, the auxiliary independent drive 
system rating is specified as a fraction of the auxiliary 
independent engine installed power). If XMSNIND ^ 2, main, 
tail, and auxiliary drive system ratings are specified at a 
fraction of the power required to hover or cruise at design 
conditions (more critical of the two conditions is selected) . 
If XMSNIND = 3, the same applies as in the case where 
XMSNIND = 2, except the most critical of the two design con- 
ditions is compared to the drive system rating required at an 
alternate payload/gross weight hover at the design point con- 
ditions, the most critical of these three conditions is 
selected- 

3-11 



3.2.4 Mission Performance Indicators 

CLMIND - Four types of climb calculations are permitted: maxi- 
mum rate of climb (CLMIND = 1) , constant equivalent airspeed 
(CLMIND = 2), constant Mach niomber (CLMIND = 3), and constant 
true airspeed (CLMIND = 4) . 

CRSIND - Six types of cruise missions are included in the pro- 
gram: cruise at fixed cruise power (CRSIND = 1) , cruise at con- 
stant true airspeed (CRSIND = 2) , cruise at airspeed for best 
specific range, (CRSIND = 3), cruise at the speed for 99% of 
best specific range (CRSIND =4), cruise-climb (constant W/6) 
at the speed for best specific range (CRSIND = 5) , or cruise- 
climb at the speed for 99% of best specific range (CRSIND = 6) . 

DESIND - Twelve different descent paths may be calculated by 
the program. They are of three major types: descent at con- 
stant true airspeed (TAS) (DESIND = 1) , descent at constant 
Mach number (DESCIND = 3) . Four variations of each of these 
major types of descent are specified by RMAXND. It should be 
noted that there are no idle power or autorotative descent 
options available. However, depending on the descent flight 
conditions specified, it is possible to operate on an auto- 
rotative descent boundary (see Section 4.12.5) during a descent. 

RMAXND - Used in conjunction with DESIND to specify types of 
descent. If RMAXND = 0, the descent flight path ends at a 
specified terminal range (cruise segment must be input previous 
to descent). If RMAXND = 1, the program checks the specified 
terminal range, and, if the predicted flight path will end 
beyond the specified terminal range value, a spiral descent 
path is assumed at that point; if the predicted flight path ends 
before reaching the specified terminal range point, the program 
prints "SHALLOWER DESCENT REQUIRED". If RMAXND = 2, the 
descent ends at a specified minimum altitude, terminal range 
requirement not considered. If RMAXND = 3, the fuel used and 
time required for descent are calculated but no range credit 
given (i»e., spiral descent path). 

SGTIND - The mission profile flown by the aircraft may be made 
up of an arbitrary sequencing of nine discrete profile seg- 
ments. The segment selected is specified by means of the seg- 
ment indicator, SGTIND. The segments are: taxi (SGTIND = 1), 
takeoff, hover and landing (SGTIND = 2), climb (SGTIND = 3), 
cruise (SGTIND = 4), descent (SGTIND = 5) loiter (SGTIND = 6), 
a change of fuel weight (SGTIND = 7) , a change of payload 
weight (SGTIND = 8), and a transfer of altitude (SGTIND = 9). 
By appropriate sequencing of the input values for the segment 
indicator, the mission profile may be made up of any arbitrary 
combination of these nine discrete elements. The mission is 
terminated by an input value for segment indicator = 0. NOTE ; 
Segments 1 through 6 can be used for reserve fuel calculations 
(gross weight reset following segment) by inputing 10 times 
SGTIND, i.e., SGTIND = 10, 20, 30, 40,' 50, or 60. 

3-12 



TOLIND - The indicator TOLIND is input with each takeoff, 
hover , and landing segment and dictates the manner in which 
power is calculated. If TOLIND =1, the user inputs required 
thrust-to-weight ratio and vertical rate of climb (Vr/c) • If 
TOLIND =2, tEe user inputs required fractions of maximum power 
and vertical rate of climb fT/W ratio is computed) . Both 
TOLIND = 1 and 2 options are calculated, based on the assump- 
tions of hover-out-of -ground effect. If TOLIND =3, the optxon 
is the same as 1, but the analysis includes hover-in-ground 
effect factors. If TOLIND = 4 , the option is the same as 2, 
but the analysis includes hover-in-ground effect factors. 

W GTIND - The change fuel and change payload segments may be 
used to simulate refueling, unloading or loading of passengers, 
or a fuel drop. There is no restrictipn on the amount of fuel 
or payload which may be removed at any point in the mission. 
However, during a sizing run, it would be undesirable to in- 
crease the aircraft weight (by adding fuel or payload) to a 
value which exceeds the initial gross weight of the aircraft. 
This is because the design gross weight, upon which the sub- 
system weights" depend, is assumed to be the same as the initial 
gross weight at the start of the mission. During a performance 
run (OPTIND =2) , this restriction does not apply and the user 
is given the option of overloading the aircraft at any point of 
the mission. If WGTIND =0, the program will not permit the 
maxim\im weight to exceed the design gross weight. This is use- 
ful if it is desired to refuel to capacity at some point in the 
mission. If WGTIND =1 (and if the performance option is being 
run) , the program will permit the aircraft weight to exceed the 
design gross weight. This is useful for parametric performance^ 
studies. For example, the user can specify an array ofSGTIND- 
7, 4, 0, 7, 4, 0, 7, 4, 0, up to 7, 4, 100. When this is done, 
the program will calculate the performance in cruise at a series 
of different aircraft weights. The "7" segment is usee to in- 
crement the design gross weight to any value of weight desired 
for the following cruise . 

3.2.5 Flight Path Control Indicators 

hoPTiND - By inputting hoPTlND^LO, the program will auto- 
matically determine the cruise altitude for minimum fuel con- 
sumption for any cruise which is preceded by a climb or a 
transfer altitude. For cruise segments which are preceded by 
a climb, the program will find the cruise altitude for which 
the sum of climb fuel and cruise fuel is minimized. The user 
can also specify a maximum permissible altitude for each cruise 
segment. If hoPTiND = is input, the program will not do an 
optimum altitude search for the cruise segments. 

3.2.6 Atmosphere Indicator 

ATMIND - The atmosphere for each individual mission profile 
segment and for the engine sizing calculations may be either a 
standard or nonstandard atmosphere. Thus, the climb may be run 

3-13 



on a nonstandard atmosphere followed by a cruise for standard 
day conditions* Three options, one for standard atmosphere, 
the other two for a nonstandard atmosphere are available. For 
the performance calculations, the type of atmosphere to be 
used is specified to the program by means of the atmosphere 
indicator, ATMIND. If ATMIND = 0, the program will use a" 
standard atmosphere- ATMIND = 1 specifies a nonstandard, con- 
stant increment in temperature above standard while ATMIND = 2 
specifies a nonstandard atmosphere requiring a tabular input 
of temperature ratio versus altitude, 

3.2.7 Optional Print Indicator 

Two different forms of printout are available for the mission 
performance data. By setting OPTIONAL PRINT INDICATOR = 0, a 
standard printout will occur. This consists of time, range, 
fuel used, aircraft weight, pressure altitude, true airspeed, 
primary engine turbine temperature, an engine code which 
specifies the condition which is dictating the primary engine 
operating point, and a power fraction which is the instanta- 
neous fraction of maximum power which is being used. These 
data are printed for all performance segments. In addition, 
depending upon which segment is being used, the standard 
printout will include such parameters as rate of climb, 
equivalent airspeed, specific range, flight path angle, etc. 
More detailed data may be obtained by setting the OPTIONAL 
PRINT INDICATOR =1.0- The data printed will then include 
main rotor power and tip speed, tail rotor power and tip 
speed, auxiliary propulsion power and propeller tip speed, 
primary and auxiliary engine fuel flows, etc. The printout 
available from the program is described in more detail in 
Section 6.1.4- 



3-14 



3.3 PROGRAM FLOW 

Figure 3-1 indicates, conceptually, the operation of the 
program. Program flow is monitored by a general control loop 
which controls the operation of a series of peripheral pro- 
grams. These include eighteen minor subroutines, four major 
subroutines, a major subprogram, and a library of engine cycle 
data, and rotor "cycle" data. The characteristics of these 
routines are summarized in Table 3-1. 



NO 



INPUT 
DATA 



4 



TYPICAL INPUTS 
GW, W/A, PAYLOAD, 
MSN PROFILE, ETC. 









SIZE 
TRENDS 






SUBR 






' 


r 






AERO 
SUBR 


^_- 




\ 


' 


-:... 




ENGINE 
SIZING 
SURP 


— _ 






; 


REVISE 
GW 






WEIGHTS 
CALC. SUBR 
(CALC. FUEL 
AVAILABLE) 


i 


y 








1 






1 





MSN 
PERF. 
CALC 
SUBR 
(CALC. 
FUEL REQ'D) 




IS 



FUEL AVAIL = FUEL REQ*D 



11 YES 



OUTPUT DATA 



^^ 



Figure 3-1. Sketch of Program Geometry. 



3-15 







>i 




















u 














M 






c 










0) 




0) 






0) 0) 










M 4:: 


M 


> 






cn> 










-P 


>i 


+^ 






M -H 










MH 


MH ^ 


MH 04 






0) +J 




^ 






tr 




fd 






> (0 




<U 






0) c 


<D to 


x; c 






C M 




u 






rH -H 


rH 0) C 


(0 rd 






<D 











Xi G 


X) C 


55 






^ 




CO 


+J 




td -H 


fd -H -H 






•H 




CO 


C 


<U 


.H g to 


fH t7^+J 


M 






CO 




0) 


0) 





■H M C 


■H G fd 


13 CO 






M Cn 




M 





U 


(d 0) 


fd CL) Jh 


4-) CO 






U C 




a 


CO 





> 4J-H 


> Q> 


(U 






<U -H 






0) 


^H 


(d 0) -P 


fd -P a 


>i«H 






^ )H 




^ 


TJ 




TJ 


mh 


W 






:3 




>i'd 




OJ 


> -H 


> rd 


rd CO 






TI 




-p c: 


U 


> 


>i 5h 


x: rH 


g -H 






*. 




•H d 





•H 


rH Xt -P 


rH CO rd 


•H 






CO +J 




to 


MH 


CO 


MH to 


MH 


U TJ 




W 


c ^-- 




c; to 




H 


to OJ 


Xi-H 


04 (U 




cn 


Cn^ 




0) 


'd 


d 


rH (1) M 


rH M +J 


Jh 




o 


•H -H 




TJ M-l 


<D 


Cu 


CD C 


Q) :^ -r^ 


U -H 




g^ 


4J 0) 11 







U 





:3 -H tn 


:3 4J M 


:3 




(U ^ 







•H 


u 


MH cn C 


UH 


MH CT" 




D 


M Q 




-rH Td 


d 


a 


C-H 


4J 


a 




CI4 


Q) (0 2; 




M 0) 


tr 




TJ 0) 4J 


^ C -^ 


^ M 






CU CO H 




0) OJ 


<D 


+» 


G (d 


c 0) to 









&H 




x^ a 


U 


MH 


rd +^ Jh 


fd tJ 


rH U 






)H 04 




a CO 




(d 


MH 


c; g 


MH <U 


w 




e tpo 




CO 


U 


M -^ 


w (d O4 


U Q) 


> 


w 




(D ^'^^ 




tJ 


0) 


U X 


d) x: 


<U 04 Q) 


r-i 


IS 




U CO 




BS 


^ 


U U 


:? CO 


> 0) x: 


0) a 


H 




Cn 0) C 







-H *-^ 


rH 


n3 4J 





Eh 




-P 




(d 


a 


<d 


04^ fd 


a G to 


MH C 


D 




M (0 -H 




0) 




4-> 


M 


•H tn c 


OJ 


Q 




CUrH +J 




CO U 


CO 


CO c: 


CO :3-H 


CO CO 


to J^ . 


Pi 




:3 cu 




Q) :3 


<u 


<U 0) 


0) -P -P 


<U >i-H -H 


0)^0) 


m 




CO 




+J 4J 


4J 


+J-H 


4J -rH 


+J M C -P 


4-» rH 


D 




U r-{ 




fd (d 


03 


fd 


(d >i M 


fd rd -H 


rd CO i3 


cn 




fCJ D> 




H M 


H 


iH -H 


rH M U 


•H -H g -H 


rH 0) rd 






-M C 




<D 


:3 


:3 m 


:3 (d 


rS rH fi ^^ 


3 C rH 


PL4 




•H -H 




a 


u 


M-i 


g 4J 


0-H 0) -P 


-H -H 


o 




C TJ N 




fH g 


iH 


rH 0) 


rH -H CO 


rH X +J CO 


rH en rd 






C -H 




fd d) 


(d 


(d 


(d M 


rd :3 OJ 0) 


(d G > 


>* 




s: fd CO 




U -P 


u 


u u 


U Q4 g 


U fd T3 M 


u 0) (d 


D 








CO 




CO 


to 






CO 








0) <u 




0) TJ 

•H fd 


Q) (U 
-H -H 






* 








■M CO 




4J 


4J CO 






iH 








:3 - 
vo TJ 


a; 


13 - 
V£> 


:3 - 
'X* TJ 






ro 








H 1 C 


-H 


M 1 


U 1 c 








>H 






^ H (d 


-P 


Xi -1 


^ rH (d 






W 


m 






^ 


d 


^ 


:3 


I-:) 


H^ 


1-:? 




1 




to 11 tr» 





CO ii en 


to 11 en 


> 


> 


ffl 


Q 


1 




c 


V^ 


G 


G 


< 


< 


ri: 


f^ 


1 




<D Q -H 


X 


<U Q-H 


Q) Q -H 


15 


12 


EH 


*^ 






U ^2; N 


:3 


U S N 


U 52; N 










^3 






C H -H 


CO 


C H -H 


C H -H 


04 


O4 




< 






fd ^t CO 




fd ^t CO 


td ei to 








u 






g 


-p 


s 


5 


CO 


CO 










G cn 0) CO 


C 


M CO <U 


H CO 0) to 


fd 


fd 










CO 


0) 


a 


C T3 














M-i x;*rH c 





^ x:-H 


4H 4:: -H c; 


5J 


Q) 










Sh -P C7> 0) 


CO 


M 4J tn 


M -P D^ 0) 


g 


g 










0) -H C iH 


Q) 


<U -H c 


Q) -H a Jh 


fd 


fd 










0^ > 0) 4J 


Q 


04 ^ <U 


04 15 (U -P 


CO 


CO 






cu 


*• 

CO 






to 















OJ 






c 















d 



















i-:i 


-H 
4J 






4J 










pq 


iH 


13 






(d -- 










53 


-- 









rH C3 










H 


. u s 


M 


0) 




K 










Eh 


4J M 


X 


u 












D 


^ ^ 


Si^ 




-* Q 













a 


cn 


-5 ^ 




rd -- 










(aj 


u -- 




S*Q 


S 


U 


^ 


H 









c 


u 



|g 



P4 


cn 


^ 


% 


1 






•H 


G 


B5 


Cfl 


(d 


12 


g 








(d 


•H 


w 


M 








Q 






s 


s 


< 


Q 


Q 


04 


04 


04 



3-16 





jL 






AJ 




1 TJ 
03 C 


1 




-P :3 


-P 

CO 


1 P 


-.. 








c 




1 M 03 


Q) 


M 


0) M 


:3 


^ ::3 


tn 








0) 




0) 


'O g 


tp 


n^ 


IH 


d sh 


c 








^ c; 




Xi Oi M 


d 'd 3 


4H d 


-P 


x; 


-H x: 


-H 








C (tJ 




M g 0) 


-1 ^^ f= 


H 


■Q 


l-i 


•^ ^ 










0) x; 




P 0) XI 


'H M-l -H 


0) d 


b s 




i^"i 










a^+3 




+J -Pi 


>i4H -P 


H -H 


d fti 


d 


Jh c 


Ui : 








0) 






u-rA a 


-Q s 


-p x; 


0) 


03 Q) 










'O CO 




>i 0) c 


03 U to 


03 w 


-p 


-g 


•H x; 


c 








c « 




sh d 


■rA <\) -P C 


rH <U 


'd 


> 


rH ^ 


-H 








•H <U 




03 -H tn 


.H O4 


•rH 4J 


d CO 




•H 










iH 




g Xi- 


■H to a) d 


03 0) d 


03 to 


n3 


X! ^d 


'"O j 








>i 




•H M ^d 


X 4-1 


> Tl 


0) 


<U 


d 0^ 


(U t 








M 0} 




M 13 H 


>i^ -p 


o3 -H 


d rH 


5h 


(d M 


-P 








05 -H 




PU4-» O 


03 d 0) fd 


>1-p 


cd 


•H 


•H 


Oj 








•H 




c 


03 


^ X3 


MH to 


13 


M 1:3 


Jh 








rH Tl 




M TJ >i 


M tT* d 


-H 


-H 


d" 


d* 


0) 

d 








'H <U 




<U <D 


4J d 


.H to J-i 


X5 


0) 


MH 0) 








X M 




4-^ -H pc; 


M-^ 03 -H -H 


Mh OJ P 


U n3 


M 


•— u 


il' 








:3 -H 




M-l H 


TJ -p 


d to 


^ (1) 


d 


V-^ 


C' 






W 


03 d 




O; -H M-( H 


(U t/) ::* n3 


rH -H 0) 


-P U 


M 15 


v-i -- :? 








cn 


CT 




•H O 13 


rH (U rH W 


0) IJ^ M 


•H 


a> 


(u g 


ai 






o 


U Q) 




XJ 0) 


Xi d 0) 


c 


M :3 


^ d 


^ 0) d 


•P 






cu 


O M 




03 04 CO g 


03-H d O4 


MH 0) tP 


tr 


M 


P ^ 


nj 






pc: 


M-l 




rH W -P 3 


rH d^-H 


d 


MH Q> 


O4 


04 to 


'O 






D 


u 




•H O g 


•H d 


'd -P -H 


Sh 


0) 


>i 0) 








fu 


^ 0) 




03 >i 0) -H 


03 0) -'O 


d 0) -P 


> , 


V^ U 


v^ to s.^ 


H^ 








o ^ 




> C HH 4J 


> 0) d 


o3 -m 03 


4J 


a) 03 


d) o3 


C 








r-4 




03 03 ^ a 


03 -P M 03 


u 


rH to 


rH 


r-i d 










M-4 04 




0) O 


M-l d 


■P jQ <U 


^ 


rH 


rH 


+J 












M -P C 


M 03 -P M 


to 5h 04 


u 


0) -H 


d) -H -H 


d * 








H C 


Q) 


(1) 03 tJ^ O 


0) x; rd <u 


0:^0 


rH X! 


a.-p 


a to -p 


'-^ 
■P 








Q) Q) r-i 


5 C d 


S CO M ^ 


U 4J 


0) -P 


fd 


rH 03 








:^ x: ^ 


to -rH 


0) 1 


X! rH 


13 


u u 


5h :3 j-i 


d 11 








IM ^ 


03 


Oi 0) 'd -P 


O4X3 04 3 


4J t:5 03 


ip d 


Oi 


a 04 


■H 

u 










rH 


c :3 03 


)-i g d 


d 


5J 


0) 


<D 








05 4J 


•H 


CO -H nH 


CO P (D 


to 03 -rH 


CO ^ 


to 


to M a 


Q4 s 




Q 




0) M-l 


03 


0) cr» a c: 


0) -P -P CO 


0) -P 


<D > (U 


(u d 


?i ^' S 


f i 




w 




-M 03 


> 


-p c d 


-p 


-p d -H 


-P rH 


-P 03 


■P o3 




ID 




OJ X 


03 


03 0) -H 'H 


03 -P 0) 'd 


03 03 M 


03 CO X5 


03 > 


03 -P > 


rH A4 




2 




rH 0} 




rH -P 


rH d d fH 


H MH 


rH <U 03 


d '^ 


r-i C^ 







^-1 
H 




:3 o 


u 


:3 -P -> 03 


:3 0) -H 


13 


:i Cf^ 


03 


:3 <u o3 


M 




Eh 




O XI 


0) 


U M-l 0) M 


cd X5 d 


Xi -P 


-H -H 





u ncj 


-P d 




!S 




rH U 


^ 


fH 03 M 0) 


rH d M >1 H 


rH M CO 


rH tn n3 


rH TJ 


rH d ^ 


d <D 




o 




oj :3 


o 


03 x: O4 


03 0) :3 (U H 


03 d 


03 d > 


"fd d 


03 OJ d 


XJ 




O 




U -P 


a 


U CO +J 


u a-p pc; 2: 


-P g 


0) 03 


U 03 


CJ Oi oJ 


u ^ 




• 
I 
















i7] «-^ 








t-5 
















P in U3 














































Xi c'> 03 




'~'J 






\-\ 




^q 


H 


hJ 


i:^ 


:3 




'^\ 






Q 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


CO li !Cn 

c 

0) P -H^ 


CO 

:5 


3 






^ 


o 




5 











CJ S N 





^■ 






< 


& 




c^ 


A 


CM 


04 


d M H 
03 Eh to 


Pi 








to 




•fc. 


V 


CO 


CO 


g 


(.0 


,:J 






OJ 




ot 


H 


03 


03 


M CO Oi to 


(IS 


CO 












§ 









d ^ 












(U 




0^ 


0) 


OJ 


•M ,d -H d 


.13 










g 

03 




g 


:2 






g 

03 


(U H d u 


f1 


■ \ 








CO 




0^ 


0^ 


CO 


CO 


a. ^ (11 V* 


v'O 


P4 






w 


















'0 






s 








































fc3 






D 


















-! 






s 


H 








^ 


0* 




M 










3: 

o 




iH 

CD 

;3 


M 

rH 

IS 


1 


§ 
^ 

F 


P^ 
w 

g 


Oh 
W 




H 








(^ 




w 


w 


H 


H 


P4 


Cm 


0-1 



3-17 







T? 






u 
















C 




CO 


0) 




'd 




C 








<d • 


Tl 


•H 


^ 




C 0) 













TJ 


c 









fd x; 




■H 








D 0) 


(d 


c 


Oi 




HJ 


1 


1 -P 


cn 






X'd 











>i 


<u 


0) fd 


CO 






4^0) 


c 


•H 


c 




>i tP 


M 


MH 


•H d 






u <u 


•H 


+J 


0) 




c j:) fd 




d 


03 fd 






^ 


fd 


a-- 


x; 




0) V4 


>.^ 


0) u 


d 






X 


g 





^ 




-H 'O nj 


+J 


U rH 


rH CO 






CO <U 




m 






U 0) 


CO 


fd fd 


rH 






c 


X! 


4J r-l 


0) 




•H CO <P 


d 





C 






c 


-P 


C 


iH 




MH d UH 


M 


x: 


•H M 






■H <U 





■H II 


Xi 




MH fd 


x; 


cr 


4-i 






4J 0) 


^ 


U 


fd 




0) 0) )H 


+j +j 


•H fd 


>i C 






■H^ 




CUPi 


iH 




U 


d 


x: M 


»H 






'O 







■H 




tn fd vh 


M 0) 


^'d 


fd e; 






d CO 


^O 


T? Eh 


(d 




C -H 


g 




g 






Id 


Q> 


0) <; 


> 




•H x: fd 


0) 


CO 'O 


i -i-^ 






x: 


M 


rH U 


fd 




Tl 


M M 


c c 


d x: 








-H 


■H H 






fd -H (D 


0) -H 


rd 


en cp 






tn-M 


13 


fd Q 


-P c 




x: -p 


> d 


•H 


•H 




W 


c -H 


U^ 


-p ^ 


CO ^ 




rH ^ fd 


CT 


CQ Q) 


+J r-\ 




CO 


•H 6 





0) H 


d 




r-i 


04 


C -P 


x:^ 







4J -H 


M 


TI 


M C 




0) CO 13 


-- M 


OJ fd 


&i 




s 


rd rH 




tn 


j:: ^ 




CO +J 




g g 


•H ^ 




M 


u 


d ^ 


-p 




•H C rH 


0) C 




OJ CO 




D 


m u 
a 


0) 


0) H 


0) 




^ 0) fd 


N 


'O -P 


^ Q) 




cu 


? 


x: tf 


u u 




c: -H cj 


■H -H 


CO 


M 






+> 





^ 0^ 


<u fd 




fd 


CO CO 


-P 0) 


4J d 









cu 




rH 




a-H 


CO 


MH 


MH 4J 






u u 




+J ij 


rH 




en (M 4-» 


OJ -H 


(d +J 


fd 









u 


d < 


(U -H 




MH 


a 6 


u x: 


jh d 






4J M-l 





2; 


a-p 




en 0) 0) 


•H 


D> 


>H 






-H 


+J 


-MO 


fd 




d C 


tji-P 


M -H 


M -P 0) 






}-l 





C H 


u u 




■H 'H 


C 0) 


•H 0) 


•H CO rH 






0) 


M -- 


-H ei 


CL4 




^ -P 


Q) Q) 


(d > 


fd ^ 






C 0) 


CQ 


M 0^ 


(D 




^ d 


g 




- fd 






•H CO 


CO U 


0.0 


CO a 




CO 


CQ 


CO U 


^ Cf-\ 


Q 




fd 


<D 




Q) c 




0) M 


OJ 


0) 


0) -H 


u:\ 




g 


+J 4J 


CO 


4J fd 




4-> CO ^ 

fd 0) d 


+J 4J 


+3 %A 


^•H td 


D 




+J 


fd 


rH^d 


fd > 




(d 


fd 


fd CO > 


2; 




CO 


rH U 


0) 


rH TJ 




H -H CO 


rH TJ 


rHTJ 


rH rH rd 


H 




>; ^ 


13 


M M 


d fd 




d ^4 


d <u 


d <u 


d d 


hi 




Q D 


U .H 


4J-H 







0) D^ 


M 


u 


O^rH 


S 




(D\ 


r^ -rH 


a CO 


rH Tl 




rH en fd 


rH H 


r-{ -H 


rH a) 







4:: X 


fd (d 


Q) 


fd c 




(d M 


fd d 


fd d 


fd M d 


u 




OU 


u +> 


U 'O 


u fd 




U fd Tl 


cr 


u er 


U O^MH 


• 
1 




CO VD 


en vo 


en 














cn 




0) as 
C in 


0) - 
C in TJ 
















U^ 




*M % 


'H ^ C 


•H 














^ 




4J ^ 


4^ ^ fd 


-P VO 














PQ 




13 - 


d •- 


d 














< 




rn 


m \y\ 


^ 














H 


Q 
i-:i 


nee subr 
IND = 2, 


nee subr 
IND = 2, 
ne sizin 
nds 


nee subr 
IND = 4 

















(d Eh 


fd B -H QJ 


fd H 



















SO 

G en 




= en n 
fi en c +J 
0) 


6 
in en 



en 

fd 
















M^ J^ 


M-I x: Q) 


^ x: 


0) 




c 


c 


c 


d 






u +J 


M +J Tt N 


^ -p 


g 




•H 


•H 


•H 


•H 






Q) -H 


0) -H C -H 


0) -H 


fd 




fd 


fd 


fd 


(d 






CU ^ 


cu ^ fd cn 


PU > 


en 


to 

0) 

c 

•H 


s: 




s: 


CO 




u 










d 


CO 


d 




T3 




:z: 
















•H 


CO 


d 




H 










^4 


'H 


N ^ 


TJ 


<u ^ 




Eh 










•§ 


S -N 


•H N 


c -- 


v^ od 




D 










3 


en en 


<u « 


H EH 















en 


C Oi 


a 


n H 


K 




Pc: 


s 


12 


cq 


Eh 




^s 


<U IS 


&H N 


+> 






H 





PQ 


en 


VI 


C cq 


H 


XI S 






>4 


fu 


H 


D 





^ 


•H --- 


0) cn 


tri^ 






&H 


t^ 


ff^ 


a: 


•n 


u 


en 


N ^- 


-H 












a 


w 


^ 


^ 


G 


•H 


,3} 






P^ 


P^ 


en 


t^ 


2: 


< 


W 


en 


^ 



3-18 





a> 




u 




d 


rH 


Id 


Q) 




M-l ^ 


M 


M-l 


O 




M-i 


C '-^ 


M 


fd 


Q) 


•H -P 


CU 


-P o 




fd -P 


CP 


rH 


c 


a w 


-H 


U 0) 


TJ 


rH -P 


c 


cd fd 


(d 



1 



w 
o 




Q 

pa 

D 

M 

o 
u 



I 



Q 

< 



M 

D 
O 



B 
fd 

cr 
o 
u 

en 
o 

fd 



•H 


fd 


c 


W 


a 





:3 




•H 


T3 'd 


w 




c 


en 


^ 


fd 


•H 







£ 


fH 


(D 




m 


o m 




c 





g 


fd 




fd 


S 


TJ 


M 


H 


a 


tr* 


0) 


O M-l 




M 


s^ 


4J 


CI. 0) 


fd 




Cu 




Ul 




TJ 


M 


c 


0) 





o 


M 


4J 


•H 


•H 


■H 


tn 


d 


C 


0} 


cr 





•H 


0) 


2 


6 


M 



fd 



I 
o 

fd s 

u 2 

Q> S 

c ^ 
fd 

6 en 

O O 

M-l -H 

U -P 

0) fd 

04 rH 



(D 
O 

c 
fd 



o 

M-l 
U 
0) 

•H 
><! 

fd 

-P 

en 

0} 

fd 

rH 

o 

fd 



u 

o 

a. 

d 
en 



o 
u 

> 

o 



o 

fd 

cn 

a; 

(d 

rH 

o 

rH 

fd 
u 



M 

o 
u 



0) 

u 

c 
fd 



o 

M-l 
U 
Q) 



o 

cn 
<u 
P 
fd 

rH 

o 

rH 

fd 
O 



O 

d 
fd 



o 

0) 

cu 

0) 

tn 

•H 

M 
O 

cn 

Q) 
4J 
fd 
rH 

d 
o 

rH 

fd 
o 



0) 

o 
fd 

e 

M 
O 
MH 
M 

<U 

cu 

4J 
c: 

o 

cn 

<u 

cn 

fd 

H 

d 
o 

fd 
U 



M 
cn 
O 
U 



cn 



o 
cn 



0) <u 
fd fd 



o 

fd 





MH 
5^ 

0) 

a 

Sh 

0) 

-p 

•H 

o 



cn 

-P 

fd 

d 
o 

H 

fd 
O 



M 


Sh 


tp 


a^ 


o 


o 


u 


v^ 


04 


a 


X 


•§ 


cn 


cn 


<u 


0) 


o 


o 


d 


c: 


«? 


fd 



MH 

fd 

JH 
CJ 
U 
•H 

fd 
o 



d 

MH 



-P 
O 

fd 
u 

d 
cn 

u 
o 

cn 



iTk 
O 
M 

04 

X5 

d 
cn 

CD 
O 

fd 




-p 

MH 

fd 
Sh 

CJ 

Sh 
•H 
fd 

o 
-P 

fd 
o 

>1 

fd 

04 

cn 

+J 
a 
fd 
u 

^ 
d 
cn 

Sh 



cn 

T3 
< 



U 

o 

04 



cn 

0) 

o 

fd 



o 

MH 

u 



0) 

d 

Hp 

•H 

rH 

fd 
cn 

0) 

cn 

fd 
x; 
o 



6 

fd 
s-i 

8^ 

U 

a 

XI 

d 
cn 

Q) 
O 

d 
fd 



o 

M-l 

0) 

04 





Q) 




Ti 




d 


TJ 


-P 


fd 


■H 





+3 


t~{ 


H 


>i 


<; 


fd 




04 


Sh 




0) ^ 


CU h^ 


M-l Eh 


tP04 


cn tJ 


c: o 


fd p2 


fd ffi 


x: u 


M &H 


CJ ^ 


B^ 




3-19 



4X) DETAILED PROGRAM DESCRIPTION 

4.1 MAIN CONTROL LOOP 

Figure 4-1 is a flow chart of the main control loop for the 
computer program. In the sizing option (OPTIND = 1) , the 
program iterates on the aircraft gross weight until the fuel 
available and the fuel required are equivalent within a speci- 
fied tolerance. If OPTIND =2 or 3, the program bypasses the 
size trends, engine sizing, and weight trends subroutines. If 
OPTIND = 3, the program iterates to determine the takeoff 
weight and fuel required to fly a specified mission. 

4.1.1 Input Card Setup 

The first five columns of an input card contains information 
used by the input routine LOADER. A card with 77777 punched 
in the first five colvimns indicates a title card follows. The 
following card is an alpha-numeric title card with information 
in columns seven through seventy-eight as shown on the input 
sheets in the User's Manual. All input data are assigned a 
unique location in the input data file. This is indicated by 
the location number of each variable on the input sheets in the 
User's Manual. Up to five variables may be input on a card. 
Columns 1 through 4 contain the location number of the fipt 
variable on the card and column five the number of variables 
on the card. A card with 88888 punched in the first five 
columns indicates the end of data for that case and starts 
program execution. A card with 99999 in the first five columns 
indicates the end of the run and causes program termination. 
Cases can be stacked in the following manner. 



77777 


Card 




Title Card 




Data Cards 


88888 


Card 


77777 


Card 




Title Card 




New Data Cards 


88888 


Card 


99999 


Card 



4-1 



^:"i — , 

^.^wvs*i tfS 21BB1 J ^ 2654,2613 
, I ^ , 

i^>.v>/w>/v [ 21667'ot^ 111 t *'L] 



& 



SHVlffil ^ U 
SKPOS X 1.8 
CHI ■= l.O 
CKFF * l.O 
EHPJ ^ 1.0 
T0L*.3l 
iJLHFNU J, 
MCI « 3. 
rtVC2 * 0.0 
ITflHU ' 1.0 
3^20 ^ l.fl 
(rAM2 -s 1 . 
ffflti26 '1.0 
7FEF ^ 1.0 




<^ 



C C «^i* PT] Tn'n P gJHI IR £UHniM,i'i£ ftHD 1h£H CALL lOMOEH ^"l 



TKEi * l.OOOE 30 
Kil * 8 

PtrtFJ * l.OOOt 30 
n ^ l.OOOE 30 
niPfl * l.000£ 30 
RrtPVRC •= I.IIDOE 30 
•^H ^ l.OOOE 33 
1AUXn ' l.flOOE 30 
m*C •* i.30Dt 30 
**EALJ = l.aOOE 30 
CCP ^ 1.333E 30 
Cn ^ 1.3Q0E 30 
Piri r i.OOOE 30 
i*uM ^ SAVE 1231 
wliJC * SAVE (30) 
IGOO^ ^ 

ijjx ^ 

(K»11«0 ^ 8P1WAS 
NtXl * 
IS1 ^ 
0P1flP1 ' 3.0 
IhflPlh ^ 3 
iAVE(2k)'K 
(ilBR * .3nM53<i9 

P! - 3.1M15326 

w'iiflrivi -- 0.0 
1 :iV1 ^ 3.0 

151fi -- 
1 LflLu tRRSEI (231,256.0.01 

CiRLL EPlRS£H203.25E.3.ai 
, CMLL EflfiStl 1213.256. 0.31 
! CALL EBHSE1 1253.255. 0,01 

CALu ERRSEl 1258.256. 0.01 
1 CALL LflADEn (flAlA.l) 
' SAVE .291 * »JuA 
[ iAVE 1301 * nSIii 




Figure 4-1. 



Main Control Loop 
(Part 1 of 13) . 



(MAIN) Flow Chart 



4-2 





4J 
U 

H 



04 

o 

H »H 
O 

U ^ 

+J O 

O <N 

fd PM 
S -- 



0) 
Cm 



4-3 





(^ 



D 




s^ 


es. ^-1 


o* 


1 


** ! 


r*| 


iO 


^ 


3U 


*— 1 


*^ i 


r-' 


5' 


5l 


SI "- 


u 











Ol 








'^ A 
m / • \ 


9 

H 


•I ; 

1 


V 


Main Control Loop 
(Part 3 of 13) . 




rH 
1 




1 








0) 

u 

-H 



4-4 



r^ 



I. HOI. IISCliHOlli .£3.i3.l .-H 
^4I. tlSCIiHOMMI.EO.J.KUfi 
. tSiiliHOlin I .C^.S.JD) 
C3 13 m» 







1J9 M8L4B LflF^^'=l,J^H^ ] 






Mftfl - K>4P»fl " I : I 




. :j 



U 



(l3tSlN0tK^R^I .tJ/<;.l .flu > 
(Td 10 48 




,^' 48 if -.,^ 

Jin 10 uesz -" 

,. .':._Li:^ 



484*J IF 




f KftRfl ^ mm >~n 



If ^ 

,-" ilOtSJHaiKflBAl .EQ.2.1 .Oh 

G'ff 10 U85V 



J5bliN li-n 

i;o 10 U9S2 






_! 



i ua Id ini ; 



-0 



I 







^^■v-Uiav^ lOniihui) 





Figure 4-1 • 



Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 4 of 13) . 



4-5 





ftlMlHOli) 
fllMiHDlI'-l 
fliMlHD II f? 
RiMiHOllO 
RImIHB llf^ 

fllriiHDiI'-S 
liHIil ^ 1 
UHliMOl 
liHIii-Sfll 
liNliOfll 

^iN^J^^o) 

irtLrtlil ^ 



01 ^ 

01 ^ 

01 ^ 

01 ^ 



fllnim ui 

01 - fllllH^il 
ftllljH4U 

IHl Ul 

* iihsm 

* IfNSli) 
OiLH3U) 

^ OELHSin 




—firs 55 f-M6 

— 1 — ^ 

JM3D1 Ul ^ BBfll])^CL£Y£^IBBUil ^ CLfYC*882(jn I 



i-VSiTk/VN/W/Wvo,- 





— r — ^ 




Figure 4-1. 



Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 5 of 13) . 



4-6 




»6 WeVflS * U.a*WCOO/ PJ*0hR«*2*Ef*Rl 

^fl 10 n 




ri> 



H •> ri30 

ft •> ROO 

SI ■• SI 00 

nOVUU - Q^Q 

if ^ 0. 

NCX3C -• CiCSCN •• 0. 001 

HflnUiil ^ ^nURlH ^ O.OOl 

Ncn * ft«cn » 3.001 

flPlWAS^OPUHil 

hflh * IhH t-.OOOl 
^nCL - 1CLH f.OOOl 
IWD ^ ;4D1InII •■.0031 
IM * flHUHO •-.OOfll 

iHi ^ ^H^rNO ".oooi 

Ihl ^ f\HllHli ".0001 

ts -* aiHO •^.oaoi 

fRH ^ ■IHtJJHD f.OOOl 

uns Nooai 

^.OOOl 
.0301 
OOQl 



mi 

lUi 

LNl 

N8I 

IMi 
hhll 
KHIJ 
I HI J 
lOi 

^2 J 



UNIS 

UNMl 
JHll 

UNI? 



,0001 
.0001 
.0001 

.0001 



vugiNi) •-.aooi 

VNUhD NOOdl 



VN'^fHO *^.QOOI 

e vJoihBi 1- g,ai 

t UMMf r 0,01 

f UrtlUl r O.Ol 
' flNlNOf " fl.Ol 
■ UHHU *- 0,01 
^ UH1U f O.Ol 
c AN^NDI f O.Ol 
ONOi ^ O.Ol 
^ flH?HiI ^ O.Ol 

r UHl?l *- O.Ol 

' JHH'21 * O.Ol 
^ 8.01 

. O.Ol 

umsf ^ O.Ol 
>=iHni * 0.01 
fli*n2 - O.Ol 

^htUS^CNfiUS^O.Ol 
^*nPS - EHm1Pi> ^ O.Ol 
NCXi) * CHCiCJ ^ O.Ol 
NflXPJ ^ ){PJH8 <■ 0.01 
NflCPP ' CPP«fl - 0.01 
HPRJHl ^ INIRPK f O.Ol 
I8P1H ^ MflPlIN ^ fl.Ol 
KGl - WG 



IRHl ' RH8H9I 
KhSJ ^ UhSI 
^nSJ 
NCI I 

w:i2 



61 



SU * 3AMI 

ahl * Unl 

rtVI -s 3^15 
tic ■= 3HriE 
XmL8 -s Oflri] 
OuO •= DAna 
TXIUP -■ 0(^n3 
0)(2LP ■= O^^MIO 
ftRV'i -5 OrtrtU 
LH2 * 5Ahl2 
flf'S ^ DflrtH 

3hR -- a^filS 

SJChR * 3rtfll6 

tlV.A! ^ OAMH 

TIR - O^RMie 

SJlilR * Oflrtia 

nCCiN - 0<^m23 

fHPP ' 3^M2? 

WPP J * fl^«2'J j 

IP - 8flM2H i 

5tL ■« DAM26 i 

OWEl -r D>lM2fl 

T. 1 - 




\ y HT^*-*- .^i'^^f^ff^_ll_J 




^ IHEXI.NC.O) 






Figure 4-1 ♦ 




Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 6 of 13) . 

4-7 







If 

>AUBii1 .It. 3.0) > 
^ Jj8 18 3001^' 



3QD8 L Ci e ■» Q I 



300U 5fl1R M X1fl*O1tHii0.S 

HIRI - SK1R/B1R • (SR1(^*'-0.'2S «5IJB1 10, Ol^lRfSiri) * Ifl. fli^VllPij * 1 

RJPIR - IWlRB/'32,n)«l0.5*8nm*«0,6€66 : 



© 




CALL fllHOSlHESa.a.llNY) 
IHIIIBL ^l 
T8VM -rlVUB 

P * V1*«S1R 

V ^ 0.0 

iLrnND ^1,0 

CALL B81P8W 

1LR1H8 ^ O.fl 

PIR -i VllR ^1 fl?SlB 

llMR ^ 215.0 ■« RmPMR «OflR/P 

X18 ^ O.S* IDmR-DIR) ♦•G 

10 ^ OHfi K C1GC1N AlB 



[sfloTTni ^ w/'j^.'S* to,u5*5K^77*iELrrn'LC*'tLPn«*'t | 

I t 32 .2«ti JPlR-Y.RUQS^*8 lR/DlB--?)/ 13. Q*CnLS7«Rri8*PNg7R^i^2*PlRt J 




«BS IISIC1Rl-SIb1R)/'3IG 

m .CI. 0,01) 

^^•^ C8 T8 '3003 



3002 SICIRl * 3IG1R 

CALL EHCS7 
C8 10 3004 



T. 



I 



Figure 4-1. 



Main Control Loop 
(Part 7 of 13) • 



(MAIN) Flow Chart 



4-8 



©■ 




,1 uO 13 <i 



A, 



- EEEC U ^ .^ 
;,fl 10 55 ' 



iir'iL lE'.^Ht yu\;ur«,u^ft_j> 



If "" - 



A_ 



^0 18 J. 

. _t_ 



^dJ ^ ^KU « 41B 

^d^ * iK6 « ^d « li. J - iiKiaai 

4d^ - iK6 « F4d • a^^^d8 

^dfi ^ irtib* At? ^ upti •■ -^PCS ♦ r^ri 

-Id. J- J^t]« t4ltlJ3 

^u\<:^ .if KiN * AlC 
•idib- iK«? « 'A$^ 

4d^^-? ^ iWfl - MMV ^ ^rJI^H " WflPUl I 
4dit3-= UrjL" • SKfLS 



-0 



:-© 






Wdlj- J.J 

4dm^ O.J 

4iii5^ J.o 

4au^ J. J 

4di")^ 1. J 

J? to -iji 



© 



1. 



9*: I Jf ^-^..^^ 

WJPIHJ .Ht:. ^0),> ]^ 



.J' 



ttlPIND .Efl. 2.0.^-* 







Figure 4-1. Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 8 of 13) . 



Reproduced from 
best available copy. 



4-9 




UX^. ^ SKH • WflOS 

MiJiS ^ SHIS • Um * SKU - URW 

MBn -» SHS • A%ZR 

Ce 10 323 



922 U815 ^ 0.0 

4116 ^ a. 3 

din * 3.3 



z 



923 MUn - 5K6*MW t SH3*WFt4 <■ 411 



o 



IF 
-^. AUXlrtll .to 







rH82 '^ 5K3 « Wrt1~l 



KflPU -« )(flPU8 "■ ELB 
! KCCfUS-rltCCLB * £LB 
t KriC « XHCLB « ELS 

KMC - )tMCL8 * ELS 

KPE - KPELB * ELB 

KPOS ■« t9nt * IOhR«3.S r 318*0.5 r C) 

XAV ^ XAVLB < ELB 

XfUBli' XFRHB « ELB 

KSC -■ XSlLB < ELB 

aiBP- EL78/3.a «i a.a^2.3*D18mB)/U.O ^ D1601B)) 




_xz 



1 32U XflR ^ XflRLB ^ EtiB 



f^UXlND .CT. 2. 0)> 



r 



I 92 "? XflE * XflELB ^ EL B 




-<.WiPJNg .£(]. 2.01 
- Cfl 10 521 ^ 




:i 



«flt * 0. 
XABSx 0.0 

nsc^ 0.0 



ClEHCJHO .lJ.1,01> 
^^--^ 10 925 ^ 



XflE - 0.0 

0^.R05 ^ XflR "ELB - XPE 
M05 ^ Xfl05X * 3XflOS 
KflSC ^ Xfl5C8 « ELB 
(78 10 S2S 



©-^ 



[nO^DS - X^R "-ELB - XflE 
mn « XASCd * OXrtflS 
XftSC ^ XflSCB « ELB 



i*-5 10 325 



I 



Figure 4-1. Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 9 of 13) . 



4-10 



923 XAOS '0.0 

XA5C ^ XA6CB«afl 



<E) 



l^'^S Wa2fl ^ OCCR «lWBl''UB^♦'MB3•'UB3'•UBlO'■MB^'W8W^lTS^Ulil6) 

Hfl^l ^ lUBl ^ W8l0)*<0,S*0rift ♦ fl.S*01B ^-Cl ♦ W65*£L8 ^MBS^tLlH ^ 

I 148^ * warn* xccfus ^ ^ . ^^ ^^„^ 

1*822 - MBS^tLlBP *• Wfl6-XHC '■W8^•XMC - »88-XP£ ^ HB3*XPDS 
\i2k^* OME - IMBI ♦- W82 *■ WBl * HB3 •• WBlO •- W811 •■ HB^ »• WBIS 




o 



X8ARCC-1 WBlU«iXfl£"OCGal * WBIS« lXflE-XflgS;0LCfl1 
^ HBl6*i£LB'-XW-BCCm * HB^O ^ HB^l ^ Wfl22 * Hfl2J I ^ 
f WBIU " MBIS * MB16 ^ HB2U] 



1 . 

|_j(8gRCC * iH B20 ^ M821 * M822 ^ HB23WUB2U | 



KM ' XB^CC •• OCGR 
KHLBl -= XH /£LB 



<W8SllXllL8 - XrtLBCI/XrtLBC) .Lt. O.Olt 
:^ V G8 16 -3 




©- 



<CnsiM,Gi»20) 

1 Cfl 1 2 I 



-^ 



3 h ^ tiOfl 
SI - S100 
fl - BOO 

)51« -» 



© 




[ BPUNQ^g 1.0 i 



Figure 4-1. Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 10 of 13) . 

4-11 ■ 




««'u l5PliH0.£Q.2.»PBim JH EACH MJSSJflN SUBlflUliHJE 

sflvtr«!5) ' snjHO cnriiHc gun of pprnn alhays - q. op too. 




cfl 18 nil 



kDX 



If ^ s 

f(IPlJH3,C0.2,0,«rtO.(riOP1.tO.O.OL> — ?- 
C8 19 SDB 



V- 



ZL 



3;j Jijx * Jiix *- I 



C SflV£l?U» ^ Hfl> flF IIHES EH1CRIHC PRfftH UPHIH 8NE nUN ,"^ 

© 



506 SAV£*2U) - WEI?m ►l.O 
CO 10 -3 



^/ IF - 

< IWFR.CI.O.l 
^ fb 10 M83^' 




L '- J ^"f iflBS ll.-Uffl/MFRl .LE.1I 

<^ HRJI EIS^SQU > ^\^ CO 10 S 



[To 10 55 1 




[1.UM ^ UFA - ^jFR I 



© 




0P18PT ^ 0.0 
0P1JHQ ^ 2,0 
CO 10 1 



<D 



Figure 4-1. Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 11 of 13) . 



4-12 



© 



3 i 



^^ «, 











, — . 


^ 1 




1 


ji 






X 




o = 


3, 




*-3; 






~t 


( ! 




V ' 






ta : 






3 = 


ij 




V 


3, 




frt. 


c» 




tr 


1 




>! 


1 ' 




¥^ 


iJJ' 








3 




■t 1 


<l| 




«: 






'-S 


aj 




3^ 


**-i 






3 






« : 














i J 


— 




■ 









r 



"n 



r 



'I 'I ! i 

r— r- 



to' 






CC — 

ii A 



« • 

winter 
■r-- 

5c- f- 



i 













t A 

3 "^ ' - 



o I) r« 

3 



^ i 






v 




-«,1 


1 


to 




■5 


] 


^' — ! 




UJD 




z'j ; 




I. _j ^ 







Figure 4-1 . 



Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 12 of 13) . 

4-13 




d} 



& 



zm , 



If 



unK.cc.2si,'- 



X 






If 









iHCXI.He.O) 



<I) 






IF 



CO 10 2MJ 



[Im call p'Ri Nil iimi^j 



.-^ -- 



If 



<f0PlU^3.CQ.2.G.0R.0PTUa5.Ci2.'J.Jir>- 
CO IB 5555 /- '^ 



& 



|_£q 10 ssssj 



5555 ir , 
tHCXl.LQ.3) >^ 

~ Qn in 4 
[off io_nTiJ 




Figure 4-1. Main Control Loop (MAIN) Flow Chart 
(Part 13 of 13) . 



4-14 



4.2 ATMOSPHERE SUBROUTINE 



The atmospher 
density^ pres 
Three options 
fied by means 
individually 
data . Thus , 
each segment 



e subroutine will calculate the atmospheric 
sure, and temperature as a function of altitude, 
included below aire available. These are speci- 
of an input indicator, ATMIND, which is input 
for the performance data and the engine sizing 
the atmosphere can be calculated differently for 
of the flight profile and for the engine sizing. 



The options are: 

ATMIND • 0: Standard atmosphere 

ATMIND = 1: Constant increment in temperature above standard 
temperature 

ATMIND = 2: Nonstandard temperature distribution as a function 
of altitude 

The flow chart for the atmosphere subroutine is shown in 
Figure 4-2. 




4-15 




\ timwnm nmti tw^imiminiT^ 



a ihd* * ia.nnnimrtHC.w.inH>iin 



w . 

Utile <i.«ttr> 







Figure 4-2. Atmosphere Subroutine, Flow Chart. 



4-16 



4.3 DRAG CALCULATIONS SUBROUTINE 

The drag calculations subroutine uses the factors as through 
ag, as determined by the aerodynamics calculations subroutine 
to calculate the total drag of the helicopter. Besides para- 
site drag, in the case of compound or winged helicopters, 
total drag includes wing induced drag and rotor/wing inter- 
ference drag, the latter being calculated using a simplified 
Prandtl Bi-Plane Theory approach- The total helicopter pro- 
pulsive thrust coefficient (Cx) is calculated as a function of 
forward flight helicopter advance ratio (y) . The subroutine 
flow chart is shown in Figure 4-3. 



^^m^ 



4-17 



'* SUBHOinJHfc DRAU ICLWW) ~1 

— — jr.- ^-^ 

[_ r[1F * D .Q _ ^ I 

-' IF 



I I 



!jFEJ/ ■■ Sfl.4«CLFIN"'^«i)Vl 



k 



^^4^0 10 "Jit-" 



X 



<J^UXiHD.i;0.3.01. " 

fr . 

>"' < ^Bn£ 16 . 1002) / 

RN * I - Q«CLWW«SW/W 
i GO Ifl 111 



ill Fcw - o.n ! 
; Fti^ - a.OJ 

■~^" 






Figure 4-3. Drag Calculations (DRAG) Subroutine Flow 
Chart (Part 1 of 1) . 



4-18 



4.4 ENGINE LIBRARY AND ENGINE CYCLE SUBROUTINES 

The basic cycle performance data consists of tabulated values 
of four variables: thrust (power), fuel flow, gas generator 
shaft rpm, and power turbine shaft rpm. For the primary 
engine cycles, these tables are functions of Mach number and 
turbine inlet temperature. For lift engine cycles, the tables 
are functions only of turbine inlet tempera tiire . All data are 
in referred, normalized format as shown in Table 4-1. 



TABLE 4-1 
ENGINE CYCLE DATA FORMAT 



VARIABLE 



Thrust 

Power 

Gas Generator rpm 
Power Turbine rpm 
Fuel Flow 



Turbine Inlet 
Temperature 



Where : 



SYMBOL 



'^N 

SHP 

Nt 



N 



II 



W. 



REFERRED, NORMALIZED FORM 



F /6F* 
N' N 

SHP/6 /eSHP* 

Nj//0N* 

W^/6/0SHP* 
T/0 



Max. Power Setting, Static, Sea 
Level, Standard Day 

Ambient Temperature (**R) Divided 
by 518.69**R 

Ambient Pressure (psia) Divided 
by 14.696 psia 



The standard engine cycle library consists of forty-five dif- 
ferent generalized engine cycles shown in Table 4-2. The data 
for each cycle is punched in card form, accessible for input 
with the remainder of the input data for a given case. Each 
cycle is numbered; and, to guard against selection of an in- 
correct cycle, the cycle number is checked against a similar 
number input to the program by the user. 



4-19 







TABLE 4-2 










HESCOMP ENGINE LIBRARY 










Maximum 










Turbine 


Compressor 








Engine Inlet 


Design 


Fan 






Cycle Tempera- 


Pressure 


Bypass 






Number ture - °R 


Ratio 


Ratio 


, 


r T 




1 2600 


13 






c 




2 2600 


16 






w 




3 2900 


13 






M m c 


Turboshaft 


4 29 00 


16 




c 
o 


e ^ tr 

MOW 


Engines 


5 2900 

6 3200 


19 

13 




0) 
r-t 


04 




7 3200 


16 




:3 

04 


M 


1 




8 3200 

9 3200 


19 
22 






10 2600 


13 










11 2600 


16 










12 2900 


13 




0) 


0] 
0) 




13 2900 


16 








Turbojet Engines 14 29 00 


19 




Cl4 


tn 




15 3200 


13 




0) 






16 3200 


16 




c 






17 3200 


19 




H 






18 3200 


22 






19,20,21 2600 


16 


2,4,6 


05 






22,23,24 2600 


20 


2,4,6 








25,26,27 2900 


16 


2,4,6 








28,29,30 2900 


20 


2,4,6 


:3 
< 




Turbo fan 


31,32,33 2900 


24 


2,4,6 




Engines 


34,35,36 3200 


16 


2,4,6 








37,38,39 3200 


20 


2,4,6 








40,41,42 3200 


24 


2,4,6 




r 




43,44,45 3200 


28 


2,4,6 















4-20 



The fuel flow of the basic engine cycle should correspond to 
the manufacturer's specification data. Adjustments to the 
fuel flow level may be made by means of the input multiplier, 

FF * 

Because of the normalized, referred format, all data are valid 
for any ambient temperature, standard or nonstandard. With 
the exception of referred power, none of the tables are depen- 
dent upon power turbine speed. By setting N2IND = 2, turbo- 
shaft engine power at nonoptimum Nji will be calculated by the 
program by multiplying power at optimum Nn by a correction 
factor, KpN/ which is a function of Nn/Nn oPT- The factor 
KpN is normally calculated by the program and obeys a second- 
order relationship: 



N 



1.0 • 



'N 




(1 - (1 - 



II 



N 



II opt 



■)'i 



100% 200% 
Nll/^II opt 



Most, but not all, turboshaft engines will obey this relation- 
ship. For engine cycles whose performance is not properly 
represented by the above curve, the user may input a table of 
KpM versus Nn/Nn oPT- "^^^ program user inputs Nn/Nn MAX 
for each flight segment and Nn max/Nii for the engine cycle. 
The program uses this information to establish the value of 
Njj/Nii OPT f°r each point of flight. 

By setting N2IND = or 1, the program will assume that the 
power turbine is always operating at optimum speed and no cor- 
rection will be applied. N2IND = will simulate an engine 
cycle which is operating at optimum Nji and for which no upper 
limit has been placed on Nji- For many applications, this 
option will be perfectly adequate for preliminary sizing 
studies. The adequacy of this assumption can be determined by 
consideration of the following factors: 



4-21 



1. It may be desirable; e.g. as in the case of a slowed-rotor 
compound helicopter, to reduce the main rotor rpm in 
cruise flight. 

2. For some applications this may, in turn, force the engine 
to operate at a very inefficient Nu. In general, the 
optimum Nn increases as output power increases relative 
to the maximum level. 

N2IND = 1 will simulate operation of an engine cycle at 
optimum Nji, but with the restriction of a maximum value for 
Nil- This type of operation is characteristic of airplanes 
employing fixed pitch propellers. Care should be taken in 
using this option because it may lead to a significant reduc- 
tion in power available as shown by the sketch below: 



Point of operation 
for aircraft flying at 
optimum Nn, limited 
^y Nil MAX- (N2IND == 1) 

Point of operation for 
aircraft flying at non- 
optimum Nil, limited by 
same Nji max- {N2IND 











LOCUS OF 


HORSEPOWER 




OPTIMUM Njj 






,k 




iC. 






4 




7/^ 






5 


/ / 
/ / 
/J 


^ ^V^XIMUM 

PERMISSIBLE 






^ 


/ i 


TURBINE TEMP 
TURBINE TEMP 


2) 




/ 


/ 

/ 


WHICH IS LESS THAN 
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE 

MAXIMUM Njj 



'II 



Limitations on engine cycle operation may be input to the 
program on any combination of the following: fuel flow, 
torque, gas generator speed, gas generator referred rpm, or 
output shaft speed. Engine ratings (power settings) are dic- 
tated by turbine temperature. Five discrete values of that 
parameter are input for the primary engine cycles, one for 
each of the following power settings: maximum, military, 
normal, flight idle, and ground idle. 

The program will print out, during the mission, the value of 
turbine temperature and a code that designates which condition 
is governing the engine performance at that point: power or 
thrust required, turbine temperature, torque limit, Nj limit, 
referred Nj limit, Nn limit, or fuel flow limit. 



4-22 



Manufacturer's data on some engines show significant varia- 
tions in both referred power (shp/6/e) and lapse rate with 
respect to changes in altitude. These variations are due to 
Reynolds' number effects. It has been found that these 
effects can be accounted for by means of a multiplicative 
factor on power available which is a function of the Reynolds 
number based on compressor inlet conditions, compressor blade 
geometry, and tip speed. Figure 4-4 shows a typical curve for 
a real engine. The correction factor Kpj^ is input to the pro- 
gram as a function of the Reynolds* parameter 






^1 



The tabular input of power, fuel flow, Nj, and Njj for engines 
which require Reynolds number corrections should be input to 
the program at a nominal fixed value of the Reynolds number 
parameter. The KpR correction factor will then give the power 
at other values of the Reynolds number parameter. In the ex- 
ample shown in Figure 4-4, the nominal value of the parameter 
was chosen as 9000 seconds/foot. 

The referred Nj limit is a constraint on the value of Nj/i/Fi 
where 8i is the temperature ratio at the compressor face. 
This limit simulates a restriction on compressor speed. The 
user inputs a maximum value of Nj/Nj/SY 

The engine dry weight and dimensions are calculated by means 
of the input parameters k3, ^3 , k4, k4 , ^4 and ^4^: 



weight (lb) = ko ^§^ + k4 



Primary 
engines 



diameter (ft) 



?4 



fSHP*! 
LNp J 



1/2 



I Np = number of primary engines 



Engines 



Fn* 



SHP*i 



weight (lb) = k3^ ^ + k4^ or k3^ -^ 



+ k>i 



Auxiliary J [1^*11/2 feHP*! I 

Independent ^ diameter (ft) = ^4^ m^\ ^^ ^^j Np, 



Np. = number of independent auxiliary engines 
4-23 



TURBOSHAFT ENGINE A 



1.10 




0.80 



Nl 

Ni* Vi 



(THOUSANDS OF SEC FT ■^) 



Figure 4-4 . Typical Reynolds Number Correction Factor 
for a Turboshaft Engine Cycle. 



4-24 



It should be noted that auxiliary independent engine input 
data can be created from the engine cycle library data simply 
by the input of the applicable engine cycle IBM card deck, 
preceded and followed by a "66666" card. Nonstandard auxil- 
iary independent engine performance is input using the sheet 
provided for that purpose. 

Figures 4-5 through 4-12 are flow charts of the engine cycle 
subroutines. The purpose of these subroutines is described 
in Table 3-1 in Section 3-0 of this document. 




4-25 




Figure 4-5. POWAVL Subroutine, Flow Chart (Part 1 of 3) . 



4-26 




t *»Er * xL»aruw.n».»t2.»w>iiia,in2.<iMi>t,ijmTi | 



«.«. 


bP » 


V 


< wiuii.inii > 


L 


1 


J.K. 


;> . 


^ 


< wniii.uni > 


L 


1 



ig tgyt^ * wnw • fomTj 



[ tig n * »»w^ gai<i ■ n>tfi<i / miw 1 



,<\^wwvH<vm^ M^ ^v^«^^^ ^^ A^^^^ 



■» < M H m 1*1. (Hi 

, * ., 




.LT.lSr^fm^ 


' i 


V 


1 ui-ii«r(n 1 


-i^ 


N^ 


C1.T«PlirTJJ> 


> A 




ITJUTKlPlinfl 1 




1 



[01.1 Enci nii,»fl 



ff 



fJW -It 



12 ^wrr * T<LKjpu>i.iM.%«.i»Q.io2.in2.wiwg.rtjt(.m 




«ncif,iHtP> 



iWlU 11,18171 > 






— k 



113 awwrin « »»n « laiw • sthh^ / «n^ 




Figure 4-5. POWAVL Subroutine, Flow Chart (Part 2 of 3) . 



4-27 




mnc<i,ttMi > 



O 



[UHCf » »LKUPrtW,7CJI,^»H.lwa.TMa.in2,J<lMl.l.i,mTt 



M. 


XL^ \ 


r^ 


' < *mncii,i0«i > 


L 


I 


^ 


N* 


H, 


}(L> fr 


Y 


< Mnni.}99ii > 


L 


i 



3 



us cnu rtici ncA.M 



I tS C^ Ti 201 



(2t) 




n «3ACr • lL'tUFtM.UA.%t2.l<Hi.lPi2,f»12,AlW0.(.|.?X.in 



MWfTni.lgggl ? 



C tWIUlt. tg871 ^ 




niin ' 42tMx 










2^ C%L CNCinW.%*l 



C >wnni.iooti > 




I 



«S*(I - B.O 









Figure 4-5. POWAVL Subroutine, Flow Chart (Part 3 of 3) 



4-28 



^ i 

Iti) • iJiJ»wn.iiW>»iiMr.ii.i>».fii.ii»<v.i,iji.iii I 



H. 


^ 


k 






Y^ 


mntii. 


tint 


> 




1 








>c 






K. 


¥ 




Y 


m\u\%, 


itnt 


> 


L 


1 








Hi nawif « iLHUPim.ijj.inQ,»a.HQ.ra.<im.t.i.jijt! 



m.tt^ ^ 


-r^ <, wjiEii. 


19911 > 


1 








pt,fl> » 




s> C ■Bin It, 


11911 > 


L t 



» 19 41 



{ » itafi^ « JW»aMX«<iyiiri 



[ ;i wiMPB » iiwtJp>».iJi.<wwi.»»i,it<9.>nx.M9rTi.i.i»JTi 



fIC. 


it^ — ^ 




' <: «nttM991J > 




1 


l^ 


^^ 


Me, 




Y' 


< «nriM99M» > 


L 


1 




fli> i 


N< 


^ \99m»9,9\ 


L 


1 






Figure 4-6. POWREQ Subroutine, Flow Chart. 



Reproduced from 
best available copy. 




4-29 



VsUBfl'flUIJhE Pf^VJnPS.flMl 7 






IF 
<^ fiWOil 



[| MRCr ^ XL KUPl0.0.1^flXI . W0I.HMHi.1WDi.Ml^JJ.W D0ll.B.e.IX,JYl ] 







MSHP •- UMflXJ«UR£F/{0eLl<9«Slhn'^1 



:,;i 



< C HR'nEiEaooiO 




< tJffllE IB. 10021 ^ 



lEMD - XJBJVI<^ H,MSHP.^Ht^DJ .h Hi^J.1^0KH7^4J.^<0C"[i.C. 6.IX.iil j 
<QX.HE.^X>Z \ , 




MflnEtB. lOO^jQ 



<nW - 1EW0K>- 

MJ li = 1 1 




Figure 4-7. POWAVI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 1 of 7). 



4-30 




Figure 4-7. POWAVI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 2 of 7) 



4-31 




^-7 IF-^, 
fIN3il 




RllEMP - XLKLtPlflM.IEfl.AHtl.NMlMHtl^HIU.flONEi.B.e.lX.ni) 



). 8, IX. nil 




M RJ1E 16.1010 ) > 



\^G5 iO 15 ^^ 



^-q^.riE.O]. 



<3«Ril'E!B,lD041 > 



IF 



7. HE. 01--^- -X- 

' ORn£l6.l505) > 
J 



HEfl.LE.lEHU 
^ iS IS IS 








Figure 4-7, POWAVI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 3 of 7) . 



4-32 




75 C^L EHCli nEfl.ftHl"! 




•0 



n 






JX.IfE.Ol 



< r"tfRn£ 18,10061 "> 

J 




[itO fl'<! ' 5HP^J«0Enft«S1rtElfl /fl 2STRl | 
X 







Figure 4-7. POWAVI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 4 of 7) 




4-33 




r 



v^■^AA/'^A/'■ V 



— i 

ITlJ - TN2llin 

x 



]F 



^<J]J.L1.1SHPJ llO 



f lli * "TSHPJ [TTl 



^A 



IF 



[CflLL ^HClin'jKftHr 



IF 

fJH2J - U 

2.12,1 



[72" fl2Bb ^"xiKUPlAH.Tl]./^H2J,HH 2MH2J . H12Kft1^0J.6.B,JXJT1 

^: 




^<m.C1.1SHPJ II1TSJJ>^" I 

^-^ ^^^^^^ Vui "-""'iSHPJ ifiTsTl 1 







ft2S*IHJ ^ /12flEF«SlHElfl 
C B TO in 

I 



1 , 

I 13 fl2S 1 Ri * flN2HXJ*fl2i1ftXi| 




ni3 gflflflV'lfl ■»' 3HPflN0Enfl*sfHnft/fl231R"j 

(m cshiihue) 



TEA -- P'flRfl IQHfiXi . aflRftT,l N2J . h" !2i . JX1 







Figure 4-7. POWAVI S\:ibroutine Flow Chart (Part 5 of 7) 



4-34 




M-l 
O 

VD 

U 



4J 
U 
as 

x: 

CJ 
H 

c; 

■H 

o 
u 

CO 



i 

2 



u 

d 

en 

-rH 

Cm 



4-35 




.- 20 JF 

^ aH2\ - I) >T — - • 



A 



- " 21 JF 

<fft2SlRJ - fl2Hftyjt 
\-^ 25,25,22 



22 fl2flEF^ ft2M«XI/51Hnfl 



x: 



H.JH * ^ 




< MRilC 16. 10081 



25 CALL EHCIJIIEA.AMI 

«SMPflJ - XLKUPIAM.lEfl.AhWOJ,«MWi.lWDJ.N1WJ.W0flIi,6.e.JXJ11) 



<; , HFtJ1[ 16.1001) 




L^e.jx.jj) 



< »nnE 16. 10021 > 



<ft(SNPflj.ii,o.gp^- —^ 



MSmPAJ - WSHPfiJ^CKFF 
TPEAJ - l£fl*lHE1fl 
M^LJMJ - NLiM 
FiCIUflH 



Figure 4-7. POWAVI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 7 of 7) 



4-36 






lij ^ tJBJVjflH^pn^.^rtSMPJ.j^HSJ^]^p£JlSJ,s^m 

Jf 



x.NE.o>>r:r~n 



<(jnhn€.ioou 



A 



:_J 



.-•'If \ 



<: Hnnt 16.10021 



JH2J - 



:rz-T' ■' 






1 jr 



L -;^rr[ 



,^^ij '" " £f3^ I P Jj* I . HIS J 



! CALL £HCU nj],«m J 

-iz.:.-a::::-._:-__-, 



[TIj ^ P^flfl I SHPR J . flRR^r . 1 SHPJ. HI j^J_ J V)_ 



^.HE.nvi: i , 



, ^0 IF ^^^ 
< flH^i - 11 >- 



[2\ AlP^if ryLKJjPifiH,! J J ./^HJJ , HM2 J JjQJ , t\12i . -TlWfl J J. . 8. IX .^ iy]_ J 




-y^ ^. ^RMl 16.100-]) > 



I ft^SlRJ - fl^R£f*SlHE1i9] 

i;0 10 21 
L 



iHCrn] 




h423 



-© 



Figure 4-8. POWRQI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 1 of 2) 



4-37 




22 




23 






111 WSHPRl ^ XLKUP (Am', Hi. AMWOl . dMWi , IWO J , NIWJ , W50l"i , B"fl,ii(,jy^ I 

_^_ 



'-^X.KE.OL 



D_ 






< URJ1 £16.iT5m ] 



IF 



^^^^ ■ " [WSHPRJ - Oj] 



WSHPRJ ^ WSrtPRJ^CnfF 
flnURrt 



Figure 4-8* POWRQI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 2 of 2) . 



4-38 



— T 




I 2 mif -= XLKi;Pin.Q,lH^XJ.^MU0j',f<MUJ,'TW0J,fni^J,;^gg1).fi.6JXjn "I 




unjin5.ioon> 



< kRJlEIC.lg021 > 



WTEmP ^ XLHUP |^M.l£^>^MUIDJ>f(HUJ.mDJ>H1WJ.^0glJ.6.fl.JX.jyi 



jr 



'X.H£. 


^ 




1 






^^ 


wnjit 


IS, 


\00\) 


J> 






1 






^ 


^ 








JV.Nt. 




k 




V 


HRJIE 16, 


1002) 


> 


L 




J 










T£Wg ^ XjgjVi/^H.hlSHP./RHWOJ.hHUIJ.I^^D.). hfNJ.WOOTJ.fi. 8 JX.fi) | 



-^r^-^ 




^.flt.OL>,, )t 


^^y^ < wnJif ifi,ioot) > 


I 1 




.4^ 


ii.r*t.OL> If 


^"v^ < gnj'iEi6.i{?(m > 


1 




£^-l£WDr> ! 





3 1€M - 1£W0 
M.JM - I 




J 



Figure 4-9. THRAVL Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 1 of 3) 



4-39 




m 

M-l 

O 

<M 

U 

04 



4J 
U 

u 

rH 

c 

■H 

o 



w 



w 

H 



<Ts 



0) 

n 

•H 

PL4 



4-40 







en 

^4 
o 

m 

-P 
U 

P4 



-P 
M 

c 

•H 
-P 

o 

-§ 

> 






CTi 



0) 
M 




4-41 



T 



I T£A ' XJgJVmM.5MPRJ./Rn5hP:.fttis'j.lSMPJ.rflSJ.SHPW,I.6.6, J'iC.J^) | 




1 



< WRJ1£ 16,10011 > 
_J 



< ■Jnjl£l6.l0021 > 



I MSuPRJ •« XLHU^ ;>^M.l£;^.;iMM0J.f<MlJJ.1U0J.H7l^J.U(00lJ.£.8. j)^. JYi 




1 




c^^nnsiL2£2L!/ 



< Mnji£is>ioDm > 



WSHPRJ ,^ 0,0 



WSHPriJ - wshprj^ckff 



Fig\ire 4-10- THRREQ Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 1 of 1) 



4-42 



\ aitmuTjw w\ nci.wH / 




n^Cr • UmjP WH<.1£A. AW2.>*^2. 71*2.^12. tJlt^g.i.i^Jil. JTl 



Ni. 


lU^- k 




C Mninis.iffffu > 




1 


ff-' 


>b 


IH,. 


Ji>> 4 


r" 


^ C »»«nti«,ia«i > 


L 


1 



TAfN « A28fl -12.9 - A2BfTt 




rrfJ^iTTTAMiAaiPl . A3*B. f «2 , RPlUin 







I tg TAfA » i.g ; 




MAi -t>m.l«OtWA •ni.ff»0.2-IAH— Zn—LIMI-SJCAA / nM£lA««ff. 2S) } 
ItACF ■ tLAUf WW.nA.AMl.»Al.llll.>*n.AffttC.l.t.ilt.iyt i 



iO SIFA » ILHUP<<»H.TCA.Aw5H^.(»<S,HMf.X1S,>*lFA».U,iI. in ^ ♦^ 



I 


Nt 
^ 


^ 


* 






^ 


iiAncti. 


insi 


> 




1 






^ 




>< 






T 


♦ 




"^N, 


HAHE 18. 


t0O«i 


> 




1 







SMPA • SHPA - fAfK • FAM 
BCTUWH 




neii.ijon "^ 



C MWlUi8.;flPMl > 



TAfA - PAAAIAHCl.fAH.AHC.KPA.DO 




tmnCll.lVHl > 



Figure 4-11. ENG 1 Subroutine, Flow Chart, 



4-43 



\^_SUBHOin I H£ EHGll (TE^.Aht / 



KPh * 10 









■® 



rR2SlPiJ-flH2^i<f*<^2H^XI ' | 

I B2ri£F ^ KLKUPiftM J£A,.qM2J.f!H2Mr<2f,H12i>fi1M0I.8.6.fX.i 0_] 






002) 



R25P1 - .¥*iS1RJ^]fl2REF*3THnfl( 
TAPd - fl2(5f^l * 12.0 - ^2flP1) 



Tc: 



IF 






, ■W/WW/ 



■v-i 70 6 J-=i.«Pri I 

r 

<.lPH2IiJJ .H£,0,Di, 



■0 



*L/N^,^A^-./vv.^|Q com I HUE J 

10 




Figure 4-12. ENG 1 I Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 1 of 2) 



4-44 




©- 



' IF" ^, 

''^x.HE.op'-i-^-r-L 

"^ " < HRHE 16. 1 0071 > 



id'wr « i.ol 



•".. fmni, £Q,oi .■^- 

-^^0" 10 20,.^ 

. _:^ -. 

RfiR3 -63i46.8«D£BflRi*iU.0*-0,<i*lflH-«21H<^l. ;m*S!CMfl / I HCm«*0/c:Gi i 
fllRtF • XLKUPlflM,lEfl.flMU.NMU,lNU.HIU,«flHEl.B.8.IXjri 

" — ————"T ^ 

^. fF , 

' i!x.Ke.oi';"_~\ J 

^^X^ C WRn£l€. 10031 > 



MRlTCISaOOMl / 



1- 



mix - '^RRa « fllREF 1 

FRP^ ^ PflR^IRHEl.PRHKHHn.KPB.JXl ! 

' O^nt IB, I 00B1 



:t£"^t::.._- 



rio" ' s"HPfl'r-='")(LKUP m, '] £fl'. qMSHP J . HM5 r .'iSHPj" . h 1 SI . SHP^Vl .' S . fi". !)<, IT) 



ir -. 

'''tI<.NE.Ol> ")__ _ 

">"" OrTTE 16.10051 > 

- i- ■"■■-^ 

^...._ ... jr - ^' 



;.r 



Figure 4-12. ENG 1 I Subroutine Flow dhart (Part 2 of 2) 



4-45 



4.5 ROTOR PERFORMANCE SUBROUTINE 

Three options are available to the user for calculating rotor 
performance. These are specified by the indicator ROTIND 
as follows: 

ROTIND 

1 Rotor performance calculated by the 
"short form aero" rotor performance 
methodology 

2 Rotor map is input, corrections are 
applied 

3 Rotor map is input, no corrections are 
applied 

The first option (ROTIND = 1) , using the short form aero 
methodology, allows the user to calculate rotor performance 
for a wide range of rotors with a minimum amount of input. 
The user is required to input a rotor cycle (a list of 
currently available cycles is illustrated in Table 2-4) and 
such blade characteristics as blade number, twist, and cut 
out. In the case of a single rotor helicopter, tail rotor 
blade characteristics must also be input. The short form 
aero methodology, developed at Boeing (References 2, 3, and 
4) , combines momentiam theory and empirical corrections through 
coefficients found in the rotor cycles. The data used in this 
approach has been derived and correlated for rotors operating 
within the following parametric ranges : 



Blade Number 

Blade Twist 

Blade Root Cutout 

Rotor Solidity 

Rotor Advance 
Ratio (y) 



2-6 

- -15^ 

0.20R 

0.055 - 0.150 

- 0.4 



No appreciable loss in accuracy is likely for cases involving 
more than six blades, less than 20 percent root cut out or a 
solidity lower than 0.055. The level of confidence will be 
reduced, however, for those cases in which the rotor param- 
eters greatly exceed the ranges shown above. Figure 4-13 
illustrates a typical comparison of short form aero predicted 
performance and flight test data. 



4-46 



ROTOR 
HP 



8000 
6000 
4000 
2000 




CH-47C 

POWER REQUIRED 




35% OVERLAP TANDEM ROTOR 
' I ' I I l_ 



GW = 50,000 LB 



GW = 30,000 LB 



245 RPM 
.L. STD. 



6000 



5000 



ROTOR 
HP 



4000 



3000 



2000 




= 42,000 LB 



220 RPM 
S.L. STD 



ROTOR 
HP 



700 
600 

500 
400 

300 



20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 
V -v; KT 

Figure 4-13. COMPARISON OF "SHORT FORM AERO" ROTOR 
PERFORMANCE AND FLIGHT TEST DATA 















I 


( 


3W = 


5000 LB 


\ 




30- 


•105 




\ 


5 


V^ » 714 FPS 




v 


POV 
REC 


7ER 
}UIRE 


D 


A 






3UUU 


r i 3 J . D r . 




\ 




-8-^ 


y 
















SFPM THEORY 

O FLIGHT TEST DATA 



























4-47 



The second option (ROTIND = 2) utilizes isolated rotor data 
derived for a specified rotor configuration, but corrected by 
the program for the specific rotor and helicopter configuration 
being analyzed. It should be noted that this option, in the 
case of the single rotor helicopter, utilizes the short form 
aero methodology for calculating tail rotor power. Thus, the 
same tail rotor blade information required in the first option 
must be input. 

Option three (ROTIND = 3) uses total configuration rotor data 
(i,e. in the case of a single rotor helicopter, this would 
include both main and tail rotor power) and applies no correc- 
tions to the data. Input locations 2700-3410 are provided for 
the input of these rotor maps* Values of Cp/a input as func- 
tions of up to ten values of Cr^/^ at up to six values of Mr^jp 
can be used for hover performance; and cruise Cp/a values can 
be input as functions of up to ten values of dji/a and ten 
values of C^/o at up to six values of y. 

For the calculation of vertical climb power, the subroutine 
uses the simple potential energy relationship: 

RHP^j^^ ^ W (^RC) 



33000 [-V^^jj^ -h VcEH2 (V^,^^ 



The vertical climb efficiency factors (V, 
derived from flight test data. 



CEH, 



and V 



CEH, 



) can be 



The quantity ALPHA D/L printed out in all forward flight 
performance segments reflects the propulsive thrust-lift 
vector of the main rotor. The simple sketch below illustrates 
the sign convention employed. 

RESULTANT TOTAL LjpT COEFFICIENT C' = ^^^H— 



ROTOR THRUST 



PROPULSIVE 

FORCE 

COEFFICIENT 

C„ = PROPULSIVE FORCE 
PAV^^ 




PAV„ 



TTD, 



A = 



MR 



N, 



The flow chart for this subroutine is illustrated by Figure 4-14 

4-48 



i _ 





CM 

> 






^^1 

tn 

xo: ' 

tn 




2 



-;i 



p 



/ 



«\ 









1 . 
> : 









^ f 



r^ 



'\0 






r-«*»H 



4 






A 



5] i 
v> ! 



A 



Is I V V 



ac 



4: 



ni£ 



1 -^ ■ ■ 



.c 



V 












r 



— OJ „ "^J^ -* 

J > - 



E^ j; 



*. o- 



r- ^ ^ vi 



3r>» I 

r—r- — '~ • 
A » r- '-n — I 

to H 4 'I 

»i r t J 
f J 



^ 



A, 



l-/ - 






I 






^'O 



I 3- 



' . cr 



-j-*--^ 



i„^j 




to 



ir 

5' 


i -0 








'Vi '^ 




-!i H 




^v^ ^ 




AZ^ 


r-\ 


\^^^ tH 


-'J 


I -n * o i +J 


V 


12*^2; M 


'* 


*?^'-?S ^ 




^^_^ fri 


.J 




T 
Z 


4J 


^ 


03 




^ 




^.^ o 


1_ 


— <Di 




Pm 




0) 


> 


C 




•H 


i 


-P 


t) T 


^ 


r c^ 


o 


^ — 


u 


Is 


i 


- 


m 


n 


IS 




o 




p^ 




E-t 




§ 



I 

<l) 

d 

•H 

tX4 




4-49 







1 



rRLF>Ub'* 0,0 



If 

f317) 







..^ 



ZL 






■mLo.ii.i.iix- 



k 









jTi ••^jlTipj 



X 



WRilt 16, 10211 } 



I *4l.S CKmOVB ^ XLIN1 iClMflP.CKHVa.n.lO.Mi I 




315 






y v^'^'J^ 



DKHVM * OKhVIh 









X- 



DKrtVlFj ^ XLKffPin.lH£lflr.u"ndLE/i0.lH'T8LE.5.0KHl9.10.5.JXJY) ] 
t^nVRM ^ DKhVIR ^ J 




Figure 4-14, ROTPOW Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 2 of 14) 



4-50 






/\ 







^ 



ei 








^ 


s; : 




rH 


tx 






— ' » 




M-1 


%7 



















^5 . 




CO 


t: w 






i-a^cc 


y^TTX 


4-» 




0) 


c«.v>oa. 


w 


5!^',:* 




i^VJi 






« *(- » 




-p 


•KtC — '-»r- 








M 




OJ 


i_j ii, ,'*■ «fa ^ 




i( p. . to 




^q 


•1 . n ^ 




o 


C Q 






Si, -12 




3; 


fcfcffSf? 











c; 

■P 

:=» 



M 

:d 
en 

IS 


r„- ■; 




o 






& 


1 c*» 




o 


1 ? 




(U 



1 ri.r 






1*1 



JO- 




Reproduced from 
best available copy. 



4-51 



1 

0) 

en 





in 




QC 



J, rsi 

UJ 

wo X 



I 

^ O 

' II 




M-1 
O 



U 
CM 



-P 
n 

a 
o 



o 

Eh 



I 

(U 

■H 



4-52 






a. 
r 









>\ 






y\ 




s 




F 




8 




C3 




•—' 




— ' 




1* — 


— 1 


^ 


M3 


—I 


iw 






UJ 




I— 






r- 














i 






i 




\y> 


A 


V ! 


A 


/s\ j 


^"V 


_J 


U-i; 


•V 


-J 



* rri^ 








^ 



a. -> 

T r - 

a- T — 

•^ ¥ — 

n^ ? 
(L ^'^ "^ 

r ii tt c^ 
^ '' _~ 



•(D 



O 

in 

04 



o 
o 

rH 

■H 
+) 
13 
O 
M 

o 

04 



I 

:3 

-H 

P4 



4-53 



S ?: 






<-> » 




ea o T 








4. Wo- 




V f 




tn ^C3 




a (J — 






^J X ¥ 






o oc 




r 


1 V 










f- 


=» ¥ 




f— 


OJ .— t 




t^ 


V --0- 




-«. 


Z Ti 




j_r 


tn ^ r 




f-> 


a- o*x 




• 


w f — 












« 3 - 










r 


*rt $ T 




ac 


V V V 




u 


& ^t^ 




. 




r~ 






r- 
^-1 










*. *, ML 




r- 






-c 


CM Owl 






¥ - ¥ 




.J 


Z -z^ 




X 


trp f 




H 






««: 


— ta^ 




5 


V7 —I . 




o 


^ Ul^ 




r 


Isij 




ac 




<_» 








cj If H . 




ca 


T 






IOC M 










ggo. 




tjLjCiG 




*o 




(O 












(3> 



5 





ir» — 


e=t 


WO 




O.^ » 




I-Q_ — 




i_» — 


fT 


u"! ri 


^io: 


' »^ ¥ 




5AI 


iy>ti 


V — 


«Bt^ 


S?=!^ 


1 «*> ¥ 


.,-• 


ai«_»tj\ 


a^u 


oes a,. 


-wO — ic 


<-> ii 1- u- ac ^ J 


M O 


w •! 





jU.U.UjUjO 




o 

-P 



-P 



0) 

a 

EH 



1 

U 

:3 
en 
•H 



4-54 




0HMV1R - xLKLiPin.iHnnr.ciiaLf.to.iHiflur.s.DKHia.io.sjvjY) 

flKMVRM - [MhVlfl 




< MfiJl£i6. 13361 > 



J 



CHMflV * CKgLH[i0)^i:KHOV;» ^ DKHVlH - GKhVlR - Ml •• 1 . 3 
CKHOVH -* CKhOV 



0- 





10 



ftLFFUS ^ 0.0 

tPSP ' -fliflNio.oti3/ WNU * a.0M3)* tsvj/ii.eee-viii ^ 

t WLffUS - CflH01*910R 




1 



CPSP - -^RiJW tll.3 - OLOI-SJftiCPSPn 



£PSP - CP5P-R100 

CMJHIO - KLJUl [£PSP1B.CHH1B.£P5P.15.HI 




V t^RHE IE. 1038) > 
. I 



JO 10 30 




Figure 4-14 • ROTPOW Subroutine Flow Chart (Part .7 of 14), 



4-55 



(!5> 




160) 




eo 



OLD - 0.0 
CMJHIO - I. 



CHJHOH ^ JKfHO 
CMiHl ^ CKJ**10 




O 



CKJlll - l0.315*flL0«l.6661*Sil»i£Pi.**2 *■ CKll<lO 



CPJi*o - o.5^CHJ^[^*cMJln*c^P**2/-^HUP 

CKPt'B * 1,0 »• l2.8*flHU^i*M 
CPP^fi ^ ^flU«CyR*CKP£fl 

CHrtUOh ^ CKHU0 




< MflJ1£U.l303) > 



CPHUd ^ 2.0*C1P*SJG«fl*LHflU[)/!8Mft**2* (1,0 ^ QL-SJft iEPSl ^*21 ) 
CP101 - CPPRO * CPJHD * CPP^R * CPfiUO 
BW»HR ^ RHO*PJ*0/lR'-*2*CHR<P-i*3*CPt01/2200. 




95 




a5 BHPR - IRhPMR ^ RhP1)/£1/^1 * OSHP^C 

firOL ^ -<qiflHICXH*il.O ♦ DL*SJMt:PSl**2]/tlPl*R1d3 



::^ 



flElURf* 



Figure 4-14. ROTPOW Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 8 of 14) 



4-56 




1. 



CH0L •■ l.O •■ 0.15«OL9<*l.EF6 



CPltn - CFPREI ► CPif*0 
CPHlOl - CPPRO «- CPK 

m - o.ioi-in^i.a/cpiffi 
^Tij - o.ioi«n^"«u5/cPHiai 

RHPMfl - RHO*PJ^0^*?^£f*R*P<^3^'CP1 01/^200. 




Figure 4-14 • ROTPOW Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 9 of 14) 



4-57 




lift * 0Mfl/ifl,5-0MR •- O.S-OIR f 1.1 
CO 10 110 




120 81 ■= 8rtPR - BHPfl 
JldV^^ ^ -0.5 



02 ^ aMPH - 8nPfl 
jO 10 IjO 



no 10VW ^ 10VW - DTOVW 
CO 10 15 



€) 



Figure 4-14. ROTPOW Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 10 of 14) 



4-58 




RHLHR •- l.€6«W/Plfl 




< ffflJ1[l6.6flU > 



Hfl - nRC 







n -■ 0.022 

PIR -• SflR1 i IM. O^nR^CICnni / IPJ*RH0*n^DlR**21 1 

ftf^fl * 1.688^V/P1R 




iOEX ' Joa * \ 
«Awm - flwin ^ i.o 



< HflnC 16.10201 > 





170) 



Figure 4-14, ROTPOW Sxibroutine Flow Chart (Part 11 of 14) 



4-59 




LPS! -= ;»1/RH(2.0^iVil/a.688*Vn 

flMUlP ■= SORT III. 685*V1^*^ *- 7Jli-<,;l/PlFl 

I tRM6«PJ*linfl*PlR)^*2) ^ 




n ^ o.D?'^ 












P1R5V 


- P1R 












PIR ^ 


SORT ti4.o*nR*i;. 


a ^ 


inccifl 


-1.01 


• aJfliePil) 


*ii21 


i / lRH0*PJ*n*01fl«21 1 












RHlHR 


X 1.668-V/PlR 












vn - 


VJli-PlR/PlflSV 












CPS7 - fllflrtl2.0^VJl/U 


.688 


«vn 








RKHP 


- 5flR7lll.685*Vi 


**2 


*- /n«' 


2) /P1R 








180 C1S1R * C1/SiG1R 

niR ' CT 

CD81 ^ nSlR-ICKM21-ClSlR * CKHlD ^ COflO'l 

JB * 81R 

CMoei ^ EM0801 *- OMoaauai - fl.oo28*nNmR 

E«01 ^ £rt08l - CKMlj1*nSlR 
frtlT ^ Pm/ iSfl^l.6881 
OUT - tttll - £h01 



-IRCflRi 




Figure 4-14. ROTPOW Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 12 of 14) 



4-60 



r 



k r. 



» t. * ^ 



HESCOMP 
USER'S MANUAL 









HI— i| Q_ u_ I 



'I 

0)tn 



o 



U 



-P 

fd 

o 

-M 

o 

d 
en 

O 

04 



05 



•H 

PL4 



.4-61 




jHttViM * xlkup in.inrnri.cnaLe.i.i.iMiflLL.^, )kh18.io.5, jx. in 

JKhVM * OKMVIH 




< tjRjuie. toij] > 



JKhVli * 3KMVifi 




la * aifl 

lXmOV - ICKMVflft t (MmVIm - iMnVIrt - i . Jl -LKaiM ildi * X.3 

LHHOVft * CKHOV 



230 CPlHtn ^ 0.T0*J*CHH0V*i:i«l.5 
JPIOT] -- CPFHtn * -CPINOl 

l;o 10 10.5 





105) 



CKJHT ^ I. a 

uPJHin ^ 3.5«:KIH0«o*<irfl*t!H**2/Arif/IP 

CKHUOI ^ CKHUO 



HL.C 


;^ 


Ir 








WR]TEf6. 


10161 


> 


^ 


1 







^PlIlH ^ uPPHOl * LpJHTFi ^ CPrtOlR 

iriKl ^ f'iM5«i^ I*01Fi**2*FIR*«3*uP7niVc2a3. 

JO rO ^S 




Figure 4-14. ROTPOW Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 14 of 14) 



4-62 



4 . 6 ROTOR LIMITS SUBROUTINE 

The rotor limits siobroutine compares the main rotor operating 

values of.ii, "a"' ^^^ Cp'/^ to those input in the rotor limits 
information tablf (LOG 0347-0395). In the takeoff, hover, and 
landing subroutihe , if the main rotor operating value of Ct'/ct 
exceeds the table value, the following statement is printed 
out: 

WARNING: ROTOR LIMIT HAS BEEN_EXCEED^. EITHER 

:'" """REDUCE MAIN ROTOR THRUST "REQUIREMENTS AT 
THESE OPftOiTlllG CONDI TIONS ^^ OR INCREASE 
MAIN ROTOR TIP SPEfe&^^^^CHECK^^^^ 
OF Ct/SIGMA IN THIS PEFJ^ORMAMCE LEG. 

In the climb, cruise, descent, and loiter stobroutines, if the 

main rotor operating value of Ct'/c^ ^or a given ~^ and \i ex- 
ceeds the table value, cruise speed is reduced until the 
operating and table values of C-r'/o coincide and the following 
message is' printed out: 

WARNING : ROTOR LIMIT HAS BEEN EXCEEDED. FORWARD 

FLIGHT SPEED HAS BEEN REDUCED ACCORDINGLY. 
CHECK ALL VALUES OF TAS , MU, Ct'/c?, AND 
CXR IN THIS PERFORMANCE LEG. 

Section 7.3 provides a more detailed discussion of Rotor 
Limits. Figure 4-15 is a flow chart of this subroutine. 



4-63 



-^ 





aSJG * CXR/SJCMR 
nSJC ' ClP/SiGMR 

npsL ' XLKUPiflMU.asJG>AMurtu.c)fvsc,5,nPsi6.i,5jx,^ Yi 




< tJriJ1£i6,-9.^nU > 



< MfHJ1Ci6.>93D?i > 



y ^ V - I . 

{75 "15 jO 



V * flMU--P/l.6B( 

CO in jn 



[25 



a 



^0 JD£Xl * JDEXl ♦ 




^^Cili-iH 



[nSJC -__C]P/iJDf1rtJ 




f^nnftff 



— ™ — 



BGUFIH 



ftCIUftfl 





20 



HHtl ^ l.fi86*V/P 
I'J - I 
Of) 10 JT 




30 



Figure 4-15. ROTLIM Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 1 of 2) . 



4-64 



(S> 



@- 



0- 



20 V * V ♦- I . n 
^m ' i.6««*v/|p 

IS ^ I 



30 £fi ^ V/5fl 

HP ' 4. f»* iW - CLW*3k'«31 / inH0*PJ«£fin- 1P*0MR1 <-«^l 

CYR * CXI 




1 



CXR ^ CXl^ll.Q " I^RUXllTl 



RHURH 



< j;iJaHRJl£t6,33^ t 



R£1URH 



Figure 4-15. ROTLIM Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 2 of 2) 



4-65 



4.7 PROPELLER PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS 

Three different options are available for representing the 
performance of propellers when using turboshaft engines 
(ENGIND = 0) . The option to be used is specified to the pro- 
gram by means of a prop efficiency indicator - "ripIND". 

ripIND = " The user inputs a set of point values for the prop 
efficiency for the performance segments of climb and descent 
and a table of efficiency as a function of flight Mach number 
for cruise and loiter. The following input is required: 

np3 - A single point value is input for the prop 
efficiency during climb (SGTIND = 3) • 

np4 - A table is input of prop efficiency during cruise 
(SGTIND = 4) and Loiter (SGTIND =6) as a function 
of flight Mach number. 

np5 - A single point value is input representing the prop 
efficiency during Descent (SGTIND = 5) . 

The primary advantage of this option of propeller performance 
representation is that it permits rapid evaluation of the 
sensitivity of aircraft performance and size to changes in 
propeller performance. It may also prove desirable tcp use 
this option in early conceptual studies when a specific prop 
has not been picked and it is desired to use "reasonable" 
values of efficiency. 

TipIND = 1 - This option permits the user to input a table 
representing the performance of the propeller throughout the 
flight envelope with the exception of DESCENT (SGTIND = 5) for 
which a value of np5 is input as before. For all other per- 
formance segments the table, input in the format of Cp (prop 
power coefficient) as a function of Cij (prop thrust coeffi- 
cient) and J (advance ratio) , is used. The table which is 
prepared must include all compressibility losses for the known 
tip speed at which the propeller is intended to operate. The 
user is cautioned that the tabular values must be monotonic. 
That is, the table cannot include the maximum in Ct which re- 
flects blade stall at high values of Cp . This must be faired 
out as shown in the sketch at Live top of the next page. 



4-66 




FAIRED CURVES ARE 
INPUT TO PROGRAM 



DESIRED TABLE 
BOUNDARY 



"The advantage 6 £ this option is that it permits the user to 
input the performance of a real propeller as determined from 
test data. 

TipIND ~ 2 - Through use of this option the program will auto- 
matically calculate the performance of a wide variety of V/STOL 
propellers. The user need only specify the number of blades 
(3 or 4), the activity factor per blade, and the "integrated 
lift coefficient, Cl-- The method used for the calculation of 

propeller performance is the "short method^^ originated at the 
Curtiss-Wright Corporation's Propeller Division _( Re fere nee 10). 
The method involves the use of a set of equatT6ni~which can be 
developed from strip theory* These equations^ permit the pro- 
peller performance maps (Cp, Cip, J) to be transformed into an 
"equivalent" lift-drag polar for the propeller. Conversely, 
the lift-drag polar s, once developed, can be used with the 
equations to predict the propeller performance. For incom- 
pressible flow, the "equivalent" lift-drag polar which is used 
depends only on the value of Clj^ being considered. That is, 
for a given Clj^ the same polar can be used to accurately repre- 
sent the performance of props with a wide variation in activ- 
ity factor and number of blades and for a wide range of Cp and 
J. For compressible flow conditions, the curves correlate 
very well on the basis of the value of helical Mach number at 
the 3/4 radial station. The equivalent lift-drag polars which 
are contained in the program were developed from detailed 
strip analysis calculations for cruise These detailed calcula 
tions covered the following range of parameters: 



Number of blades: 
Activity factor/blade: 
Integrated lift coefficient, Cl^^: 



3 and 4 
60 ^ 220 
0.15 -> 0.7 



4-67 



Although the user is permitted to input values of activity 
factor and Cl- greater than (or less than) those shown above, 
the level of ionfidence in the predictions is reduced when 
values for those parameters are outside the range used in the 
detailed calculations. 

Figure 4-16 is characteristic of the level of accuracy ob- 
tained from the short method when compared to the detailed 
calculations. 

This option will calculate the propeller performance for all 
mission performance segments except Descent (SGTIND - 5) . For 
Descent, the user inputs a value for np5- Figure 4-17 is a 
flow chart of subroutine THRUST which calculates the propeller 
thrust available for known values of power and flight speed. 
Figures 4-18 and 4-19 are flow charts for subroutines POWER 
and POWERI in which the power required for specified thrust 
and flight speed is calculated. These subroutines make use of 
propeller equivalent lift-drag polars, as mentioned above, to 
calculate the performance of the propeller. The polars are 
developed in the main control loop for the particular value of 
integrated lift coefficient, Cl^, being studied from the 
following equations: 

Y = tan"^ (Cd/Cl) = function of Mr, Cl/ Cl^ 
Mjj = helical Mach number @ 3/4 r/R 

Cl = equivalent lift coefficient at which prop is 
operating 

Cl- = integrated lift coefficient of prop 

For cruise 

Y - ao + aiCLi + ^l^Li^ 

a©/ ai, and a2 are coefficients stored in the program 
and are functions of My and Cl 

The coefficients aQ, ai, a2, are listed in Table 4-3. 

The calculations of propeller performance for npIND = 1 and 2 
are based on the assumption that the engines are inter- 
connected by a cross shaft. That is, if engines are shut 
down during cruise and loiter the remaining power is evenly 
distributed to all of the propellers. 



4-68 



100 r 



EFFICIENCY 



n % 



EFFICIENCY 



n % 



EFFICIENCY 



80 

60 

40 

100 

80 • 

eoh 

40 


100 

80 

60 

40 

i 






AF » 60 



AF » 140 



4 ADVANCE RATIO, J 




^ JJ — O — O — o- AF - 60 



AF = 140 



\ 



\ AF = 220 



Cp = 0.4 




Cp = 0.6 



4 ADVANCE RATIO, J 



a AF « 140 
O AF * 220 

NOTE: SYilBOLS ARE FROM 
DETAILED STRIP 
CALCULATIONS. 
SOLID LINES ARE 
PREDICTIONS USING 
"SHORT METHOD". 

3 BLADES, Cr. » 0.5 

1 



^ ADVANCE RATIO, J 



Figure 4-16. Comparison of "Short Method" and Detailed 

Calculations for Propeller Cruise Efficiency. 



4-69 










^^JPJhd.tJ.i. JJ 



1 



1 nm ^ A'^siBN/'ix^h I 



(Tlalj ^ i.se.s^ej^v/pif^Fi"] 



WJPIhO.LJ.l.Ol>- -- 



l"i 






WIPih[I.U/^.i}i>- 






jTTLri :r__3 






■•© 



[1 „C *._]_=_ J_JBJV tPlEm.J, CD^ ^P J. HOXPJ.'CPPBOP, N9_C»='P. CIPRflP. i;J. ^J.'u. I n'J 



-IF" 



_ " _J — 

c 






_L 






I n*ip '-- re^lj-llVlIp J 
fltflLJ. tJ.^).^0^>■ 



L____ .^"..:. 



21 1PR0P - 0.0J353V«iJ(;hfl«QflH*-«'(;*tMlI«ei^R**'^*uU/ .4.3-«PN«ci . 
I CB 10 35 _ . ..J 





Figure 4-17. THRUST Subroutine Flow Chart {Part 1 of 4) 

4-70 



0- 



1 , 







I b"ftM02 - 1,0 
7AHP ■= ^.Q-REALJ/ l3.D-iiPJ 

— ^,-^ 



1- 




Hfti ' 8ivifl£rtLJacp.HJ3.CPfl^'j,n^n^ifl»io.y_._LflJJ 









Pttil ^ fll^H n^HP/ El«n 

c I yp - t) I N IPH 1 1 1 

C^O^ - AlflHnflHP* !CLiK/l. 2-1. 01 /nAj)*H18D 




I C flHD? ^ CftM D3 I 



CLl * CLJK/ a. ^ 1^HlCflM0?*01ORl*C!nflH(PHiin 

Qmx ^ BJV!EfiH")S.CLl.^^CM.CLLl.CAM0U,3,l5.3.l5> 



^23 if 

rcLS.Li.o.i) 

58 10 5" 




-© 



ol 



&^[i2 * AiflHnflN(PHni«n;LJK/cL2 -i.oii*Riao . 

(TELCHS * CflMOl - GflM02 




W8b lOELuM?! .LE. 0.021 
bO 10 1 




intR 

;,0 ID l§. 



X 



(j^' WRIlt I6.L(31_J> 



a3 * ICLl«0ELuM2 - CL2*D£LGfiU/iOtLChi - OtLGhU 

a2 ^ CL3 

ITELCfll ^ 0LLCfl2 

(TO 10 'ii'4 . 




Figure 4-17. THRUST Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 2 of 4) 

4-71 



Reproduced from 
besr available copy. 









. 1 








C, ' 








r i 




0. 1 








^ 1 




T ! 




^ 








"z , 




er ! 




r- . 




T i 








in I 




.^ 








n 




U) 














cn 


\n 
















^ 


:t 






U 




1 




—^ 


J 


— . 




-i 


ca 




_j 


n 




d 


C3 






fi» 




s 






— :> — 
-I ^j 

LJ l| tj 

i| ru3r 



© 



P 




J^ 



yM 




I I 






-^ n 

; -"-1 I 



in 



or ' 

5 . ! 



3o 



|€= J.J 



7"! 



S^ 







1^; 






o 
m 

04 



4-» 

(-1 

x: 
u 

B 

I rH 
S Ct4 

t ^ 

' c 

-P 
O 

u 

C/3 

D 

EH 



I 
a; 

&4 



© 



4-72 




fsfl oLCflS ^ BIV l£MH'}S.fl.0S,flH«CH.CLLL,Cflflflll.3,lS. J.'l51-fl1«HnflH|PHn7 
l*I^O.«CLJK-l.flU*R100 




aLCh2 * 3LCM10 
1-3 

&8 10 31 



0..-J 



SI i^flflDS ^ 8W lt:iM"/5, 0.05.flflflCn.:LL,, GAM JU. 3. 1 5 /J. 151 
i^AHOia - 8JV tEnhT5,3. l.flflflCh.CLLw. CMfl3ll.3. IS.3. 151 

[rC02LL ^ -COlflHIPMni/CLM 



©■ 




L8 TS 53 -' 



& 



~x 



LlAP * 0.5«tl^P 

CCl - nflP*CiP/:UHLJ 

Cfl 13 il 



Figure 4-17 • THRUST Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 4 of 4) 



4-73 



®- 



-TV 



© 



\ 5UBnOUlJN£ POWfailPROP) / 



TPROPi ^ IPROP 
Jll - 

nflp -« a, a 

Pi ^0.0 



14 ShPR = ri.685*V*lPRflPU/ t55D.^£lfllJ*0£nfl^5lMnA*nflP* 
i 3HPP*YwS:-l 




15 IPS ^ -fSHPli^lSl-lMn*^ 
CfllL POWflVL nPS.Ertl 
SHPflP * SHPfl - l8hPFl/l!?£nfl^SlHn/i*BMPp^YLS2) 





25 





CO 10 12 




t 


12 


CALL PffWBEOIEMl 




; — t , 

<1 wriJ7£ 16.111 > 
T^ 



[ JO 10 6 



-@ 




REflLJ ^ l.6e5*PJ*V/P1flR 

Cn - y.D*lPJ«21*1PPOPi/IO.a0550'USJGnfl*£:r*RJ* t[}<^R*Pl^RN*21 

ccp ^ xmup iR£flLJ.:n,xp i. hoxpj.cpprop.hpcpp.ciprpp, 20.20. J)<. fzi 




MRJIEIMOOU > 



< ^RJ1£ 16.130^^1 > 



SHPR - H.6fl5*V^lPROPn/i550.*nfllJ*n^P«0£L.14*SlM£l^* 
; BMPP^YL t ci 




Figure 4-18. POWER Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 1 of 3) , 



4-74 




PI ^ Plflfl 

GO 10 15 



^ 




Figure 4-18. POWER Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 2 of 3) 



4-75 




25 IPS -= IShP tHlSl*lH£l/R 
CALL POW/^VLIIPS.M 

SMPHfly ^ 5HP/* - l8HPR/i0aifl*SlH£l<^^8HPP*YL52n 
ft2SlO ^ /»2Sin ^ ^ 

SHPMJW ' V*lP^0Pl/l325.61fi5*£lflli*DaiA^SHPP*YLSti^51hEl^l 
UaSHP - tSHPMrRX - ShPmJH1/5.!5 



X 







iCJ - J 

SHP I Jl ' SHPMJH *- 0£L5rtP*IXJ-l.Ol 

SHPa - SHP IJI 

ft2Sin - ^2510 . 




, 1 , 



21 SHPfl -« SrtPR 

nflop iji -« tiflp 
iPRdPP in ' iPBOFi 




-./vN.A^^'v'vv.'^y^'vvvv-vv/'-— C C hi ] hU L 







2\S nflP - lfl8LenPR0PU"IPR0PP,E1flPP.K.2,ttl 
SHPP -- 1flaL£nPROPl/1PR0PP.SiP.K/^.fi) 



:3t: 



6 SHPflUX 

REIURH 



SHPR'* ()£Llr^*5lM[1^*8rtPP^YLJ2 



Figure 4-18. POWER Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 3 of 3) 



4-76 



'IpROPI ^ IPRflP ^ 

ni - a ; 

n<^p * 0.8 i 

PI ^ 0»0 ! 



m SHPfli - J1.685*V«-fPROP\l/15S0.«Elflli*nflP*flELl'^*SlHnA< 

I 8HPPJ*YlS2J1 




15 IPS * iSHPj imsD^innfln 
_ C/RLL p omy J nps.£m | 





25 



CO 10 12 J 

l-f — , 







GO 10 6 




cn^i 4 D^^lPi-^^r^lPROPl/ iO. aO5501*5JCHfl*LHfli* lOflR^PlflRl **21 ^ 

ccp ' yLHUPiRCflu.cn xpj^ 




fiflp ^ REAL J * cn/:cp 

SHPRJ - ll.fifl5*V*lPR0P.(/t55D.^tWJ 
i8hPPJ--TLS2Jl 



*E1^P*0LLl<^i«SlHnfl* I 




Figure 4-19. POWERI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 1 of 3) 



4-77 




CO 10 15 




(5) 



© 



13 ShPfli - SHPRi 

CALL iHftUSl HPFloqi 




I 00 If* H I 



© 



Figure 4-19. POWER! S\abroutine Flow Chart (Part 2 of 3) 



4-78 




?.s 


IPS - ISHPJ IHlSJl-lHHfl 




CALL POWflVJ iip^.m 




SHPMflX * ShPAi 




ft2SlO ^ fl25*IRJ , r^,. 




SHPHJfl - V«lPROPl/l325.6365-nfllJ^O£Ll-R^0HPPi*YL52i-SlHn^) 




aaSHP - iSMPMflV - SHPMJfll/3.0 




- ♦ 




GO 10 6 

— ♦ 



215 ElflP -- lfl8LrnPR0P\.1PR0PP. 
SHPRi -= IrRSLE HPnOP'i.lPRflPP 



Hr^PP. K. 2. Ml I 
.5mP,K.2.m1 I 



SHPflux - sHPaj*3cn'fl^riMn^-iiriP*^J*Yu52J 

U1\M 



Figure 4-19. POWERI Subroutine Flow Chart (Part 3 of 3) 



4-79 



I 






O 

Id 



X 



Id 






in r^tnfNrHoo^ os 

• lAorsir^oorHr^or^'Na^vo^vo 
Cr^ • •lO<J^n • • • • * • • • 

^ t t I I t t I I I I t I I 



• (>4tnr^tnvomo<*^^fM^coin^ 
or^4m<^ooa>o^inr^ooroo^o 



MF-foovDinins^aoo'^^o 



O in rn 
(N (M m 



a 
S 



Id 



w ^ 
en Id 

M 



a; 
o 



<-i ^^vooo'*>*Nr-ia\voin tn*-* 
ro nooioooin^in^r^tncs 
r* vovcooooD^rooinoN^^ 

vovoin<^(Nr^vor^<-4o^*^inoo 
oomr^<Nrsi^rHi-^<Nroro^inKO 



00 i^ 



^vo^^^^^ooooo^^^^ 



'nm^r^fM^^mo.inoooch^ 



^ f^ ^ r'> in 

^ *^ ON 00 O 

O ^ • • 0^ • • ' • 

• <N ^ • m rH fN ro 

t I I I I 1 I 



or^vooNinoor^oi 
ooorsio^'^^f^oo 



00 ^o <jH r^ r* !*• 
r-* <N rM m ^ in 
I I I I I I 



00^^m00a^O^^Ol"t^*Hr^00 rH 

oMMvo^^i^r^o^ooo^oooo 
osfMro^omvDooin^cnfNOP^r* 

oooin^ro/^ro^vooofNf^fMoo 
^ ^ ^ f>* rsi 



00 

o 



^in vo^'H»-(oor^mr-toor>jro 
^ as'<-t ^^^*lno^^a^^-r^<^fNfN 

o<N*NMoi^'*'n^oo\or^aovo^ 

^^flOf^r^r^flOr-itnr^oofnm*^ 
\0^ rH^(N<Nr^rnrsi 



rH in in fH '^ 

^OfNfMOS ^ON'-400«-trM^ 

OsPOrnrMCM^rsivovof-^^voooM 

•^VOOrO^ONOSOOfNOOvOOOOvO 

ooN^r-inm^o 

CJ^ « • • • • •ovD^rnrnp^ON 

,^^<vj^ini^^^(Nm'<t^'^ 

^ I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 ) 



(SooorH iHo\inm^ vorsifN 

o'*>**>fNinooin.-^r^v^i^in^mo 
o^ocDPSir^^^flooovDintNooor^ 




4-80 



4.8 SIZE TRENDS SUBROUTINE 

The size trends subroutine calculates the trends of the air- 
craft geometric dimensions as the weight of the aircraft 
changes throughout the iterative sizing loop. Figure 4-22 
displays a flow chart showing the options available within 
the size trends subroutine. 

The first of these is the option which detefrnines main rotor 
diameter and solidity. It is possible to input diameter and 
solidity directly, or combinations of disc loading, design 
C-p/a, diameter, and solidity. The following choices, speci- 
fied by the main rotor sizing indicator, RDMIND, are available: 



RDMIND 
1 
2 
3 
4 



INPUT 

Diameter and sqlidity 

Disc loading and solidity 

Diameter and Crji/a 

Disc loading and Ct/cj 



If main rotor solidity is calculated, thepfogram will choose 
the solidity satisfying the most critical^of the three groups 
of requirements specified by input locations 0182 - 0190. 
These solidity sizing requirements are: 



(a) 
(b) 

(c) 



Solidity sized for hover conditions (Input (0^/0) H/ T/W) 

Solidity sized for maneuver conditions (Input cruise 
speed, atmospheric conditions, maneuver C^/o , and rotor 
g loading) 

Solidity sized for cruise conditions (Input cruise speed, 
atmospheric conditions, cruise C-p/a, and rotor loading 
(N)) 

If so desired, the user may dictate which of these solidity 
choices the program makes simply by manipulating the inputs. 
For example : 



If the solidity 
sizing choice 
desired is ; 

Hover 



Then input; 

Desired value for (CT/cr)^/ (Ct/c>)cr 
1.0, gROTOR ^ .001, N (Rotor Loading) 
0.1 



4-81 



Maneuver (CT/a)H = 1-0, Desired values for 

(CT/a)cR and gROTOR' N (Rotor Loading) = 
0.1 

Cruise {CiJ^/a)^ = 1.0, Desired value of 

(CT/cr)CR,gROTOR = 0.001, Desired value 
of N (Rotor Loading) 

As noted earlier, two basic types, the single and tandem rotor 
helicopter, can be sized using this program. The following 
(beginning with the single rotor helicopter) provides a brief 
description of the options available to the user. 

Tail rotor diameter may be input directly, or calculated. The 
choices open to the user are: 

TRDIND 

1 Tail rotor diameter calculated using a 
trend 

2 Tail rotor diameter input directly 

3 Tail rotor diameter calculated based on an 
input tail rotor disc loading 

The tail rotor diameter trend used when TRDIND = 1 is illus- 
trated in Figure 4-20 (see also Reference 6) . The tail rotor 
disc loading input when TRDIND = 3 does not include vertical 
fin sideload losses. 

Tail rotor solidity may be input directly or calculated. If 
calculated (TRDIND = 2) , the tail rotor solidity is determined 
by either hover-antitorque requirements or hovering-turn re- 
quirements (including tail rotor precession effects, see ^ 
References,^5 and 6) . The former is obtained by setting ip (yaw 
rate) and ^i (yaw acceleration) equal to zero. 

Yaw moment inertia dzz) is required in calculating the tail 
rotor solidity for the single rotor helicopter in a hovering 
turn. The following equation is included in the size trends 
subroutine to determine the aircraft yaw inertia. 



IZZ = ^272 (J-115K22Z ^ 



2 

Where Izz = ^^^ moment of inertia, slug ft^ 
W = Aircraft design gross weight, lb 
Kzzz = Inertia adjusting factor (nominally =1.0) 

4-82 



-M ^ (TAIL ROTOR DIAMETER 

— =» 7.15-.27(W/A) TREND USED BY HESCOMP) 
T 




MAIN ROTOR DISC LOADING, LB/FT 



Figure 4-20. Tail Rotor Diameter Sizing Trend. 



4-83 



0.115 



= The combined sum of the study aircraft fuselage 
length and the cabin length measured from the 
nose of the aircraft to the end of the cabin* 

= Trend constant for determining the single rotor 
helicopter yaw moments of inertia. 



To modify the equation inertia value, enter a fractional input 
in the Kzzz block (LOG 0213) (entering 1.1 will increase the 
0.115 constant by 10 percent, entering 0.9 will decrease it 
by 10 percent, etc.) 

It should be noted that the tail rotor gross/net thrust ratio 
(CTQ/CTjTjjm) may either be input directly or calculated. In 
the latter instance, Ctq/Ct^^^ is set equ^l to 1.00 and a 
value of the induced velocity ratio (C) is input. Figure 4-21 
illustrates typical values of C for both tractor and pusher 
tail rotor (see sketch below) . 



THRUST 




INDUCED 



V 



INDUCED 



THRUST 



FIN 



FIN 



Tractor Tail Rotor 



Pusher Tail Rotor 



Note the difference in variations of C for the two different 
configurations. At low tail fin/rotor separation distances, 
the "tractor" values of C are sensitive to variations in tail 
rotor Crp. Thus, the closer the tractor tail rotor is located 
to the fin, the larger the error (admittedly small to begin 
with) involved in calculating Ctq/Ctn^ since the user must 
^guess" what tail rotor C^ to use in selecting C. The "pusher" 
C on the other hand is a function only of the fin/tail rotor 
separation distance. 

In any event, use of this option is desirable in that tail 
rotor/fin sideload losses are matched to the vertical tail 
area calculated in the sizing process. Detailed explanations 
of all the factors involved in tail rotor design and sizing 
are contained in References 5 and 6. 



4-84 




0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 

DISTANCE BETWEEN FIN AND TAIL ROTOR/TAIL ROTOR RADIUS (s/r» 



1.0 



Figure 4-21. 



Tail Itotor/Vertical Tail Fin Interference Data 
(Part 1 of 2) - 



4-85 



1,0 






















0.8 




X 


X 
















0.6 






N 


N; 














o 










\, 












< 

cc 










""N 


\^ 










> 
1- 












\ 










gO.4 

UJ 




PUS] 


^ER Ti 


ML ROTOR 




\ 








> 

n 














N 


y 






UJ 

Q 

Z 
















\ 


\, 




0,2 


















\ 


\, 























N 



0.2 0.4 0.5 0.8 

DISTANCE BETWEEN FIN AND TAIL ROTOR/TAIL ROTOR RADIUS {%/r ) 



1.0 



Figure 4-21. 



Tail Rotor/ (Pusher Tail Rotor) Vertical Tail Fin 
Interference Data (Part 2 of 2) . 



4-86 



The ^vertical t§il size may be determrned In three ways. If 
VTfXlfe== 1/ aspect r atio and" tail fi n/ta i I "rotor overlap is 
input. If VTFIND^^" 27 tail fin/tail rotor^overlap and config- 
uration directr^^ requirements are input. If 

VTFIND = 3, tSe input is^^tlie same as wi 1^2^^^ 2, with the 
exception that ARyr is specif ied iris^eaa of tail rotor/fin 
overlap. These latter two options are important in that they 
allow the user to size the yertical tail to meet cruise anti- 
torque requirements at specified conditions (Clq^q / Voes) i^ 
the event of tail rotor loss. It shoulS^Be noted that C^j^^g 

is assumed to represent the total lift coefficient developed 
by a conventional tail fin in sideslip, or a tail fin with a 
variable cainber" device (i.e., a rudder or flap) deployable 
under these circumstances. 



Horizontal tail area is either directly specified (HTIND = 1) 
or calculated (HTIND =2). In the latter case, tail area is 
calculated ba^ed on a tail volume coefficient specif ied by 
the following equation: 



V, 



16i 



TH ^HT 



HT 



TT^D, 



MR 



where : i 



rpjj = distance from rotor center to 1/4 chord of 
horizontal tail 



^MR 



'HT 



= main rotor diameter 

= horizontal tail planform area 



Since the hp^rizi^nt^al tail' is used to^^^l^ 

changes caused £y lie main rotor, it'ls important to^ a^ 
tail volume cpefficient that reflects the_ type of rotor system 
in use. For example, in sizing a helicbpter with a hingeless 
rotor system, the tail volume coefficient (V^t) would be ob- 
tained by taking an existing hingeless rotor helicopter, 
measuring the applicable dimensions from a drawing and cal- 
culating Vpjrp, 

Forward rotor pylon dimensions are specified directly (input 
LOGS 0152 - 0156) . 



The computer program calculates the length and wetted area of 
the fuselage based upon input values of cabin length, cabin 
mean „diameter, fineness ratios of the pilots section and tail 
section, and calculated tail boom dimensions. The tail boom 
length is established by the tail rotor diameter, the need to 
maintain a reasonable gap between the main and tail rotor 
discs and the relative position of the main rotor on the 
fuselage. This position (X^^/^b) ^^Y either be input 

4-87 



(MRPIND = 0) or calculated (MRPIND =1,2), using a simple 
weight-balance subroutine. If the latter option is chosen, 
the relative positions (from the aircraft nose) of the various 
aircraft components (engines, primary drive system, etc.), 
must be input (LOGS 26 78-26 96) . Additional increments of 
fuselage wetted area (to account for miscellaneous bulges, 
fairings, etc.) may be input through the use of AS^jet/^F 
(LOG 0120) and AS^^et ^^^^ 0121). 

Three options are available for sizing a tandem rotor heli- 
copter fuselage. These options , specified by the indicator 
FDMIND are: 



FDMIND 



Input 



Galculated 



((0/L)/D), forward, aft rotor fuselage length (ilp) 
positions cabin length {Hq) 

((0/L)/D), cabin length {9.^) fuselage length (ilp) 

forward & aft rotor 



cabin length {l^) , forward 
and aft rotor positions 



positions 

((0/L)/D) , fuselage 
'length (Ap) 



In cases (FDMIND = 1) where the calculated cabin length is 
less than zero, an error statement is printed and the case 
terminated. Likewise, if the rotor overlap/diameter ratio 
exceeds either +0.5 or -0.5, the case is terminated. 

The aft rotor pylon dimensions may either be input directly 
(APHIND = 1) or calculated (APHIND = 2) based on an input of 
rotor gap/stagger ratio. ^ The forward pylon dimensions are 
input directly as in the case of the single rotor helicopter. 

In the case of a compound helicopter, propeller dimensions 
and characteristics (i.e., AF, blade number, G^^ , etc) are 
input directly. 

Wing sizing options are divided into two groups, those for 
determining wing area (S^IND) and those for determining wing 
span (bwIND) . Wing area may either be input directly 
(S^IND = 1) , calculated based on an input wing loading 
(S^IND = 2) , or sized to meet a maneuver requirement. In the 
latter case, the wing size is dictated by the need to carry 
the difference between the overall g requirement (LOG 0188) 
and the maneuver g's (LOG 0189) carried by the main rotor ( s) - 
Wing span may be determined on the basis of an input wing 
span/rotor diameter ratio (bwIND = 1) , an input aspect ratio 
(b^IND = 2); or, in the case of a compound h*^licopter with 
wing mounted propellers, on the basis of propeller tip/fuselage 
clearance considerations (b^IND = 3). 

4-88 



The dimensions of the primary and auxiliary independent engine 
nacelles are determined by the horsepower or thrust level of 
the engines. Separate input constants zi, Z2f Z3f Z4/ Z5 and 
zg are used to calculate the size of the nacelles. 



Primary engine nacelles 



Diameter (ft) = Z]_ 



! SHP*1 



1/2 



length (ft) = Z2 + z^ 



[SHPfl 
Np J 



1/2 



wetted area (ft^) = Np tt (dia) (length) 



Auxiliary independent engine nacelles 

rsHP*ii 

diameter (ft) = Z4 Kj^ — -4 jNp^j 



1/2 fFN*! 1/2 



length (ft) = Z5 + Zg Hr 



rSHP* J 1/2 



or Z5 + Zg 




1/2 



wetted area (ft^) = Np. tt (dia) (length) 



Figure 4-22 show a flow chart of this subroutine. 



4-89 



\ SUBHOUUHE SillR liSIl / 



IS1 ^ 


IS! * L 


U - tJC 




LCl^ ^ 


a 


Lcn -- 





LCIM ^ 


J 


LC\6 ^ 




-— * 




: auMjHO.Ea.i.fli^^- 



OMR ^ SJf^l m.O^W/ lPI*WVfl*tHnll 




-© 



' CALL flnHOSlHES.l.fl.lJHYl 

; aH2HAX ^ flH^lfl 

: ft^sm ^ A?MflY*flr*21B 

- CALL AlM05ihCriS7.l.O.A1CRS^) 

; wi>Ah\ -- flH2cn 

R2S1R -- fl^MAX-iflN^CH 

P ^ A^S1R*V1 

HP ^ ^.O^lhl/ IRHfl*PJ^tHR« IDMR*PU*21 _ _ _ 




rSJGMRC ^ nP/C1SRS7 

siChRfi -- np«iiRois;i/c"iSRSi 



Figure 4-22 



^(SICMRH.CI- aJCMRCAHO 
ICMRM.GI.biuMRH) 
ufl 18 lO 



/-h3 




Size Trends (SIZTR) Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 1 of 13) . 



4-90 






4-91 





4-92 




I IgO UB ^ £LP * £LC * £L1 







© 

Jl 



160 
t 




^.o-hPS/ ifln^p 

CRfiP«5LMflP 


-11.1} 


^ SLMAPn 




5Pi*P - 


O.S*CRflP«MP2« 


11. *■ 


SlMAPI 




CBflBAP 


-= 0.5*iCBflP ♦ 


CI API 






K^PBR 


^ o.5*ncnfl ♦ 


IClfl) 






CK1 * 


1 CAP BR«IK?5*T CAP BR 


^ 0.21 - 2.C 




SAP - 


C«1«5^flP 







no CRFP * 2.0-MPl/mfP-ll.O * SLHfPll 
PFP * CRFP*5LMfP 
SPFP * fl,5*CRrP*HPl*ll.O »■ SLtiP) 
rflFP - fl.5«riPl*CRFP«nCRf ♦ ICIK^ScMFPl 
CBARFP ^ O.S- ICRFP * Cl^") 
ICFPBR -= a. 5* IKRF t 1C1M 
CKl ^ ICFPBR* II. ^5*1Cr=*8R *- O.^i - 2.0 
SFP ■« iHl^SPF" 




jCNFIN0,Ea.2.aL 




nRDiND,C3.2.01 



:x 



HVfl ^ 4.0-W/ IPi*0MR««21 
U^RGIR ' 1.15 - 0,2")*WVA 
[PR ^ 3flR/GnR01R 



h 



iflS CALL AlH(J5H£S,1.0.1JNt) 
IHOlflL * I 
lovy ^ IV^O 
V ^ 0.0 
iLRIrtO ^ l.O 
Cf«.L ROIPSW 
IKHI - 
«H2»1AX - AH210 
q2S1R * A2HAX«AH21fl 
P ' A2STR*V1 



r 



:i 



fllO UHR * 2')S,0*RHPtiR«0MR/P j 

[ IIR * flMR/i0.5*OMR *• b *■ o.s*ari)j 




" nR0Jh0.N£.3.0'L 



[TiRrryaRi (l^ , o*i_ir/ j^^x^i-f jiu 



(ABSII01R- Omn/GTRil .L£.0,Oll>- 

uO 10 no ,- 







<r(IKN1,L£,20i 
' {8 16 l2il. 

(HR ^ 01Hi 

CO 10 no 



<(j2 ^'1 1 1 £ j€ . I 3 \il2> I 

..... 



! 

J 



140 nvfli » 4.]«ni^/ iPi«oii^ 
iLniH) •'J.J 




••21 I 



Figure 4-22. Size Trends (SIZTR) Subroutine Flow Char 
(Part 4 of 13) . 

4-93 




4-94 








■ 




1 


^ 




> 


- 




2 


'I ' 


f 






Si 


cr 


zIj 


1 




r« 




— f 








1 V s 


/ 


^^ 


/ 


ri^f— 


/ 


«^(L 




— W-J 




IIS 




i".* 




»s 



I I 
-r t 

tj if Ol 

r- »^o; 

7i OU 



4-95 



04 



-p 
u 

u 

o 

put 

<D 

C 

O 



H • 
CO ^ 



I 
-^ 

<u 
u 

Cm 




4-96 




IF 



[CHi_= IJ *■_ (J_. 15* OL 0**1.666 [ 



CHWJHG ■> l^-0■^l3^S^^E'^^* lCK2U *CKil**?/DhR**^ 







E 



[231 ginvHH ^ il.O - _CK_WJHC_ ^J1VWD_j T.^ai_*il.O - CHUJnCyl/CKUihC^J 







©■ 



^(]S1M. CI. 1. OR J SI. Ht.uJ> 
CO 10 423 ^ 



JfJXJMI.LiJ.Q.fll 
4? 15 31^9^ 



Jl 



CALL fllHflSlHCS.l.QJIH^l 
IH010L ^ i 
lOVW ^ 1VWD 
ftH2MAX - flN210 
ft2SlR - fi2MflX*AH210 
P - fl2S1R*Vl 
V := 0.0 
7LR1H0 ^ l.U 




fCHriHo.Efl.2.oi>- 




CALL R01P0W ^^^ 

piR ^ vnn*,^2SiR 

OHR ^ 2-?S.0*ftHPMR«DMR/'P 
KIB - O.S*0hR * C * 0.5*01R 

SJG1R ^ M.0*CK1RS*iq/[niLj?*RHO*n*_HnR^ 






300 1LR1H0 ^0.0 
CALL R01P0W 
CALL POWAVL ilMAX.Q.Ol 

S3 ^ CHP/IIEHP - ENPSDl*5t«0tLlA*5ltin^*5iP101 
8hPP ^ S3«BHPR 



I 



310 if^^--^ 

-<.tAJPIHa.EQ.l.01> 



-'i;0 18 MSJ./" 




WUXJH0.L1.3.U1> 
"'^-^0 18 428^-^ 




Figure 4-22. 



Size Trends (SIZTR) Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 8 of 13) • 



4-97 









£E 




^-» 




ru 




•X. 




tr . 




ez 




IJ c/l 




^ 










r M 




It Ol 




>er£ 




C3 




ru 




r. 



1 
1 






C 


1 


u^ 










' 


X 




-* 


[ 






r 




r- 






1 


_^ 




I? 






eacn 




a. 








_jf— 




^■=> 




LJL3 




a 




w> 




^ 1 




5 i 




-"•IT 




M—ca 


-M 


-I- 






j:: 


° 1 


u 




<D 



4-98 



o 



0) 

c 
o 



H • 
CO ^ 

H 
CO 

T} M-l 
C O 

<L) 

U a\ 

E-t 

OJ J-l 
N fO 



I 

0) 
M 

en 

Cm 





315 !r 



390 CALL iHRflVLnMJlRJ.tMl 

ca 10 Mto 



0- 






^00 cfly-jiHRflvuiN5Pi_^jJ 



360 



CALL IhRPVL IlMftXJ.EMl I 
_C8_25_^\^ 1 



[mo IP ^'im t/ tSHPjj_^o£LTgiJ 



tLN ^ fl2El**2 ^ fl7n**3«S0PniBMPP/EhPl 
ELLt ^ tLf - ^infl2 
SH - £HP«Pi«DSARH«ElH 

SHflC ^ SH 



:^--0 







I 



I SAMl ^ IP 

_Z1J~ 



OESflBi - Xi4!«SflR"l iSflMl/EHPIl 

ffSARSj ^ ^2ElftU«5flRT ISAtit/ENPH 

ELH 1 i fllEIAS - A7£1fl6«SaRliSAM\/ENPn 

aiEl ^ LLN! - Alt1A5 

SHJ ^ El«»J*PI*DBflRHJ«£L«l 

SMACfl * bNJ 

CNS - LLLEt 

EHS - SHSOHl/OBARHi 

SS1R ^ CHb«6HS*ll.O ^ OSSlRl«tHPl 

SHS « 2.0M«SSIR 




1 sn ^ 5F * SAP *- bf 



, T ^ 
[IhUrnJ 






nR * 0.5*CH7««01R 

eVI ^ 1]^ * Q.5*01R«U.fl - HV11 

SVl ^ 8V1**2//4RV1 

CO 10 M80 



^iaure 4-22. Size Trends (SIZTR) Subroutine Flow Chart 

(Part 10 of 13) . ' V 

4-99 






CALL .i*1H05 iCB51,\,0.A1CRS7) 
RN2MflX -= RH2CR 
fl2S1R -= q?MflX*flH'2CR 

V ^ VDES 

qnu ^ i.eB8*v/p 

(J -= m26^6«Rhfl-V**? 




Z1R ^ 0.5*CKl*D1fl ^ ^ 

ftRVl ^2.0 

CSfiRVI * O.S^BVI 

SV1 ^ BVI-CBflRVl 

CO 18 U55 



^S2 2T^ - J.5*D1R ^ _ . 

CBrtRVl ^ ev1/flRVT 
SV1 ^ BVl*CflARVl 



H55 


CALL 


^ERfl 






LflLL 


QBAGiCLW)! 




Dtl 


= cx 






CXP^ - 


= CX1 






kRihO ^ I 


.U 



__l 




l» - - ^ -* 






CALL RBIPflW 

BMH ^ J'JS.O-RMPMfl-OMR/'P „ . „ .,,. 




Figure 4-22 



Size Trends (SIZTR) Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 11 of 13) . 
4-100 




l/lMn0.tU. J. Jl> 
uO 10 463-- 



G> 



450 8V1 ^ bORI iflRVl«iV11 
HVI -= J.e 
11^ ^ 8V1 - fl,5«01Ri« 11,3 - HV1! 

7""""T^ -T - 



C8 TO ^li] 



460 CRVl -r ^.O-aVIv (ARV1«il.l} *- SLrtVlll 
nvi * CfHV1*5cfiV1 
LBABVl ^ Sn/BVl 

L>t1 ^ KV1«ll.2S*li,Vl ^ a,2i ► 2.0 




^8 10 525.- ' 



-0 



.--^ IF ^^ 

iM.liE.O.Ol 
^0 10 43^' 



JL 



i^B -- ilH 






i CO 10 500| 



/''530 ir^-^-.. 

< ihV1.Ll.l3,01 > 

-iifl 10 5lJ '' 

* q^ -= a,5*DT^^ a. J - ^V1) 



-<D 



'-4iV1,LJ. t.J^ 



m - J, JJ 



bO 13 5^0 J 




Figure 4-22 • 



Size Trends (SIZTR) Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 12 of 13) . 



4-101 







© 







1 ?~i(j m ^ [i.s*oia 



529 Cfl ^ CRVli.U.3 - t(l,0 - SLhVli /8V1l • tlT^ ^ *(Hn 
CB * CRVl*iK3 - (ll.O - 5LHVTi/BVl)-t21H - Bbt) 
MB - l].5« Iflfl •• 88) * iCfl •■ CB) 
urn -= 4,0«DAB/tPr«D1Pl**2) 




^.x-^5^5 IF 



a 



IhDIO^ -I 

iflVU ^IV^D 

if - OflH 

R2blH - s2nAX*flH210 

y ^ 3.0 

ILRIHD -= J. G 
qH2tl/»X ^ **N27 
(^251R ^ q2fi^X*flH210 

P1R * vns « ^251fi 

liMh - ^iS,0 * flrtPMf^ *orif^/P 

]g ^ UMR * au^h /XIB 




(YftWDa .HE. 0.) 
.u8 10 5^j^> 



-4 



....i 



1_R17I - ^/'v2.2« ifl. I i_S-SK7nj_t£LFt^iLC-tL"^n **^ 



\J\f2 - 0,0 



i 



J 



i SiClH ^ ^. y^LKl^S* n. MQ/P1R^ J, 3«rtI7l«YflHi7^ iX1iI*P1R) ) ^ 
I (3. 3-C11LS7*flHfl*Pr*Ji'i''-2«PlH) 

' "■ , i_-.-,- - 

^40 bF] r jF » SVIW 



Figure 4-22. Size Trends (SIZTR) Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 13 of 13) . 



4-102 



4 . 9 AERODYNAMICS CALCULATIONS SUBROUTINE 



The aerodynamics subroutine calculates a series of factors 
(as, agf 37, as, and ag) which are used in the calculation of 
drag. The drag calculation has been written in the most gen- 
eral manner possible. Drag is assumed to be divided into 
profile, induced, and interference components; namely. 



FeTOT = as + ae Cj^^. S^ + ^1 Cl„^ Sw + ag CLpiN ^VT + Feip 
'> ^^ ^ ^ V ' ' V ' 



Wing Profile Wing Induced 
Drag Drag 



Vertical Tail 
Induced Drag 



where , 

Fe»poT 



ac - 



ag 
FeiF 



Total configuration equivalent flat plate drag 
area 

Basic configuration flat plate drag area (including 
fuselage, rotor hubs, rotor pylons, etc). 



ag s % [fw (Re)] 



a-j - 1/IIe AR 



= 1/ne^^ AR^T 



TFEF 



Rotor/wing interference equivalent flat plate drag 
4rea (calculated by the program using simplified 
p'randtl Bi-Plane Theory) . 



The basic configuration flat plate drag area may be calculated 
in two different ways: by a detailed build up, or by a trend 
(see Figure 4-23) • The wing profile drag is assumed to be a 
function of lift coefficient, as specified by an input table. 

If the user elects to determine the basic configuration flat 
plate drag area (as) by build up (DRGIND = 1), then profile 
drag coefficients (Cd„^, Co^rp, etc.) and form factors (Kht/ 
KvT' etc.) for each component are input to the program, a^ 
then being calculated from the following relationship: 



a5 = .00287 Kp Sp [fp (Re)] + Kpp C^^^ 



FA 



FP 



^* ^ 

Fuselage Profile Drag 



Forward (Main) Rotor Pylon 
Profile Drag 



4-103 



CM 

[| 

Q 

H 

o 

Q 




pa 

fc4 



r 


■ 1 
o 


o 


o 


1 


1 



CD 



^^ 



O 






0) 



o 

Eh 



0) 



^ 







(U 



o 



en 



c=> 



0) 



(D 



CO 
Q 

II 

O 
M 



O 



iHir* 



a 



J ^ 



0) 

u 






M-l 



0) 



^ 



G 
O 
•H 
-P 

o 

04 

rH 
•H 

CQ 

tr 
OJ 

Q 

0) 
+J 
-H 
CO 

td 
u 

Pt4 



I 



4-104 



+ Kap Cdap Sap ffA? (Re)] ^ + ^Kvt Cp^^ Syr [fyr (Re)]^ 
N^ —^ Y 

Aft Rotor Pylon Vertical Fin Profile Drag 
Profile Drag 



+ K 



V 



HT ^D 



HT 



'HT 



[f 



V T 

Horizontal Tail 
Profile Drag 



+ % Cdm Skt [fw (Re)] 



jj.p (Re)] -r rvN ^Dm °N ^^N 



Primary Engine Nacelle (s) 
Profile Drag 



+ %I Cd^i Sni [fNi (Re)] 



Auxiliary Independent 
Engine Nacelle Profile 
Drag 



+ 



K 



NS ^Djjs ^NS ^^NS (^^^^ J 



Smc [ft 



Auxiliary Independent 
Engine Nacelle Strut 
Profile Drag 



^^^MRH Nr 



Main Rotor Hub(s) 
Total Drag 



AFe 



TRH 



Tail Rotor 
Hub Total 
Drag 



AFe [fp (Re)] 



Miscellaneous 
Drag 



The terms f^ (Re), fp (Re)/ fVT (Re), etc., are Reynolds 
number functions for the wing, fuselage, vertical tail, etc., 
which reflect the variation of skin friction coefficient with 
Reynolds number. The function which is" used is a normalized 
form of the Prandtl-Schlichting turbulent flat plate skin 
friction equation: 



f(Re) 



Si 
^fRe^lO^ 



[1 



1 
7 



-2.6 



+ w log 



10 



10 



r] 



The program user inputs a value for average Reynolds number 
per foot for the mission and the program then calculates the 
Reynolds' number for each component of the aircraft and uses 
the Reynolds' number functions f^ (Re), fp (Re), etc., to 
determine thevariation in component drag as the aircraft 
dimensions change during the iteration on gross weight. The 
individual profile drag coefficients, Cq^^^, CDjjtI' etc., are 
input at a reference Reynolds number of 10'. 



Particular care must be exercised in the input of data re- 
quired for calculating the hub drag, as this particular compo- 
nent can typically account for as much as 1/2 to 2/3 of the 



4-105 



total parasite drag of a helicopter. The hub drag calculation 
method (Reference 8) used in this program is based on the 
following relationships: 



^^^HUB = ^^HUB_ -^ ^^SH ^ ^^INT 



CS^ 



where : 



Fe = f 



Hub center Rotor Misc 

shanks hub/shank 

Interference 



C- (H\ib projected frontal area) > 



Fe--- =s f ^C_ , Number of shanks, shank 
SH { Dgj^ 

projected frontal area, and local 
advance ratios at the hub/shank ^ 
and shank/rotor blade interfaces j- 

Typical values of hub center section and shank drag coeffi- 
cients are illustrated in Figure 4-24 . A few notes of caution 
on the use of values such as are contained in Figure 4-24 is 
in order. First, estimates of the Reynolds number of the hub 
or shank sections to be used should be made in order to estab- 
lish whether the sections are sub or super critical- Second, 
while 2-dimensional section drag coefficients are appropriate 
for use with shanks of extended length, test data indicates 
that 3-dimensional coefficients are more representative for 
low aspect ratio shanks bounded by lower drag shapes (for ex- 
ample, a short stubby shank bounded on one side by a faired 
hub and on the other side by the root end of the rotor blade) . 
Figure 4-25 illustrates the hub geometry and interference drag 
factors implicitly assumed in this program- If the actual hub 
geometry or interference drag variation desired by the user 
differs appreciably from these, the differences can be re- 
flected by ratioing the input drag coefficients Co^gj^j^/ ^Dshmr' 
*^DcsTR' ^^^ ^^SHTR accordingly. Table 4-4 summarizes these 
corrections. 

If it is desired to calculate as by use of a drag trend 
(DRGIND = 2), the following relationship then obtains: 



^5 



_ r wgq - ] r wg^I 



KpED 



4-106 



INFLUENCE OF CROSS SECTION SHAPE ON SHANK DRAG 
COEFFICIENTS (CYLINDERS AT SUPERCRITICAL REYNOLDS NO.) 




FINENESS 
RATIO 

1:2 

1:1 

2:1 



Q 1.00 




CORNER 
RADIUS- 
.02 TO .04 h 



\j 2.30 

D 2.00 

CZI 1.40 





o 



1.80 
1.50 



O 1-10 



2.0 



SECTION 
DRAG 1 . 
COEFF . 
'V Cd 



EFFECT OF CORNER RADIUS 
ON DRAG COEFFICIENTS FOR 
RECTANGULAR SECTIONS 



(USED FOR TRANSITION 
SECTION OF HLH BLADE 
SHANKS) 




CORNER RADIUS 'v INCHES 
(FOR 8 IN. FRONTAL THICKNESS) 



Figure 4-24. Typical Hub and Shank Drag Coefficients 
(Part 1 of 2) . 



4-107 



HUB CENTERSECTION DRAG COEFFICIENTS 



CH-47 HUB (INCLUDING INTERFERENCE) 
@ "FUSE 



= 

^ "SHAFT = 



Cd = 1.61 
Cn = 1.91 



CH-47 HUB (WITH INTERFERENCE CORRECTION) 

Cd = 1.03 

Cn = • 8 8 



BASED ON STATIC AREA 
BASED ON ROTATING AREA 



DRTS/12' DIA. - 3/6 BLADED ROTOR HUB (NO INTERFERENCE) 
BASED ON STATIC AREA Cd = 1.03 
BASED ON ROTATING AREA Cd = .88 

NASA MEMO 1-31-59L (NO INTERFERENCE) 



BASED ON 


ROTATING AREA 




HUB 1 


CYLINDRICAL HUB 


Cd = .65 


HUB 2 


TWO BLADED TEETERING HUB 


Cd = .63 


HUB 3 


HILLER SERVO ROTOR HUB 


Cd = .70 


HUB 4 


H-19 HUB 


Cd = .72 


HUB 5 


HUP- 2 HUB 


Cd = .55 



NOTE: HUB CENTERSECTION COEFFICIENTS ARE GENERALLY LOWER 

THAN MIGHT BE EXPECTED SINCE CENTERSECTION IS USUALLY 
MORE TYPICAL OF 3 DIMENSIONAL RATHER THAN 2 DIMENSIONAL 
FLOW 



SHAPE 



Cd @ SUBCRITICAL REYNOLDS NO, 



3-DIMENSIONAL 
TYPICAL OF CENTERSECTION 



2 -DIMENSIONAL 
TYPICAL OF SHANKS 



o 

o 



.47 

.80 

1.05 

1.17 



1.17 



1.55 



2.05 



1.98 



Figure 4-24 



Typical Hub and Shank Drag Coefficients 
(Part 2 of 2) . 



4-108 



f. 

ROTATION 



MAIN ROTOR 



SHANK 



^ 



UB 



HUB 
CENTER SECTION 



ASSUMED ; 



t 



X, 



MR- 



-SHANK 



SHANK 



T 



ROTOR ^ 
BLADE/ 



(INPUT LOC 0179) 



1- ^hubAshank - 3.0 

2- tgHANK = ^BLADE f * ^^^ 

dmr 

3. HUB DIA = 2 XjjR ["2^ 

4. HUB FRONTAL AREA = HUB DIA X tRUB 

fOMRl 

5. SHANK FRONTAL AREA = (Xcmr - X^r) [-^"J 

6. KiNT = 1-QO 

ROTATION ^ 
TAIL ROTOR [ ^ 



^^MR 

(INPUT LOC 0178) 



SHANK 



HUB 



SHANK 



HUB 
CENTER SECTION 



ASSUMED; 



T 



I 



SHANK 



SHANK 

*r 



ROTOR 
BLADE 



1. tHUB/tSHANK =3.0 

2. (t/c) SHANK = .10 

f^TR 

3. HUB DIA = 2 Xtr \."T"; 

4. HUB. FRONTAL AREA = HUB DIA X tRUB Tq \ 

5. SHANK FRONTAL AREA = (Xc^j^ - X^r) f-pl tgHANK 

6. KjNT " I'OO 

Rotor Hub/Shank Geometry Used in Program for 
Hub Drag Calculations . 



Figure 4-25 



4-109 



>^ 




















0i 




a\ 
















P 




[^ 
















CO 




O 
















s 




















o 




a 
















H 




* o 
















Eh 




1 1 M 
















U 




&HO 




















M • D 


ON 












• 

Q 


(^ 




,U^ .H ^CU 


r- 












S 


o 




1 J ^2; 


5 






•K 






a 




/ *-• 








— ^ 






H 
CO 


I */ 




' Eh 


o • 


CO 






pc5 / 


EH o U 






^ 


o 






9 


EH 




S 


5* 


2; o q 






H 


• 






Q 


s 




.X 


X o 


H • ^ 






^< 


»H 








H 

u 






Ui r-\ 






1 1 






CO 




i-i 


■ ' g 












H 


1 1 o 


r 1 


H 




^ 




1 1 . f>H 






^ 








Eh 


Pt4 






P=5 u 


J. 'irfz 






13 








CO 


PL4 




rtj 


in O 




^ / ^ 






^ 








H 


pa 




ffi 


CN ^ 


'c^; 


p:;/ 












P^ 


o 




CO 


* 


s: 


s: 


00 




CO 


o 






w 


u 




u 


a D 


X 


X 






u 


• 






U CO 


o 




\ 


V. (u 


1 


1 


o 




> 








< u 


g 




4^ 


+J IS 


p^ 


tf 


U 




4J 






* 


Oh H 

< Eh 






• — H 












Q 




i 1 


s 


g 


O 




1 1 




F^o' 


Ji: CO 


^ 






CJ 
X 


5 ~^ 


v4 








2: 

H 


o 

• 


Pi 




( ^, * 






Pi 








H 




»; 






t4 


rH 


Ui pq 


1 




X 

^ 

S 

^ 




1 i 


p 

H 




£h 






i 1 


/SHAN 
ARACT 






CO 
Q 






I 


1 ^^ 

C30 

rH 








t4 


— 1 


13 




O 




Pi o 






w 






13 




« K 


< 




CO 




g 


in 






CO 

-p 


O 

• 




^ 




P U 


CQ 




\ 




CO 


^•■>s 






\ 


m 




CO 


o 


Q 


3 




m 










CQ 






.*— * 


rH 


i-:i w 


ffi 




D 




u 


U 






P 






u 


• 


<: X 






a: 




\ 


V ^ 






ffi 




in 


\ 




P H 






-p 


in 


-p 


-P P 






4-» 




CN 


4J 




Eh Pm 


, 






fM 




^ &i 






'^-' 




1 


■^"-^ 




a 


1 




1 ' 1 1 










'^ 


f t 


t^ 


'^ 


^-4 

M 






^ 














* 




S a 






Pi t3 


P^ 






pc; 


O 


Pi 


o w 


S 

S 




C0^_ Pm 


^""""^'^ CO 






co^ 
u 


H 
Pm 


CO 


a 

"S3 




Q S 


Q 






Q 


S 


Q 


Sg 


tH 




§ 


U 






U 


§ 


U 






11 Cm 


11 






II 


P4 


II 








Pi ^ 


Pi 






(t; 


Eh 


P^ 




05 


X 05 


s: 




Pi 


tH 


CQ 


&^ 


M O 




o 


CO O 


ffi 




o 


CO 


O 


K 


g S 




H 


u 


CO 




tH 


u 




CO 


P W 




o 


Q 


Q 




g 


a 




Q 


;3 Q 




p:^ 


U 


u 




oi; 


u 




U 


■)C 




IZ 








^ 












H 








H 












. 








Eh 




^ 









4-110 



where , 

Wgo 



Wg = 



Initial "guess" at iterated helicopter gross weight 
(input LOC 0023) . Note, this is also the value of 
gross weight at which the input value of (GW/Fe) is 
obtained. (See sketch below) 

"Iterated" or final design gross weight of the 
aircraft. 



(GW/Fe) = "Drag Loading" input at a given gross weight (in 
this case Wqq) . 

K„„_. = Exponent defining the slope of a typical 
logarithmic drag trend. 

The following sketch should serve to illustrate these facts 
more clearly. 



GW 



/ 



Fe 




Jin (WG1/WG2) 



W^ 



GW 



Figure 4-26 illustrates typical parasite drag area trend for 
various helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. 

The drag routine may be used in many different ways. The four 
most common applications are: 

1. Drag Build up for a New Aircraft Design - This is best 

illustrated by first referring to the complete drag break- 
downs of the hypothetical helicopters shown in Tables 4-5 
and 4-7. The input Cd for each component (Cowi' DHTi' 



4-111 



104 
9 
8 

7 
6 
5 



♦ WINGED AIRCRAFT 
_ 4 MISC HELICOPTERS 
— • LINE (D , KpED = 

(I) 
® 



GW/, 




103 



4 5 6 78 910^ 2 
DESIGN GW '^ LB 



5 6 7 8 910^ 



1. Advanced drag cleanup (e.g. faired hubs, low drag or 
retractable landing gear etc.) . 

2. Current standard of landing gear, hub design, skin 
finish etc. 

3. Unf aired landing gear, hubs, protuberances, poor body 

shape , etc . , ,. • 

4. Exceptionally dirty configuration due to such things 
as open construction, exceptionally dirty engine 
installation, landing gear, etc. 

NOTE: The drag area for the winged aircraft excludes the CpA 
of the wings, to be compatible with the helicopters. 



Figure 4-26. Typical Parasite Drag Trends 



4-112 



etc.) may be used to represent the reference Cf at Re = 
107 and at the mean flight Mach number. Drag increases 
above the drag of a flat plate "such as three dimensional 
effects, interference/ roughness, and excrescences may be 
accounted for by the multiplying factors (%, ^W^' etc.)' 
Miscellaneous drag increments can be summed and input as 
AFe. Examples of these increments are cooling momentum, 
trim, and airconditioning. The K factor for wings and 
tails should include a factor for relating the wetted 
area of the surface to the planform area. An example of 
the program inputs for the hypothetical helicopters of 
Tables 4-5 and 4-7 are shown in Tables 4-6 and 4-8. 

2. Study of the Sensitivity of Aircraft Size with Respect to 
the Component Drag or the Total Drag about a Certain Drag 
Level - Let the total drag of each component be contained 
in the drag coefficient of each component, Cowi' ^DHTi' 
CdvtI' etc. The change in drag of each component will 
then be determined by the values assigned to the component 
multiplying factor, Kw/ Kht^ KvT/etc. The fuselage drag 
change, however, will have to be represented by an incre- 
mental value of Afe. 

3. Use of Component Drag Data from Wind Tunnel Test - Let the 
drag of each component (including interference) be con- 
tained in the component drag coefficient, Cowi/ CDHTi# 
CoVTif etc- The skin friction drag must first be corrected 
to Re = 10*7. The drag increase due to items found only on 
the fuii scale airplane would then be represented by the 
factors and increments. Increases due to excrescences and 
roughness are represented by the factors, Kw, Kht/ Kvt^ 
etc. Increments such as inlets, cooling, trim, and after- 
body drag, can be siimmed and represented by Afe. 

4 . Simplified Drag Model for Parametric Studies - The program 
is often used to study the influence of variations of 
parameters, such as disc loading, solidity, etc. on the 
size of a helicopter. During these studies, it is often 
not desirable to go into the design depth required in the 
three applications above. Use of the drag trends 
(DRGIND = 2) is therefore dictated by this requirement. 

Figure 4-27 is a flow chart of this subroutine. 



4-113 



TABLE 4-5. DRAG BREAKDOWN FOR HYPOTHETICAL SINGLE ROTOR 

COMPOUND HELICOPTER R^/FT = 1.56x10^ (V ^ 189 KT) 


COMPONENT 


WETTED 
AREA 


Cf 


INCREMENT 


fg FT'^ 


% Af^ 


FUSELAGE 

3-Diinensional Effects 

Excrescences 

Canopy 

Afterbody 


1949. 


0.00191 


3.72 


6.60 






12.3 0.46 

7.0 0.29 

0.20 

1.93 


WING 

3-Diinensional Effects 

Excrescences 

Flaps, Slats, Ailerons, Spoilers 

Body Interference 


345. 


0.0030 


1.04 


1.59 






29.3 0.31 
2.0 0.03 

15.6 0.21 


MAIN ROTOR PVLON 

Basic Fg (including interference and 
3-D effects) Cq (Based on frontal 
area) « 0.10 ° 
Excrescences 


286. 






3.19 


Frontal 
Area » 
26.6 Ft2 




2.66 
20.0 0.53 


HORIZONTAL TAIL 

3-Dimensional Effects 

Excrescences 

Interference 


246. 


0.00305 


0.75 


1.60 






43.4 0.33 

7.0 0.08 

40.7 0.44 


VERTICAL TAIL 

3*Diinensional Effects 

Excrescences 

Interference 


210. 


0,00270 


0.57 


1.03 






22.3 0.13 

7.0 0.05 

40.7 0.28 


PRIMARY ENGINE NACELLES 
3- Dimensional Effects 
Excrescences 
Interference 
Inlets 


188. 


0.00278 


0.52 


1.72 






40.4 0.21 

25.0 0.18 

75.0 0.55 

0.26 


ROTOR HUBS (TOTAL) 

Main Rotor Hub (center section) 

Main Rotor Hub (shanks) 

Tail Rotor Hub (center section) 

Tail Rotor Hub (shanks) 

Total Interference (main & tail rotor) 






6.22 
5.85 
0.48 

0.67 
1.60 


14.82 


u 
m 

n 


Roughness (50% of Cf A^^,p 

Cooling 

Trim 

Air Conditioning 






0.54 
0.50 

0.30 


1.34 


TOTALS ft^ 


3224 






31.89 


NOTES: (1) Basic f^ ^ ^^fNvET^ ^ ^^'^ Effects Af^) 

(2) Excrescences and interference are % of basic f^ 



4-114 



I 



3 

S 



fS M 




C 




'- 




o o 




^♦m 




Li 




H O 


og 


< 


■U 


+ 


V 




•-I 


o 


c 


ut 


*H 


a>>ir • 




c o 


V 


•H 


*H 


rH + 


r4 


8 u, 


O 


U oi^ 


^S 


o 


+ 






>t 


o 


a 






0! 






o 

R 



z 

o 



Q 



N. 






01 
0) 

c 

3 
O 

V4 



.^ — -o 

O M 



» n 

CM O 

.* -K-l 

O K-l 



c 



:;;. ? 



so V 



o 

+ X 



3 O 



u 

3 

CO 






z 



tn 01 
o a* 



X 

+ a> 






5§ 








o 



O ' 

X 



s 



gg 






S u U 
< z ^ 

£ M U 
M O U 

« z < 

o. u S 



o o 
a u 



3 

c 

■H 

T3 

0) 
T3 

3 
i-( 
O 

c 



M 

X 



r 


s; 


w 


X 


u 


en 


o 


D 


u 


u 



c 
o 
o 



o 

8 



4-115 



TABT.F. 4-7. TYPICAL DRAG SUMMARY 
DRAG BREAKDOWN FOR HYPOTHETICAL TANDEM ROTOR 
WINGED HELICOPTER R^/ft = 1.49x10^ (V = 181 KT) 




COMPONENT 


WETTED 
AREA 


^f 


INCREMENT 


f Ft2 
e 


% 


'e 


FUSELAGE 

3-Diinensional Effects 

Excrescences 

Canopy 

Afterbody 


1640. 


0.00208 




3.41 


6.52 






12.2 
7.0 


0.42 
0.27 
0.20 
2.22 


WING 

3-Dimensional Effects 

Excrescences 

Flaps, Slats, Ailerons, Spoilers 

Body Interference 


389. 


0,0030 




1.16 


1,77 






29.3 
2.0 

15.2 


0,34 
0.03 

0.24 


FORWARD PYLON 

Basic fe (including interference and 
3-D effects) Co-, (Based on Frontal 
Area) = 0.15 
Excrescences 


41,5 








1.69 


(Frontal 
Area - 
9.5 Ft2) 




20.0 


1.41 
0.28 


AFT PYLON 

3-Diinensional Effects 
Excrescences 

Interference 


421. 


0.00252 




1.06 


2.38 






46.4 
20,0 
33.5 


0.49 
0.31 
0,52 


PRIMARY ENGINE NACELLE 
3-Diinensional Effects 
Excrescences 
Interference 
Inlets 


188. 


0.00278 




0.52 


1.72 






40.4 
25.0 
75.0 


0.21 
0.18 
0.55 
0.26 


ROTOR HUBS (TOTAL) 

Main rotor hub (center section, total) 
Main rotor hub (shanks, total) 
Hub/Shan)c Interference (total) 








10.4 
7.78 
1.30 


19.48 




Roughness {5.0% of C^A^^,^) 

Cooling 

Trim 

Air Conaitioning 








0.45 
0.50 

0.30 


1.25 


TOTALS ft^ 


2679.5 






34.81 




NOTES: (1) Basic f^ = (C^A^^^) + (3-D Effects ^f^) 

(2) Excrescences and interference are % of basic f^ 







4-116 



&4 




o 




Q^ 




» 




Eh 




04 




O 




O 




H 




1^ 


o 


ffi 


fH 


p^ 


X 


o 


OS 


fi4 


^ 


H 


rH 


D 


II 




00 

I 



4-117 




oars *■ 
■J J 

— ,0 - 
J - — 



(-3UJ 

-55 









-r 
r 


S 

s 

^ 

^ 


■1 ^ 










LD 




r>i 




J. 




V 




V 








ra 




r* 




V 








L3 




'T 




$ 




ea 








^■j 




(— >CD 




:>^*J^J 




fTZ-.T 




o: » 




wn *- 




rjC3 




* I t=3 




-,L*J .(TJ 




. JO^ - 




u-t - — cri 




C -- 




'1 <l 




'1 1 




UJljJ 




r-ciiTir 




">'j!-a. 




ujir>ir 




ccixu.^ 




30 




10 




n 




.i-:^ 



^ J 








•I 't 



c 

s 

CO 






en • 


C^ 


'^ 


•H 


4J M-l 


(d 


3 rH 


U 


iH 4-) 


rd M 


ftf 


04 


CO ^ 





•H -P 


e M 


(TJ rO 


a XX 


>iU 


nd 


15 


U 


0) rH 


<: p4 


• 


r^ 


CN 


•"^ 


OJ 


u 


:3 


en 


-H 


Pm 



4-118 




rHR£ * 0.0 
uD 10 315 



3)8 R£H ^ R[LJ*£LH 




1.8 18 'H\ 



3B9 3CNI -» nEi^i^ELHI 

RRGG ■» I. a£*o'i«ru»tt 




382 R£HS * B£Li-CHS 

ftRCC •• l.8£-01*h£«S 



KNSRC ^ 3,3 
uB 18 06*3 




36M RfHl ^ RlLI*CH1 

RRGu ^ l,Ot-01*R£:(l1 



305 92 ^ B 





B2 ^ BW 
Bl ^ 3 



5IGIf ^ O.J 
1,8 m 3li 




306 55 ^ 91/02 







Figure 4-27. Aerodynamics Calculations (AERO) Subroutine 
Flow Chart (Part 2 of 4) . 



4-119 




< MflllL 16, 90021 > 
__J 



I sCi * (l,3^ - J flus^flR^^Q.sa | 



Sfl6 ^ CKW*fUpE 

Sfl8 * SiCJf/ IPI*0«6W1 

SA3 ^ 0.0 

Cfl Ifl 321 




31* SflS ^ DLl^fL 
Sfl5 ^ if\A 




SHI - 1.0/ IPN3U*>*H) 
bfl8 - 5IGH/ iPI*5*e^) 




S££V1 -s a.gU ' 0.0US*MilVl**Q.6fi 
Sf\S ^ 1.0/ tPNflRVl^oLtWKTKEM 




Figure 4-27. 



Aerodynamics Calculations (AERO) Subroutine 
Flow Chart (Part 3 of 4) . 



4-120 





Jfl5 ^ lUCOO/CWftl* lUU/^GOO) •*»HHFt3 



1 



331 M'JdfiFI ^3.0 

Rriui ^ vc/ tp«xrim 

ffCLSfiri ^ C03HMR«1VCnR«3IGf1fi«Pf*3rin*i«<:* IXC - Ktlfil • 
UELfiflM - OELCmR •• ULSm •• JKiPfM 




HUfllR ^ 3,a 

STtLLlR ^ CDL;i'!R^riU81R*WCiri«iX1R*PN3!^'!h*31R«*2/ U. 3*81R) 
RMUl •= VC/ IP1H*K1R1 

HHmx •= t.3/8flUl 

irEL51R ■= C0ShTR*"lVC1R*oIbiri*ei*01R«2«iXi:iR - K1H1« 
I 11. J f !>*^HLJ2**^ - flflMUl**31/' I'J.O* IR^HU2 - ^flHUmi/'b.O 
ffELIRM ^ UailR » OELS'IH *- CKhP I 1 



£1 



393 5fl5 ^ a.OO^ei^CHF^SF^KFRE " CKVl««CDV*T*5V1n^VlRE 

I •• i;K/*P*iC0aP*3flP«FflPRt: ^ CKH*CDM«3Nt«fNRt '' C'<HI*C3HI«3Nl«f NfRE 
'i - CKHi*CDNS*3NS*fNiflE ^ CKrP*<CQFP«rflFP ^ CKhl*»C0nl*3ri7«KrllR£ 
3 ^ OELflRfl*EHR * OELIRm ^ OLIAFE^^FFRE 



iX< 



HQS RE7UMfi 



Figure 4-27, 



Aerodynamics Calculations (AERO) Subroutine 
Flow Chart (Part 4 of 4) . 



4-121 



4.10 ENGINE SIZING SUBROUTINE 

The engine cycle performance data included in the engine 
library consists of detailed performance maps of power (or 
thrust), fuel fl6w, Nj , and Nij. The data, as shown in Table 
4-1, is in normalized, referred format. In particular, horse- 
power is normalized with respect to the value of power at the 
maximum static rating at sea level, standard day conditions. 
Thrust is similarly normalized to the maximum static thrust 
at sea level for standard day. 

The engine sizing subroutine calculates the value of the 
scaling factors; namely, the maximum static thrust or power 
(S.L., std.) . If so desired, the user may study a helicopter 
with fixed rather than "rubberized" primary engines. This is 
accomplished by means of the indicator FIXIND. If FIXIND = 0, 
the user inputs the maximum (installed) power of the primary 
engines. If FIXIND = 1, the engine sizing subroutine calcu- 
lates the installed power. 

A variety of different criteria are often applied to determine 
engine size requirements. These criteria, differing as they 
do, can generally be related by a single factor. For a take- 
off condition this factor is the value of equivalent required 
thrust-to-weight ratio. Similarly, engine sizing requirements 
for forward flight can be related to a set of cruise condi- 
tions; namely, cruise altitude and true airspeed. 

Engine sizing requirements for helicopters are generally set 
by takeoff conditions, and less frequently by forward flight 
conditions. The program, therefore, permits the user two 
options of calculation. The first option (ESCIND = 1) will 
calculate engine size for takeoff conditions only; the second 
option (ESCIND = 2) will calculate engine size for both take- 
off and forward flight conditions, compare the two, and pick 
the more critical condition. The engines are sized for take- 
off to provide a required (input) equivalent thrust-to-weight 
ratio with a specified (input) number of engines inoperative, 
at a specified fraction (SHPe/SHP*) of maximum installed 
power. 

Cruise conditions are specified by means of altitude, ambient 
temperature, true airspeed; and, in the case of a compound 
helicopter, the propulsive thrust split (TauxAtot)c between 
the auxiliary propulsor and the main rotor. In addition, the 
user may select the power setting to be used: maximum, 
military, or normal. 

In the case of a configuration having auxiliary independent 
cruise engines (APIND = 2) , these engines may either be fixed 
or sized independently of the primary engines. For example, 
it would be possible to study a configuration with fixed size 

4-122 



primary" engines (FIXIND = 0) while sizing the auxiliary 
engines" to" meet_cruise requirements. "NOTE: in a case like 
this, input locations 023T-0T4T must be filled out to allow 
sizing for the auxiliary engines, even though the primary 
engines are fixed in size. 

In addition to sizing the primary and auxiliary engines, this 
subroutine calculates the main rotor, tail rotor (in the case 
of a single rotor helicopter) and auxiliary propulsion drive 
system rating (in the case of a compound helicopter) . The 
options available to the user for this purpose are: 

XMSNIND = 1 Main, tail and auxiliary drive system ratings 

specified as fraction of primary engine 
installed power (in the case of a compound 
helicopter with auxiliary independent propul- 
sion, the auxiliary independent drive system 
rating is specified as a fraction of the aux- 
iliary independent engine installed power) 

XMSNIND = 2 Main, tail, and auxiliary drive system ratings 

specified at fraction of power required to 
hover or cruise at d es ign conditions (more 
critical of the two conditions is selected). 

XMSNIND = 3 Same as 2, except the most critical of the two 

design condition is compared to the drive sys- 
tem rating required at ah alternate pay load/ 
gross weight hover at the design point condi- 
tions, the most critical of these three 
conditions is selected. 

It should be noted that when FIXIND ^ or FIXINDI = 0; i.e., 
fixed size engines, the drive system ratings calculated are 
equal to the product of the applicable multiplicative factors 

(shpmrx/shp*mr' shptrx/trp*, shParx/shp*;^ux) ^^d ^^ i^P^t 

fixed engine sizes. If FIXIND = 1.0 or FIXINDI =1.0 and 
XMSND = 1.0, the drive system ratings calculated are equal to 
the product of the applicable multiplicative factors (SHPj^p^x/ 
SHP*MR/ SHPtrxARP*/ SHParx/SHP*aux) and the component (main 
tail, and auxiliary) power obtained from the proportional 
split (based on power required) of the total sea level stand- 
ard maximum (installed) engine power. 

The use of separate engine and transmission sizing options 
provides great flexibility in meeting conflicting engine/drive 
system requirements. For example, using XMSNIND =2, it is 
possible to size a helicopter's primary engines to meet an 
engine inoperative in hover requirement, while only rating the 
drive system for the actual power required to hover at that 
design point, thus effecting a considerable saving in drive 
system weight. Or, using XMSNIND = 3, it is possible to rate 

4-123 



the drive system for the power required at an alternate gross 
weight/pay load hover point, while still meeting the original 
engine out sizing criteria. Figure 4-28 contains a flow chart 
of this subroutine. 



4-124 



\ SUBROinJHE EHGS'Z / 

Jl 



m.1 ^IHOSiHES.t.O.liHTl 
LLl ' 
LLM ' 
LL5 ' 




TRPSIR - IRXMSN * BHPP 



SHP^X ' BHPP « TRXSHi 




Figure 4-28. Engine Sizing Subroutine Plow Chart 
(Part 1 of 10) . 



4-125 




ill JHOlffi. - I 

M ' WG 

ftVCa - VRCRC 

[T - DHB 

R2S1R - fl2hAX « flll^ie 

FIN^M^X ■* Ah210 

RN2MXi - flH2CRi 

R2S1RJ - f\2H^tl « flH2MXI 

P ^ VI « A2S1R 

i^ - 0.0 

CALL R61P0W 



300 CALL POtJAVL UMAX. 0.0) 
SI ' SHPfl 

TLSl * EHP /lENP - EMPS01 
S3 ' TLSl /ISI « DELIA ^iSlHElA * SHPT81 
S8 * IRHPMRVEIAT * OSHPAC I 
ehPPl * BHPR • S3 

SHPMRl- 1RHPMR1 /ElAl ^ OSHP^IC) « S3 
mPPl - RHP"I • S3 / E1A1 
S18 - SE ^ 1RPPI^S3 
Sl8 - SB ^ 1RPPI'S3 




i|00 HH -« HC 

rALE22 ' UO 

CALL A1MflS(HH.rAL£22.A7HJri 

fl2S1R ' A2HAX * AH2CR 

flh2MAX = AH2CR 

P * VT « ^2S1R 

^ - VC 

RMU - 1.688 « V ,^P 

ff * l.42635«RH0 «V««2 

EH -• V /SA 

nP^ 4 « ( W-CLI^«SW*0)/ tRHff*Pf«£hB* lP«0Mni**21 

CALL nRACICLDPI 

CXI « c< 

CXR - CXI < II - lAUXCHI 

TAUX- 0.25 « CXI * RHfl nPNEHR* tP*DnRU<2 * l^UXCH 




402 


BHPAXl M 8HPPI 




BHPPI - 0.0 




TP - 0.0 




ao "fo 500 



-L 



y03 BHPAXl ^ 8MPPI 

CALL PffWAVJ IIHAXi.EM) 

sm - SHPAr 

S15 * Sm * DELIA « SIHEI^ 
CO 10 500 



qOl BHPAXl - 0.0 
BHPPI - 0.0 
IP - 0.0 
CO 10 500 




Figure 4-28. 



Engine Sizing Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 2 of 10) • 



4-126 





45) H8XPJ - XPJm ^0,1 
NOCPP - CPPHfl *• O.l 




PI/^R ' /12S1Ri«VlflR 



ftEflU - l,68S«PJ*V/P7flB 

Cn -M.O«lPi«*21«l«UX/IO.n05SO>5J&Hfl*EMRi«lOfiR«P1Am«*2) _ ^^ 

CCP - XLKLIPtR£flLJ.Cn.XPJ.HflXPJ,CP'^RflP.NflCPP.C1PR8P,20.20JX.in 



If 


\ 


«t. 


lii^ i 


T 


-^ < ttaiU 16,90031 > 


!f 


\ 


Nt. 


up i 


v^ 


-^ < HRJTE lE.goom > 


L 


1 



nflP - REALJ*CC1/CCP 

HflPM-n^p 





650 



I 550 ElflPM ^ XLJhl n8£H5.1Bfi<RPM,EH>NElflPt4.Mi~| 




< XRME 16.3001) > 



WS8 BHPflUX - IPm m V/(32^6*E^'^PM^ETfl^^ 
CO 10 1451 . 





Figure 4-28- Engine Sizing Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 3 of 10) . 

4-127 



l|0 



£ 




u 

fd 

o 

H 

c 

•r-i 
-P 

o 

w • 
tno 

CH 

N m 
'H O 

cn 

•H M 



00 

CN 

I 

'^ 

0) 

CP 
-H 
P4 



4-128 









^ I 




L 






--en— '> 



« n crx 



i|>ct-uj£l— M 



4-129 




66t4 n^PM * XLIHI nBEH£,1B6ftPM,£H,hETtiPM,M1 | 





< ^ MRJIE 16,90011 > 



S32 8mPI ■- li^lJX*V/{325,e«£]ti(I*nftPm I 



I 33 TPSi ^ THRPl 




32 1PSJ ' IniLR] 



31 7PSJ - IflflXI 

(70 TO 34 

[ 



3M C^L POUAVJ HPSJ.EMl 
SIO -* SH^^AJ 



(688) 
(689) 





I {TEBflflJ^XJMJ* S0H1I8HPPI/ENPI1 



22 IPSi - IMlLBi 
(;0 10 2M 




I 23 TPSi"^ THRPJ I 



21 If^Si ' iMflXJ 
00 TO 24 



24 CflLl POWrtVJ ITPSI.EH) 
Sn - SHPfll 




CO 10 BB3 




(683 




--13 7 



Figure 4-28. 



Engine Sizing Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 6 of 10) . 



4-130 



686 IPBOP - TftUX 
HERP - 
Ofl - 0.85 
TPBOPl - IPftflP 
BHPP3 - imt « V / I 325,8«El^I«0EL7fl«STMnA*Sl01 



530 


HEB 


- HER 


> I 




BHPP, 


^ BHPP3/£1« ! 




riHu 


•Elft 






TPl-lPBOP 






C^LL 


IHRUSl 


RPROP) 




nfl2 


- ElftP 






TP2 - 


' 7PR0P 






(688) 
{689^ 




nfl-Elfl2<' nPR9Pl-lP21 • ItTflZ-Elflll / nPS-lPlI 




-H691 



Figure 4-28. 



Engine Sizing Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 7 of 10) . 



4-131 




4-132 






u 
o 

0) 

c 

-P 

o 

u 



en • 

CH 

•H 

N m 

-H O 

tn 
as 

d -P 



00 

I 

0) 

en 

Cm 



4-133 



711 JF 
UPJUO .£0. 2.0 
ENCJnO .EQ. l.O) 



ffllPlHfl 
" CHGJ 



IF ^\^^ 


"v ... -. ,. 




NO .£a, o.ni^ 


' .1 


^,^^ 


DHPPiX -SMPflUX 1 









IF 

JXMSHD .E3. 2.Dt 
10 333^ 



HH * HES 

rflL£22 -■ l.O 

CALL /^7MflSlHH,TflL£2^.7ifiYl 

« * W ^ WPL«5KLlf^T 

INOrOL - I 

TOVW - TVWO 

(r ^ OHB 

R2STfl - A2HflX * ^«210 

RH?MflX * «RH2r(J 

P - VI * f^251R 

if - 0.0 

CALL ROIPOH 

S8 - RNPMRI^EIftl *- D SUP AC 

S5 - RhPl /£fAl 

?20 - S8 ^ S5 

^0 ^ S8 ^ sg 




!13 LL.S - I 

SHPHR ' S6 - XM5MH7 
IRPS1R- Sfl * FFiXHSfi 
SHPAUX^ SHPAUX 
&HPP]X^ BHPPJX 
CO 10 21153 




Figure 4-28. Engine Sizing Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 10 of 10) . 



4-134 




4.11 



WEIGHT TRENDS 5UBRQUTTME 



The weight trends subroutine calculates the group weights 
for the propulsion system, the structures system, and the 
flight control system. These weights are then combined with 
input values of the weight of fixed useful load, fixed equip- 
ment, and payload in order to determine the weight of fuel 
available (Figure 4-29) . The subroutine uses detailed sta- 
tistical weight equations as used at the Boeing Vertol Company. 
The group weights are not directly added, but rather are 
combined by the use of incremental multiplicative and additive 
weight factors; these factors are useful for sensitivity 
studies forthe aircraft. For example, if it is desired to 
determine the effect of an additional 300 pounds of propulsion 
system weight, the factor Wp is input as 300. Similarly, if 
it is desired to investigate the effect of a 15-percent in- 
crease in the weight of the engines, the factor K^s is input 
as 1.15. 

In order to calculate the weight of the aircraft structure, 
the weight trends subroutine must determine the limiting 
design load factor. For pure and auxiliary propulsion heli- 
copters (without wings) , the program uses the input value 
of maneuver load factor. In the case of a wing or compound 
helicopter, it does this by comparing the magnitude of the 
input maneuver load factor with the value calculated for gust 
load factor. The gust load factor is evaluated at the alti- 
tude at which maximum operating equivalent airspeed (Vj^q) ^^ 
equal to the speed for maximum operating Mach number (Mj^q) so 
long as the altitude falls in the band, 

< h^^^^ < 20,000 ft 

The gust load factor is calculated at the speed V^ (see Refer- 
ence 11) which is taken to be equal to V^^q/^mO* ^^ ^^^ user 
finds that his aircraft is gust-critical at other than the 
V condition, he must manually calculate the expected load 
factor and insert that value in the program as a dummy maneuver 
load factor. 

4.11.1 Weight Trend Data 

The weights subroutine section of HESCOMP represents one 
approach for determining the individual and group weights 
which make up the weight empty of an aircraft. The aircraft 
weight is divided into subgroups, as shown in Table 4-9 , 
and is in general accordance with the weight and balance data 
reporting procedures and forms for Aircraft and Rotorcraft 
described in Military Standard 1374. A copy of Part I (Group 
Weight Statement) is included at the end of this section. A 
flow chart describing the weights subroutine is shown in 
Figure 4-30. 

4-135 



PROPULSION 
WEIGHTS 



(Wf)A 



Wr 



STRUCTURES 
WEIGHTS 



W, 



ST 



FLIGHT 
CONTROLS 
WEIGHTS 



W. 



FC 



~f 



I 

i 
4 



1 


r 






<^f>A- ^G - [^P ^ ^ST - ^FC - 


^FUL ■ 


-^PL 


WE = "sT " ^ " ^C ' ^E 






OWE = WE + WpuL 







I 



Figure 4-29. Weight Trends Subroutine, 



4-136 



BOEING VERTOL COMPANY 



WING 



ROTOR 



TAIL 



SURFACES 



ROTOR 



BODY 



BASIC 



SECONDARY 



ALIGHTING GEAR GROUP 



ENGINE SECTION 



PROPULSION GROUP 



ENGINE [NST'L 



EXHAUST SYSTEM 



COOLING 



CONTROLS 



STARTING 



_a_ 



j^ 



jj^ 



JL2. 



JLi 



14 



15 



_16. 



PROPELLER INST'L 



LUBRICATING 



FUEL 



DRIVE 



FLIGHT CONTROLS 



AUX. POWER PLANT 



INSTRUMENTS 



HYDR. 4 PNEUMATIC 



ELE CTRiCAL GROUP 



AVIONICS GROUP 



_li 



18 



19 



20 



21- 



2Z. 



JJl. 



7d 



JlEi^ 



26 



27 



.2a_ 



ARMAMENT GROUP 



FURN. ft EQUIP. GROUP 



ACCOM, FOR PERSON. 



MISC. EQUIPMENT 



FURNISHINGS 



EMERG. EQUIPMENT 



AIR CONDITIONING 



ANTMCiNG GROUP 



LOAD AND HANDLING <:iP^ 



29 



_10_ 



JlL 



.IZ 



33 



34 

35 



.32. 



_1B_ 



_3J_ 



WEIGHT EMPTY 



CREW 



TRAPPED LIQUIDS 



ENGINE OIL 



FUEL 



_A0. 



.ii 



WEIGHT SUMMARY - PRELIMINARY DESIGN 

(MIL-STD*T374) 



TABLE 4-9. WEIGHT SUMMARY FORM 



GROSS WEIGHT 

I 

FORM 263»t (2/73) 



4-137 







% 




IaJ 






V 


r— 




i 


r 






-a 






3 






UJ 




0- 

1 . 1 


s 




■K V C3C3 t W 

t=tr>o - - ran 


£ 
^ 




1 - .C3C3 UJ -ac 






'( M t-3 'I 




I) '1 '( 3 '1 >r 






t^tz ^ 


l^ 








4-138 



rt: 



en uj 



i 



u_ rvj 



G> 



» tar* 

^ . « ojrn — 

^ C3 lAi "V ~ 9 
^-- f CCS . 



ii ii ii ^ 

mil 




c 
M O 

<M 

en U 



o 

I 



0) 



4-139 



© 



Mfln * Hnn*tHnJ 




I M/^DS -- SKflOS. IBHPPNSMIlS?«Q.^5.Pl.RJW/l30.D^V1flnil.^a.61 1 



?i°o,fl".v'1S?/rJ,Tr'="'"^'"°-"-^'^^''" 



66 MPEi ^ SKPENUEP 



If 



I. CI. I. 



. MPEJ ^ SKP EJ I 

J, 1=] 



I MflEi ^ SKfiENiJgfl I 




L 



I Mfln ^ sKfllT 







o 



I SJGnP ^ fVfiQ/ [56l.S^i:HMDl]^^.l.6l3M3 [ 




o 



-0 



Figure 4-30. Weight Trends Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 3 of 6) . 



4-140 




4-141 



© 



& 



<(aui(j 



A 



iUXiH0.b£.3.3.AHQ.SKHS.C1.a.3>'^ 




1 



QmH S jf' ^.^'^S^SSIHtJ 



«1£S •= WPeS •• Ufl£S '^ WHS 
ULQ ' SKLi;«UG 

HHl ^ SKHl*5Ml 




JftUXJH0.£0.l.3.flfl.flUX|NO,£Q.:3.(Jl 
C9 10 ISO 




" (SKWS.GLO.O)^ 



130 WW « SKWS*(0,5*8W*SW*(WI*0I ♦ W2*0Z) )**0.333 

fin TO ISO 



JL 



0* 



MM J 5KWP«SW 



Figure 4-30. 



Weight Trends Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 5 of 6) . 



4-142 







© 



2 /H.8&10 l^i^ll-^O.'iaS 



<D 



150 WS»SKB*(S CRT HWG/ 10000. )*ULF*(S FT/ 1000, )*(ELC*ELP*ELRW*OetCG) I 
1 ♦ALOG10<VOIV€n**0,8 

VIST • SKB*WW ♦ SK9*WHT ♦ SKlA*WTft ♦ SK6*We *- SK7*WLG <• 
I WieS ♦ DELwST 

WCC • SKCC*(WG/lJOO. )**C.4l 

WRC • SKRC*<WPRG - ENR*KeF) 

IF (SKRC.GT.l.O) 
IWRC • SKRC*{PI*SIGMR«RKR*«U5/BMR*SQRT(WPRB*ENR/1000#> )**l.ll 

«SC » SKSC*((WPR8 ♦ HPH>*EW/100.)**.84 

WFW « SKFW*WG 

HTH • SKTM*WG 

WSAS - SK5AS 




WRC& » SKRCA*WAR 

WSCA « SK<CA*{WAP«ENRI/100.I**0.84 



i60 WttC - SKhC 

MFC = WCC * 5Kl«v4FiC *■ bK2.WaC " 3K3«l4fW ^ um t wSflS " 
I PKM«WRCft " 3KS*^4i.Cft - WfiC ^ OCLriKC 
MPFC ^ MCl »■ iKl«WBC •■ bK2«W:)C ''DK:j*WfW * Wlfn ^^SRi 

MFA ^ iMb - ^4PblR - ^4a1 - ^U' - ^K - WFUL - ^^PLl/ll-O ^ J'^^^^ 

MFS ^ bKfS-Wr^ 

HP ^ ^JP^IR ^ Wfg 

Mt - Wb1 * WP * *JK «- UK 

(JlJEl ;= Wt ^ t4FUL 

REIUBN _^^____-^_ 



Figure 4-30. 




Weight Trends Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 6 of 6) • 



4-143 



The trend equations shown on the weights sxibroutine flow chart 
and those presented in the text produce the same results, 
although they are not necessarily written in the same form. 
The flow chart equations express the text trends in the term 
used in other parts of the computer program. 

The primary purpose of this weights subroutine is to provide 
a consistent method for rapidly estimating the operational 
weight empty and fuel available for the missions of various 
types of helicopters. The results obtained from the trend 
equations will depend largely on engineering experience and 
the judgment exercised in selecting the various trend con- 
stants. The weight trend equations were developed by A. H. 
Schmidt and R. H. Swan of Boeing Vertol Company. 

An explanation of the weight trends and instructions for 
completing the weight input sheet are included in the text 
As an additional aid for filling out the weight input sheet, 
the page numbers defining the various k terms are included 
with the respective terms on the weight input sheet (Table 10) . 

Weight trends developed at Boeing were used to determine the 
structure weights. Table 4-9, items 1, 6 and 10; flight 
control weights, item 22; and the control and propulsion 
system weights, items 2, 5, 18 and 21. The trends were de- 
veloped from existing aircraft, and use design and geometric 
parameters to compute the weights of the various components. 
For aircraft on which limited information is available, such 
as compound, winged and propulsive tail helicopters, the 
trend constants have been adjusted to account for the design 
features typical of the particular configuration. Alighting 
gear weights, item 9, are a function of the design takeoff 
weight and are based on statistically derived percentages 
of the respective gross weights. Engine weights, item 13, 
were determined from information compiled from engine manu- 
facturers . Engine installation weights , items 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 
and 19, are expressed as a percentage of the dry engine weight, 
Fuel system weight, item 20, is determined on a pound per 
gallon of fuel required basis. Fixed equipment weights, 
items 24 through 41, are discussed in the text. 

Table 4-9 is representative of a typical weight summary form 
used for military aircraft. Weight definitions as used in 
MIL-STD-1374 and weight handbooks follow. 



4-144 



MIL-W-25140A 



6,2,3 
Hand books. 



Weight Definitions - As used in MIL-STD-1374 and Weight 



AIRFRAME UNIT WETOHT 



e 



Primarily Structure Weight 

Used in cost and work loau 
evaluatiors. Defined in 
Cost Information Report 
(CIR) as the Weight Empty 
(from MIL-STD-1374) less 
specific Items as noted. 
New requirements will refer 
to Contractor Cost Data 
Reports (CCDR) , 



Wheels, brakes, tires, tubes, engines, 
starters, props, electricSr units, 
avionics, etc. 



WEIGHT EMPTY 



e 



9 



Weight of aircraft complete 
with all systems as con- 
figured in accordance with 
the model detail specification. 



Unusable fuel and oil (including trapped) p 
external gear not disposed of during 
flight, guns and other fixed items of 
useful load. 



USEFUL 
LOAD 



BASIC WEIGHT 



e 



Basic weight entered on 
Chart C of Weights Handbook 
for running log weight. 



Usable engine 
Oil, crew, special mission equipment 

and weapons racks or pylons not in 

Basic Weight. gS 



© 



OPERATING WEIGHT 



O 



Usable fuel^ cargo, ammunition, stores, 
and disposable external tanks 



"A 



GROSS WEIGHT 



I 



Zero fuel and Zero payload 
ttelght - a convenience weight 
to which operators need add 
only fuel and payl' «*d for 
gross weight. 



Take-off gross weight. Will 
vary with mission. It is 
the sum of the weight empty 
and the specified useful load, 



Expendable items - fuel, oil, stores, 
and expendable external tanks. 

j LAMPING GROSS WEIGUT 




4-145 



TABLE 10. HELICOPTER WEIGHT INFORMATION 



Incremental Group Wts Norn = 



Variable 


LOG 


Value 


OWE 


2601 


4-136 


Wfe 


2602 


4-172* 


Wftil 


2603 


4-172 


WPT. 


2^04 


4-175 



Variable 


LOG 


Value 


AWpc 


2605 


4-175 
"4-175 ■ 
"4-175 ■ 


AWp 


2606 


AW.c^T 


2607 



Variable 


LOG 


Value 


RMi 


2608 


4-147 


Wi 


2609 


4-148 


Wo 


2610 


4-148 


l^i 


i6ll 


4-148 


Lo 


2612 


4-148. 



Group Weight Information 



Flight Controls 



Structural 



Propulsion 



en 
o 

Eh 



o 

H 

a, 

H 

Eh 

D 



- >cc 



Jssc_ 



JSSiL 



kFW 



JSI2L 



JSSAS. 



^nr.A 



J^SGA 



kj^iSG. 



2613 
2^TT 



2615 



261f 



2617 



2618 



2619 



2620 



4-168 



4-168 



4-168 



4-168 



4-168 



4-172 



4-172 



4-172 



262l( 4-172 



§ 



tt 



OWE IS not 
necessary when 
OPTIN =1,2 

WpL is not 
necessary when 
OPTIN = 2 



kB 


I 2622 


4-156 


AG.G. 


2623 


4-156 


kLG 


2624 


4-158 


kMG 


2625 


4-158 


kww 


2626 


4-147 


LF 


2627 


4-147 


kws 


2628 


4-148 


kwp 


2629 


4-148 


kHT 


2630 


4-153 


kr.T.TT 


2631 


4-166 


kNAG 


2632 


4-160 


kAIP 


2633 


4-160 


kNAGA 


2634 


4-160 


kATA 


2635 


4-160 


^NS 


2636 





H 


ki 


2654 


4-175 


11 


k7 


2655 


4-175 


>i 


k^ 


2656 


4-175 


"1 


k4 


2657 


4-175 


< 


ks 


2658 


4-175 



kpRB 


2637 


4-150 
14-150 ■ 
.4-150 . 

4-150 
_4-150^ 


kpRv 


2638 


kPH 


2639 


kamd 


2640 


kBLFD 


2641 


kTR 


2642 


4-155 


kAR 


2643 


4-153 


kpA 


2644 


4-153 


kVTAR 


2645 


4-153 


kpns 


2646 


4-164 


kpns7 


2647 


4-164 


kTRDS 


2648 


4-166 


^ADR 


2649 


4-164 


kAnc!7 


2650 


4-164 


kps 


2651 


4-162 


kPEi 


2652 


4-161 


kABI 


2653 


4-i§l 



*Page numbers in this document 



kg 


2659 


4-175 


kl2 


2665 


4-175 


k7 


2660 


4-175 


kl3 


2666 


4-175 


kR 


2661 


4-175 


ki4 


2667 


4-175 


kq 


2662 


4-175 


k^^ 


2668 


4-175 


km 


2663 


4-175 


kifi 


2669 


4-175 


kn 


2664 


4-175 


ki7 


2670 


4-175 






ki8 


2671 


4-175 




kiQ 


2672 


A-M^ 




. ^20 


2673 


4-175 



4-146 



Wing 

The weight of the wing is determined using one of the 
following three methods: 



Method I 



Where 



W„ = 220(k)°'^^^' 
W 



k = 



= w feri y b' i]c«/ipH t°'io^jhioH 



Legend 

W^ - W€ 

R = wing relief as a fraction of design gross weight 

W = design gross weight 

Lf = helicopter lift factor as a fraction of gross weight 



W-, = weight of wing - lb 



^W 



planf orm area of wing (taken from Cl of aircraft) - ft' 



b = wingspan - ft 

B = maximum fuselage width - ft 

X = taper ratio 

N = ultimate load factor 



Vpj = dive velocity - kn 



At. = aspect ratio 

k = wing root thickness 7 root chord 

Method I is used when a conventional aircraft wing is employed. 
It considers basic geometry/ design criteria, and relief terms. 
The 220 constant represents a wing employing simple control 
surfaces. The"220 adjusted up or down depending on the com- 
plexity of the surface controls (200-240) must be placed in 
the k^^ location on the weight input sheet • LF, representing 
the wing unloading factor, due to rotor lift and I^^ a wing 
relief value (0.5 to 0.75) must be entered as a fraction of the 
design gross weight. The factors LF and R^ are nominally 1.0. 



4-147 



• Method II 

0.333 
W^ = 3.15(k) 

Where 

K = S (W,L. + W L ) 
W 11 o o 

Legend 

W^ = weight of wing - lb 

2 

Sw = planform area of wing - ft 

Wi = inboard wing store weight, lb /per side 

Wq = outboard wing store weight, lb/per side 

Lj_ = distance from side of fuselage to inboard store - ft 

Lq = distance from side of fuselage to outboard store - ft 

Method II is used when a sponson or stub type wing is used 
to carry stores or weapons. The trend constant 3.15 must be 
placed in k^g of the weight input sheet. Wj_ and W^ must be 
entered in their respective locations in pounds per side. 
L-i_ and Lq must be entered as a fractional part of the wing 
semi-span. 

• Method III 

W^ = S^ X PSF 

Where 

W^ = weight of wing - lb 

S^ = planform area of wing - ft^ 

2 

PSF = pounds per ft 

Method III is used when a single sponson or stub is employed. 
The estimated unit weight of the wing in pounds per square 
foot is placed in k^p on the weight input sheet. 



4-148 



Main Rotors 

The weight of the main rotor includes the combined weights 
of the blades and hub and hinge. The weights are derived 
from the following equations: 



Blades (per rotor) W^ = 44 a (k) 



0.438 



Where 



1.6- 



NOTE: The last term is a droop factor, used only if 
the result is greater than 1. 

- 3 ■ 0.35 8 
Hub and Hinge (per rotor) Wjjjj= 61 a (k) 



Where 



.2 



,1.82 



2.5 



Legend 

Wq = blade weight per rotor (including root end 
fitting) -lb 

a = adjustment factor 

Wrr = design gross weight per rotor (X 0.6 for tandem) -lb 
y 

LLF = design limit load factor at dgw 

R = rotor radius-ft 

r = rotation to blade attachment-f t 

c = blade chord-ft 

b = number of blades per rotor 

t = maximum blade thickness at 25% R-ft 

k^ = rotor type factor: 1.00 articulated, 2.2 hingeless 
or teetering 

k^j = droop constant: 1000 tandem, 1200 single rotor 

Wj^ = blade weight per blade (including root end 
fitting) -lb 

4-149 



Nj. = rotor rpm 

Pj. = takeoff power X (0,6 for tandem) per rotor-hp 
^amd ^ a X m X d 

a = design concept: 0.53 hingeless, 1.00 other 
- material: steel = 1.00, titanium = 0.54 
= development stage: early = 1.0, developed - 0.62 



m 
d 



In the trend equations the constants 44 (blade trend) and 61 
(hub and hinge trend) represent the average for the rotor 
weights presented in Figure 4-31 and 4-32. The blade weights 
are most representative of the all metal blades. The adjust- 
ment factor a is used to adjust the k factor when special 
design features are considered, such as high modulus materials 
(boron, graphite, etc.) or special features associated with 
the hub and/or hinge. Refer to Figures 4-31 and 4-32 to select 
the a term which most closely approximates the configuration 
being analyzed. The revised constants 44a and 61a must be 
placed in the kpRs and kpH locations on the weight input sheet 
along with the factors kRBF (kb in legend) and kamd- If blade 
folding is required the ksLFD block on the input sheet must 
also be filled in. Blade folding is entered as a fractional 
part of the total rotor weight. The blade fold penalty usually 
runs between 0.15 to 0.25 of the rotor weight depending on 
the folding requirements. The nominal value for kg^pi^ is 1.0. 

Auxiliary Rotors or Propellers 

When auxiliary rotors or propellers are required, as in the 
case of compounds or propulsive tail helicopters, the follow- 
ing rotor/propeller equation is used: 



0.67, 



Wj^ = 14.2 a (k) 



T^ere 

0.25 r.T«^n 0.5 



-[f fe] [!^[^ 



Legend 

Wp = weight of rotor or propeller-lb 

R = rotor radius-ft 

b = number of blades per rotor 

4-150 





c 

CD 
U 

X! 
cn 

-H 

0) 

0) 
H 

o 



I 

0) 
M 

PL4 



4-151 



< 
£3 





9^ 


L\ 


o 










?\ 


V\ 


r^ 










^ 


a\ 


^ 










o' 


^ 










0) 

OD 


< — 

it 


1 


UX 1 


? 

■^ 


o 


u. 


(0 


z 


u 




^ 


X 


in 


o 


X 




V 


< 
/ 


X 

u 


^ 








\j 


/ . 


< 


n 


d 






5v 




CO 


(w 


CO 

f) 

X 
X 




X 

o 


<- 




o 52 


»- 


3 






6 




\\^^ 


a» 








X 


^\ 


-jl\ 


00 








> 




\\\ 


(0 










X 


\g^ 


in 












2\\\ 






o 

z 



u 

z 



a 
< 



Ik UJ 

Z u 

o o 

z UJ 

ui O 



S Z 

UJ UJ 

15 

o 5 



" o 

> -I 

-i UJ 

OC > 

< Ui 

UJ O 



Wi- 
lli < 

ZH n; < 

— CC UI _l 
I < »- CO 



<on 



S Q S 



(C « Q 

UJ O ^ 



m 

o ^ - Z 

< £ u. 2 o 

flC K U. 5 I 

DC cc o K *y 

o o UJ o £ 

H H ^ flC 2 

flC CC K O^ 



z « o 






UJ UJ 
< UJ 



*Td 



$flCZa.'".-J3j<(3E "o 



CM 

CM 
00 



OC 
cmQC 

z 

X 

II 



ON 



T5 
C 

<D 
U 
EH 

+3 

•H 

0) 

c 

■H 

•§ 

o 

+3 
o 



CN 

I 



flQ 



0) 
M 

[14 



0> 
OQ 



>d)oor^ ts ifl TT 



n 



8 



Oicar^ (O ID V <*) 



4-152 



c = blade chord (average) -ft 

HP^ = horsepower (xmsn limit per rotor) 

design limit tip speed-ft/sec 

r =* center line of rotation to average^ blade 
attachment point-ft 



r 



a = adjusting factor for type of system (see Figure 4-33) 

In the trend equation the constant 14.2 is the average for the 
various rotor group weights presented in Figure 4-33. The 
expression a is the adjustment factor for the type of system; 
i.e.. semirigid, pressure cycle, etc. To determine the value 
of kap in the propulsion block of the weight input sheet, 
mult^ly the type of system desired a by the constant 14.2. 
Blade folding, if required, is entered in k^s as a percentage 
factor of the total computed rotor weight. The input value 
would be between 0.15 to 0.25 depending on the folding 
requirements . 

The kpA block on the weight input sheet allows the auxiliary 
rotor input power to be increased or decreased as a fractional 
part of input power. (kp^ =0.9 would decrease the power 
by 10 percent, 1.1 would increase the power by 10 percent.) 

The kvTAR block on the weight input sheet allows the auxiliary 
tail rotor tip speed to be increased or decreased as a fractional 
part of the input tip speed (kyrAR =0-9 would decrease the 
tip speed by 10 percent, 1.1 would increase it by 10 percent). 
The nominal input values for kpA and kvTAR is 1.0. 

Tail Rotor 

The tail group consists of the horizontal tail, vertical tail, 
ventral and tail rotor. Tail weights are determined as 
follows: 

• Horizontal Tail - Its weight is based on a unit weight 
per square foot (PSF) . The unit weight will normally 
vary between 1.0 and 2.0 PSF, depending on the type of 
tail being employed. The unit weights of the horizontal 
tails of some existing helicopters are presented as a 
guide for inputting the unit 
the weight input sheet. 



value in the k^^ block of 



OH - 58A 1.1 lb/ft2 - fixed 
UH - IH 1.3 lb/ft2 - movable 
UH - IN 1.6 lb/ft2 - stabilizer 



4-153 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o 

o 

o o 



o 

GO 


o 
o 


o 


l-l 


11 


ri 


fn 


<« 




C 

u 

+J 

tn 
-H 
<U 

§^ 

o 

o 

u 
o 






2 

en 



SdNOOd - XIOJMM cinonL) HOXOH 



4-154 



If horizontal tail fold is required, input this as a 
percentage of the total horizontal tail weight in the 
kg block of the input sheet (refer to Table 4-13). 

Vertical Tail and Ventral - The combined weights of 
vertical tail and ventral are included in the weight 
of the fuselage. The combined wetted area of both 
must be added to the fuselage wetted area. 

Tail Rotor - The weight of tTie tail rotor is derived from 
the following overall rotor trend equation: 



W^.14 



,2 a (k) 



0.67, 



Where 



^■[] 



0.25rijp^l 

LiooJ 



'■'m [ 



R. b.c 
10 



^] 



Legend 

Wj^ = weight of rotor or propeller-lb 
R = rotor radius-ft 



b 
c 

Vtl 

r 



= number of blades per rotor 

= blade chord (average) -ft 

= horsepower (xmsn limit per rotor) 

= design limit tip speed-ft/sec 

= center line of rotation to average blade 
attachment point-ft 

a = adjusting factor for type of system (see Figure 4-33) 

This is the same equation used to determine the weight of 
the auxiliary rotors. The trend is explained above under 
Auxiliary Rotors or Propellers: If blade foldina is reauired, 
a factor as a fraction of the computed tail rotor weight must 
be placed in ki4 on the weight input sheet. Fold penalties 
normally vary between 0.15 and 0.25 of total rotor weight 
depending on the fold requirements. A value for kxR must be 
inserted in its proper location on the weight input sheet. 



4-155 



Body Group 

The weight of the body structure is determined from the 
following equation: 

W^^ = 125 a (k)°-^' 



Where 



0.5 



Legend 

W- = structural design gross weight - lb 

N = ultimate load factor 

Sf = wetted area of fuselage - ft^ (includes 

fairings, pod, vertical tail and ventral) 

Lq = length of cabin (measured from nose to end 
of cabin floor) - ft 

L^^ = length of rampwell - ft 

CG = center of gravity range at design gross weight - ft 

^MAX " maximum speed - kn 

a = body correction factor 

Figure 4-34 presents a group of commercial and military single 
and tandem rotor helicopters. A mean line of 125 has been 
selected as the average for all the aircraft shown. The body 
correction factor a permits the 125 constant to be corrected 
in accordance with the configuration being analyzed. When a 
large number of cutouts are required as in the case of large 
doors, many windows, large floor cutouts, etc., the a term 
would be greater than 1. Where the fuselage is relatively 
clean, the a could be less than 1. Refer to Figure 4-34 to 
select the a term which best describes the configuration. 
The revised constant 125a is the k^ term to be inserted in 
the appropriate box on the weight input sheet. The center 
of gravity range, in feet, must also be placed in the A qq 
block on the input sheet. 



4-156 




PARAMETER DEFINITION 



= STRUCTURAL DESIGN GROSS - 
WEIGHT, LB. 

- ULTIMATE LOAD FACTOR 
= FUSELAGE WETTED AREA ^ FT^ 

(INCLUDING FAIRINGS AND PODS) 
« NOSE TO END OF CABIN FLOOR/ 
MAIN FUSELAGE ~ FT. 

- HORIZ LENGTH OF RAMP WELL ~ FT. 
« CENTER OF GRAVITY RANGE ^FT. 

- LEVEL FLIGHT SPEED ~ KNOTS. 



O VERTOL !±t4^tt'tfti4^ 
m OTHER MANUFACTURER C 



5 6 7 8 9 10 



4 5 6 7 a 9 100 



«- 1 X 



^ 



10^ 



H-c + L,w 



0.5 



SCS-24 



Figure 4-34. Body Group Weight Trend. 



4-157 



Alighting Gear 

For the normal tricyle gear geometry, the total landing gear 
weight including the running gear (wheels, tires, brakes, 
etc.), structure (shock struts, drag struts, support structure, 
etc.) , and controls (retraction, steering, systems, etc.) is 
expressed as a percentage of the design gross weight where: 

W ^ (k ) W 
LG LG g 

Where W^q = total weight of the landing gear (including 

tail bumper) 

k _ landing gear 
^^ " gross weight 

W = design gross weight 

g 

The percentage will normally vary between 0.015 to 0.050 
depending on the design limit sink speed and the complexity 
of the system. Conventional landing gear without retraction, 
operating on improved runways normally r\in between 0.015 to 
0.04. Adding retraction usually adds another 0.005 to 0.01. 
Skid type landing gear usually weigh about 0.015 times design 
gross weight. 

The main gear usually weighs about 80 percent of the total 
gear weight. The k term in the weight expression above is 
the value that must be placed in the k^Q box of the weight 
input sheet. The weight of the main gea^ is included by 
placing 0.80, or your estimate of the main gear weight as 
a fraction of the total gear weight, in the ky^Q location 
on the weight input sheet. 

Table 4-11 is included as a guide in selecting krQ. It 
includes the total gear weight as a percentage of the gross 
weight for a sampling of helicopters. 

Engine Section (Primary and Auxiliary) 

The engine section weight appears as item 10 in Table 4-9. 
It is basically the engine mounts, engine nacelle structure 
and firewalls, air induction and support structure. 

• Engine mounts - The weight of the engine mounts is 
determined from the expression 



W = N /'w X N ) 
EM E \ E CLF/ 



0.41 



4-158 



TABLE 4-11. LANDING GEAR WEIGHTS 







TOTAL 


PERCENT 


AIRCRAFT 


GROSS WEIGHT 


GEAR WEIGHT 


OF GROSS 




(LB) 


(LB) 


WEIGHT 


0H-6A 


2400 


58 


.024 


XH-5 lA 


3500 


134 


.038 


BO- 105 


4410 


96 


.022 


UH-lB 


6600 


112 


.017 


UH-ID 


6600 


118 


.018 


UH-IN 


10000 


121 


.012 


UH-34D 


11291 


413 


.036 


AH-56A 


16995 


605 


.036 


CH-46A 


19000 


589 


.031 


CH-3C 


19500 


690 


.035 


CH-46D 


20800 


587 


.028 


CH-46E 


20800 


655 


.031 


HH-3B 


21187 


700 


.033 


CH-47A 


28550 


1060 


.037 


CH-47B 


33000 


1086 


.033 


CH-47C 


33000 


1076 


.033 


CH-53A 


35042 


1014 


.029 


CH-54A 


38000 


1794 


.047 


CH-54B 


64700 


2277 


.035 



'4-159 



m^- 



Enter the crash load factor Nclf i^ the kcLF block of 
the weight input block. (This considers both the 
primary and/or auxiliary engine sections.) 



Engine nacelle structure , supports and firewalls 
These items are determined from the expression 



^NAC = ^'e ^^NAC^ ^^2^' 



Enter the estimated unit weight in pounds per square foot 
(PSF) in the kNAC and/or the k^ACA blocks of the input 
sheet. This value normally varies between 0.75 and 1.25 
PSF. It could go as high as 2.0 psf if the cowling is 
used as a walkway or work platform. 



Air induction - The weight of the air induction system 
is determined from the expression 



WaIS = ^E (Edia X L^,^) (PSF) 



Enter the estimated unit weight in pounds per square foot 
(PSF) in the k^ip and/or the kp^zji blocks of the input 
sheet. This value normally varies between 0.7 to 1.0 PSF. 
An option is provided for determining the weight of the 
air induction system. If k^ip or kj^xA is greater than 
5.0 the program automatically assumes the value is the 
weight of the air induction system in pounds. 



The kNS term on the input sheet is a nacelle strut factor 
used when an engine is suspended from an aircraft employ- 
ing a wing. Enter a unit weight value in PSF in the kNS 
box. The nominal value is 0. 



4-160 



Legend 



W^„ = weight of engine mounts - lb 



N_ - number of primary engines 



W = weight of each primary engine - lb 

E 



NoTT? = aircraft crash load factor 
CLF 



W... - ^ weight of each primary engine nacelle - lb 



S„,^ - wetted area of each nacelle - PSF 
NAC 



PSF = pounds per square foot 



W 



AIS 



= weight of air induction system - lb 



E_..j., = primary engine DIA - lb 



L,^^ = length of air inlet duct 
AID ^ 



The weight of the primary and/or auxiliary engines is deter- 
mined as part of the engine sizing routine considered else- 
where in the program. There is no provision for determining 
the engine weight (s) on the weight input sheet. The AwP ^^d 
Ki8 and Ki9 blocks of the input sheet provide a method for 
adding weight to the engine (s) if desired. (Refer to 
Table 4-12- 



4-161 



The engine installation weights represent the total weight 
of items 14, 15, 16, 17, and 19 shown on the weight summary 
form, Table 4-9. The weights of engine (primary and auxiliary) 
installation items will vary depending on the type and power- 
plant arrangement of the configuration being sized. No attempt 
is made here to describe all the various approaches that may 
be used to evaluate their weights of the dry engines is 
provided. Table 4-12 presents the engine installation weights 
as a percentage of the engine weight for a group of existing 
helicopters. This may be used as a guide for selecting the 
weight fraction to be placed in kp^j and/or k^^gl ^^ the weight 
input sheet. An option is provided for determining the weight 
of the engine installation. If kpjji or k^EI is greater than 
1.0, the program automatically assumes the value is the weight 
of the engine installation in pounds. 



Fuel System 

The weight of the fuel system, defined as kps in the propul 
sion block of the weight input sheet, will vary depending on 
the capacity, type, and complexity of the system required. 
For aircraft having simple fuel systems located in the fuselage, 
sponsons or wing, the value for kps would range between 0.02 
and 0.07; for aircraft requiring self-sealing tanks with more 
complex systems, the value would range between 0.10 and 0.15. 
The fuel system factors represent fuel system weight per 
pound of mission fuel required - 



Drive System (Primary and Auxiliary) 

The weight of the drive system (primary and auxiliary) in- 
cluding gear boxes, accessory drives, shafting, oil, supports, 
etc*, is derived from the following equation: 



%S = 250 a (kj^)O-^^' 



Where 



■»■&][-]'" M 



4-162 



TABLE 4-12. ENGINE INSTALLATION WEIGHTS 



Note: Engine installation weights include the total weight 
of the following items: 

Engine Exhaust System 
Engine Cooling 
Engine Controls 
Engine Starting 
Engine Lubrication 

4-163 ^.^-^ . 





AIRCRAFT 


AIRCRAFT 
ENG. WEIGHT 
(LB) 


ENG. INSTAL. 
WEIGHT 
(LB) 


PERCENT 
OF ENGINE 
WEIGHT 




^S^^: 


R 


OH- 6 A 


142 


36 


.254 


H 


XH-51A 


244 


97 


.398 


^ 


BO-105 


424 


81 


.191 


^^ 


UH-IB 


474 


148 


.312 


^ 


UH-ID 


501 


147 


.293 


B 


UH-IN 


727 


164 


.226 


^ 


UH-34D 


1387 


260 


.187 


^j::: 


AH-56A 


695 


337 


.485 


Wf-- 


^ 


CH-46A 
CH-3C 


600 
611 


161 
130 


.268 
.213 




p^: 


CH-46D 


678 


187 


.276 


_ ^.:;ifr::_: - 


CH-46E 


886 


207 


.234 


K, 


HH-3B 


649 


136 


.210 


K 


CH-47A 


1160 


173 


.149 


\- - ----- 

i ---■:-- 


CH-47B 


1188 


175 


.147 




CH-47C 


1350 


244 


.181 


\m 


CH-53A 


1432 


283 


.198 


. ,- - ■ -- 


CH-54A 
CH-54B 


1804 
2094 


193 
394 


.107 
.188 




. — :-~' 


-:#!=£■ 








• 1 1 



Legend 

^DS " ^^i^ht of the drive system - lb (excluding 
tail rotor boxes 

P^ = drive system horsepower rating (tandem rotor 
Pjj= 1.2 X takeoff rating) 

Nj^ = rotor rpm at takeoff 

Z = number of stages in main rotor drive 

K^ - configuration factor; 1.00 for single rotor, 
1.30 for tandem 

a = drive system correcting factor 

The drive system adjusting factor a is used to account for 
type, number of boxes, special features, etc., included in the 
drive system* Figure 4-35 gives typical examples of the a 
factor. To determine the kp^g and/or the kj^j^g figure to place 
on the weight input sheet, multiply the 250 constant by your 
selection of a. The kp^gz s^d/or kj^^gz (number of stages) 
must also be placed in their respective locations on the 
input sheet. As a guide for determining the number of stages 
to input the following is offered: 



Lightweight helicopters 
(less than 10,000 pounds gross weight) 



Stages 



• Medium weight helicopters 

(10,000 pounds to 30,000 pounds gross weight) 3-4 

• Heavy weight helicopters (more than 

30,000 pounds gross weight) 4-5 

An additional guide in determining the number of stages is 
to assume one stage for each gear reduction in the drive 
system. This would include angle boxes. (Assume *$ of a stage 
for 1:1 angle boxes.) The total additive sum of the stages 
resulting from this approach would then be placed in their 
respective k locations on the input sheet. 

Tail Rotor Drive System 

The weight of the tail rotor drive system, including shaft- 
ing, etc., is derived from the following equation: 



Wds 


= 


300 a (k) 


0, 


.8, 


Where 








k 


= 


HPTotal X 


1. 


.1 


^^Rotor 







4-164 



(A 


tn 


* 


n 




r* 






^ 








T ! ~ 


1— 


— —~— 


_ 


-I 


00 

to 

in 

n 

s 
f* 
to 
in 

- Oi 

- 00 

- r^ 

- to 

- in 




^ P 


' — f 




i 






""T^ ! 


1 


^ ' H 




9i - 




o4- i 






1 


— 


- 




flD - 


O — 


; 


_ — J 

1 


1 




^ .. 






1 


— 




(P 


iWjT 



















Z 

g 

P 
z 

UJ 

O 

X 

m 

UJ 

X 

t 


Wn - DRIVE SYSTEM 

WEIGHT, LBS 
Py = DRIVE SYSTEM HORSEPOWER 

RATING (TANDEM ROTOR Pj^ - 

1,2 X TAKEOFF RATING) 
Nr = ROTOR RPM AT TAKEOFF 
Z = NUMBER OR STAGES OF 

GEARING IN MAIN ROTOR 

DRIVE 
k = CONFIGURATION FACTOR: 
^ 1,00 FOR SINGLE ROTOR 
1 30 FOR TANDEM ROTOR 






in - 






^ 












Primary and Auxiliary 


V - 









1 


- - ■ 


IL 


- 


- 




M - 








4 
f 
f 


h 




T 













t 


o 


X 

o 


< 

, T 


6 


N 








^ 




O 

a 


-' 








t 










*" 




Q 


*" 










<j\ W Z 






5 1 


0» 




LU 










s<v\S^ 






T? 


flO 




oc 














I 


l— 


N C 


^ 


""" 


1— ^ — 










"^ V V 








to 




- X - 
C5 










1 


SJ 


CD 










[ 


to 


- UJ - 

5 












I 
D 


< 


\ 






-\ 


~ 


^ 


- — 


^ 2 - 

Lit 

-ft- 










— 







^k\ 




to - — 











. , 


^ 






^^ 


o ' 

i. .1 






s 


n 




~ CO " 

UJ 

cc 


1 


- -- 


— 


- 





S2 


I 


\ 


^ 




• 
o 

hi 


O 

• 

tl 

\ 


1 


(1) 


w 





- O - 










CD " 

-i 

X 







\ 


1 


< 





■H 














go 






X 

o 


U 

a 

« 
in 
ro 


*- 














i^i ^: 




rH 






\\V 









ff> 






■ """ 










(t „ 






\^^ 


r5 — 





1 


« 
























\\ 


5C- 


X 
-^-O- 


^ 


p- 














xz 

4°" 














V 


B 


Q) 
U 


(£ 














11 
















s\ 




•H 
P4 


tn 














Q 
















\ 


V 


^ 


r ^ — 

(0 


ifl ^ 




rt 




N 




<T=* 


00 rv 


to 


in 


« 




n 




N 




{ 


N 

O 





4-165 



Legend 

Wjjg = weight of drive system - lb 
H^Total ~ total aircraft horsepower 
^^Rotor ~ rotor design rpm 

a = drive system adjustment factor 

The factor a is an adjustment factor used to account for the 
type, nximber of boxes, and special features, etc* included in 
the drive system. Figure 4-36 gives typical examples of the 
a factor. To determine the kj^g value to place on the weight 
input sheet, multiply the 300 constant by your selection of a. 

Flight Controls 

The weight of the flight control system will vary depending 
on the type and system required (manual, power assisted, 
redundant, dual redundant, etc.) and the type of heicopter 
being configured (pure, winged, compound, propulsive tail, etc.), 
Aircraft control systems requiring power assistance and dual or 
triple redundant components will weigh more than configurations 
having simple, non-redundant systems. Considerations must be 
given to these factors when determining the flight control 
constants to insert on the weight input sheet. 

An equation which includes a combined series of weight trend 
expressions applicable to most any type of helicopter configur- 
ation is presented below. It includes factors which can be 
isolated and applied to the particular vehicle being analyzed. 
Values for the various k factors described must be put in their 
proper locations on the weight input sheet. A description of 
the items' comprising each of the control sub-groups is included 
along with a range of k input values. Refer to the referenced 
trend curves included for each of the major control groups 
as an aid in selecting the respective k values. 



FC = cc 



O-^^l ^ -.1.11 ^ ^0.84 



fe] ^ ^- [mil ■ ' ^- [^] 

0.84 



0.84 

k 

Misc. 



4-166 



o 
o 
o 



3 .H * 

VI CO 

t 0) V4 

s O 

0) 0^ 

4J 0) 

x: 
0) x: 4J 

iH -H ^ 
(fl 5 O 
> 



> m 

Q -I x; 

• 0) U-i 
O -M > -H 

-p x: *^ 

-H -H c • 

en ? 0) -H m 
cr» w V) tn 

C g fd 0) /TJ 

cj wi o 0) u 
dj > 0) x: <u 

Xi W 'O -M '0 




o 

o 
o 



I j i <N fN i 1 1 I <^ 1 1 t I I I 

X X :il I I X tc X = 1 ::: :t: ol: :n p: 3^ 



ooo^O'-^^>ImT^^no^^Cl.'C^o»-^(Nf^ 
. riH<SN f>» N <N fM M ^ *N fs oT f^ r^ m 



M rj < < in 

I 1 (N t/i r- I t M I *-< t I I cu a. I I 

n :3 v£) (/) o u u I u; ( r;; r: o '^ zj :i ; ^: 

X x c/i n: *-f X s: ^: O n: H O en ri; u: uj D 



o 
o 



c/l E-" 

Oa<l 






Eh 

Ct 
0) 
M 
&^ 

-P 
4-* 

cn 
en 

Q 



ro 

I 

-H 



r-t <N ro ^r in \£) r- CD o\ o f-i rt m »r un KO r^ 

^H rH »-( r-4 r ^ r- H rH rH 



O 
O 
O 



o 
c» 
o 



o 
o 



b^SHilOJ 



j.ii;)i:'m vrhvji^ MAian 



4-167 



Legend 

^FC " weight of flight controls - lb 

W = design gross weight - lb 

C = rotor blade chord - ft 

R = rotor radius - ft 

W, = rotor blade weight per rotor " lb 

kpp = constant for cockpit controls = 26 

Cyclic and collective control sticks and linkages, 
pedals, cables and rods (Figure 4-37) 

kj^^ = constant for main rotor controls = 18 to 23 

All components from and including the power 
actuators up through the pitch links. Major items 
included are the actuators, swashplate, and 
pitch links (Figure 4-38) 

ke- = constant for main rotor systems and hydraulics - 
^^ 25 to 35 

All components between the cockpit controls and 
the rotor controls including actuators, artificial 
feel system, mechanical programmer, bellcranks, 
rods, idlers, etc, (Figure 4-39) 

Main hydraulic systems including pumps, reservoirs, 
accumulators , filters , valves , lines , fluid , and 
supports (Figure 4-39 ) 

^FW " constant for conventional fixed-wing controls = 
0.005 to 0.020, depending on complexity and 
number of functions required 

All components, actuators, and supports associated 
with moving the control surfaces - LE umbrellas, 
flaperons, spoilers, and tail surfaces 

^TM ~ <^onstant for tilting mechanism - 0,005 to 0,015 

All components and supports required to tilt the 
wing including actuators, power control units, 
mechanical system, fittings, and hardware. The 
^TM ^^1^^ will vary proportionately with the hinge 
moment and/or wing transition rate required. 



4-168 




M 

u 
o 



HI 



4 5 i 



; Wcc= WEIGHT OF COCKPIT CONTROLS 



i 



8 9 n 



HS3ihtll:ri:u:b::lin-Liil;:ah-liLa:q-Fr-r 



Wcr = DESIGN GROSS WEIGHT 






;rPR 



10 



nil 
'ill 



4 6 6 



100 



W. 



10 



Figure 4-37. Cockpit Controls Weight Trend. 



4-169 



'UC 




4 5 « 7 8 tl.O 



5 6 7 8 910 



5 6 7 8 9 100 



V 



Wc 



1000 



Figure 4-38. Rotor Controls Weight Trend, 



4-170 



10,000 



en 
Q 

D 
O 
^ 1,000 



E-t 

w 
DC 

w 

u 

H 

D 

o 

< 

w 

E-» 
W 
>^ 

w 



100 



10 



^0*84 



HLH TANDEM 
XH-16B 




HLH SINGLK 



CH-47A 



Wcr = WEIGHT OF SYSTEM CONTROLS 
AND HYDRAULICS 



Wt 



WEIGHT PER ROTOR 



10 



100 



1,000 






PER ROTOR 



Figure 4-39, Rotor System and Hydraulics Weight Trend. 



4-171 



k«,g = constant for stability-augmented system = 

20 pounds to 100 pounds, depending on system 
required 

^RCA ~ constant for auxiliary rotor controls 

Similar to k„p - provides rotor control weights 
for auxiliary propulsive systems (pusher props, 
ducted fan, etc., Figure 4-40) 

kgpj. = constant for auxiliary rotor system controls 

Similar to kg^- provides rotor system control 
weights for auxiliary propulsive systems (pusher 
props, ducted fans, etc.. Figure 4-39) 

'^Misc. " estimated weight input in pounds for any items 
not covered above 

Fixed Equipment 

The weight of the fixed equipment is included in the weight 
empty and consists of the following groups: auxiliary power- 
plant, instruments, hydraulics and pneximatics, electrical, 
avionics, armament, furnishings and equipment, air-conditioning, 
anti-icing and load and handling (Table 4-9) . 

The weight of the fixed equipment will vary with the type and 
requirements of the aircraft under studv. The largest variation 
in fixed equipment weights usually appears in the avionics 
and the furnishings and equipment groups. The avionics group 
reflects communication and navigational requirements; the 
furnishings and equipment group normally reflects cabin size 
and personnel accommodations (pilots seats, troop seats, etc.). 
Table 4-13 presents some typical examples of the fixed equip- 
ment weights for some existing military helicopters. 

The total weight of the fixed equipment, Wp£, must be placed 
in the Wp£ block of the weight input sheet. 

Fixed Useful Load 

The weight of the fixed useful load represents a portion of 
the useful load. It includes the crew, trapped and unusable 
fuel and oil, guns, weapons, racks or pylons and any other 
fixed items of useful load which makes the aircraft operational. 
Typical weights for fixed useful load items are included in 
Table 4-13 as a guide for inputting a number in the WpuL 
block of the weight input sheet. 



4-172 



1,000 



I 100 

o 



a: 
o 

H 

to* 

i 
I 

0* 10 



WrCA= 0-15 (Wj^) 



w, 



RCA 



= 0.1 (W. 




CH-53A 



H-37A 



HUL-1 



-, -L 



WrCA = WEIGHT OF ROTOR CONTROLS 
Wj^ = WEIGHT OF ROTOR ASSEMBLY 



10 



100 V " ' i#ooo 

Wg (EACH) 



10,000 



M\. 



Figure 4-40* Axixiliary Rotor Controls Weight Trend. 



4-173 



B 


OEING VERTOL COMKANT 






WEIGHT SUMMARY • PRELIMINARY DESIGN 

;MIL-STD- 13741 






FIXED ] 
CH-46A !( 


\ 1 

TABLE 4-13 
EQUIPMENT AND FIXED USEFUL 

i 
CH-47A CH-5 3A ! CH-3C 

1 .^^ 


j 
LOAD WEiiGHTS 

AH-56A 107-11-10 






*VING 


i I 










ROTOR 


— ! ■ , " r 

i : i 










TAIL 




1 — \ r 








SURFACES 




; ; i 

J 1 — — f— 








ROTOR 




i ■ i 1 






BODY 


' i : ^ 1 






BASIC 


"-^ I 


! 






SECONDARY 






— __ — p' ■ — — 






ALIGHTING GEAR GROUP 


— 1 " ■ ■■ . ■ 

1 




i 






ENGINE SECTION 






i 












-..—^^ -™_J 






PROPULSION GROUP 






! 






ENGINE INST'L 






i 






EXHAUST SYSTEM 






-1 






COOLING 












CONTROLS 






; 






STARTING 






__ -J 






PROPELLER INST'L 












LUBRICATING 


[ 










FUEL 






. ' ■■ 






DRIVE 






t — 






FLIGHT CONTROLS 
























AUX. POWER PLANT 


inn 


^103 


204 224 


136 






INSTRUMENTS 


169 


:161 


39 3 


2 32 


i]2fi 98 






HYDR. a PNEUMATIC 


163 


;227 


119 


66 


fifi . -. 






ELECTRICAL GROUP 


620 


560 


594 


450 


377 583 






Av .OMCS GROUP 


386 


274 


612 


4 37 


609 602 






ARMAMENT GROUP 




- 


18 




5^^ 






FURN. a EQUIP. GROUP 


788 


896 


971 


569 


273 1300 

^ — !— r- r- r- 






ACCOM. FOR PERSON. 


182 


391 


29? 


208 


^^^' Ifu 






MISC. EQUIPMENT 


77 


107 


38^ 


87 


73 601 






FURNISHINGS 


481 


329 


2U 


175 








EMERG. EQUIPMENT 


48 


69 


75 


99 


35, 144 






AIR CONDITIONING 


128 


145 


237 


123 


75 


128 






ANTI-ICtNG GROUP 


186 


34 


77 37 


42 


13 






LOAD AND HANDLING GP. 


305 


260 


358 189 


■ 


- 


14 




























i 














I. ! 
























FIXED EQUIP, WEIGF 


T 

2845 


2660 


^-^Tfi :?^:>7 


227? 


2738 




> 

Ui 

tr 


CREW 


1^40 


fifin 


660 645 


400 


400 


. 


TRAPPED LIQUIDS 


20 


41 


18 


! 20 


31 


28 


. 


ENGINE OIL 


30 


28 


48 


33 


32 


31 


, 


SURVIVAL KIT 








63 


- 




. 


ARMOR 










-^qq 




_ 


GUNS 






1 . .__ 




1235 




_ 




ATTENDANT 










150 


. 




BAGGAGE 




; 






370 


- 




FUEL 












. 




FIXED USEFUL LOAD 


590 


669 726 


761 


2097 


979 


^ 



FORM 26391 (2/73) 



4-174 



Pay load 

The weight of the payload is determined by the mission re- 
quirements. The totalweighrt of the payToad must be put in 
the Wpj^ block of the weight input sheet. 



Incremental Group Weights 

The incremental group weights section of the weight input 
sheet is provided to enable the user to add fixed increments 
of weight where desired. Definitions and values for some of 
the items in this group have already been discussed. ^ Wp^, 
AWp, and Awst represent incremental weights of the flight 
controls group, propulsion group, and structural group, 
respectively. Any value inserted in the incremental group 
weight section remains constant regardless of gross weight. 
The nominal value for any block in this section is 0, except 
for R|4 which is nominally 1.0. 

Group Weight Information 

The nominal value for items in this section of the weight input 
sheet is 0, except as noted in the text. All blocks must be 
filled in. Definitions and constants for the various k factors 
have been previously discussed in the respective subgroup 
definitions. 

Multiplicative Factors 

The multiplicative factors described as K^ through K20 on the 
weight input sheet provide~"the capability of performing weight 
sensitivity studies. The factors are nominally 1. All blocks 
must be filled in. To vary the weight of any subgroup (k^Q, 
k3, kQs^ etc.) , insert the desired value in the appropriate 
multiplicative box. Refer to Table 4-14 to relate the 
various k factors with their respective groups. Inserting 
a value of 1.1 would increase the weight of the respective 
group by 10 percent; a value of 0.9 would decrease it by 10 
percent, etc. The values in this group will vary with gross 
weight. 



4-175 



TABLE 4-14 
MULTIPLICATIVE FACTORS 







LETTER 








K 


lcx:ation 


CODE 






DESCRIPTION 


Kl 


2654 


WrC 


weight 


OF 


MAIN ROTOR CONTROLS 


K2 


2655 


wsc 


weight 


OF 


MAIN ROTOR SYSTEM CONTROLS 


K3 


2656 


wfw 


WEIGHT 


OF 


FIXED WING CONTROLS 


K4 


2657 


wrca 


WEIGHT 


OF 


AUXILIARY ROTOR CONTROLS 


K5 


2658 


WsCA 


WEIGHT 


OF 


AUXILIARY ROTOR SYSTEM CONTROLS 


K6 


2659 


Wb 


WEIGHT 


OF 


BODY 


K7 


2660 


wlg 


WEIGHT 


OF 


LANDING GEAR 


K8 


2661 


WW 


WEIGHT 


OF 


WING 


K9 


2662 


wht 


WEIGHT 


OF 


HORIZONTAL TAIL 


KIO 


2663 


wnac 


WEIGHT 


OF 


PRIMARY NACELLE 


Kll 


2664 


wnaca 


WEIGHT 


OF 


AUXILIARY NACELLE 


K12 


2665 


WPRB 


WEIGHT 


OF 


PRIMARY ROTOR BLADES 


K13 


2666 


WPH 


WEIGHT 


OF 


PRIMARY ROTOR HUB 


K14 


2667 


Wtr 


WEIGHT 


OF 


TAIL ROTOR 


K15 


2668 


War 


WEIGHT 


OF 


AUXILIARY ROTOR 


K16 


2669 


WPDS 


WEIGHT 


OF 


PRIMARY DRIVE SYSTEM 


K17 


2670 


^ADS 


WEIGHT 


OF 


AUXILIARY DRIVE SYSTEM 


K18 


2671 


WPE 


WEIGHT 


OF 


PRIMARY ENGINE 


K19 


2672 


Wae 


WEIGHT 


OF 


AUXILIARY ENGINE 


K20 


2673 


Wtrds 


WEIGHT 


OF 


TAIL ROTOR DRIVE SYSTEM 



4-176 




4.11.2 Aircraft Balance 

A preliminary aircraft balance for single rotor helicopters is 
included in the program which locates the main rotor system g^ 
relative to the required center of gravity of the operating 

weight empty of the aircraft. A description of the input 

values to be included on the weight-balance information sheet 
(page 2 of the weight information sheet) follows: 



MAIN ROTOR ^ 






Loc 2678 Center of gravity of the fuselage", measured from the 
nose of the aircraft, as a fractional part of 1b- 

Loc 2679 Distance in feet between the OWl center of gravity 
and the main rotor center line (negative value (-) 
is forward of OWE eg, plus value (+) is aft of 
OWE eg) - 

Loc 2680 Center of gravity of the nose gear measured from the 
nose of the aircraft, as a fractional part of 1b- 

Loc 2681 Center of gravity of the main gear, measured from 

the nose of the aircraft, as a fractional part of Ig . 

Loc 2682 Center of gravity of the primary engine package, 
measured from, the nose of the aircraft as a frac- 
tional part of 1b- The engine package consists of 
the engine section, engine, engine installation 
and fuel system. 



4-177 




Loc 2683 Center of gravity of the primary drive system 
measured as a fractional part of the distance 
between the main rotor and tail rotor. The tail 
rotor drive system weight and balance are computed 
and located automatically • 

Loc 2684 Center of gravity of the avionics system, measured 
from the nose of the aircraft, as a fractional part 

of Ig. 

Loc 2685 Center of gravity of the furnishings and equipment, 
cockpit controls and a portion of the useful load 
(pilot and copilot) , measured from the nose of the 
aircraft as a fractional part of 1b- 

Loc 2686 Center of gravity of the APU, measured from the nose 
of the aircraft, as a fractional part of 1b . 

Loc 2687 Center of gravity of the auxiliary engine package, 
measured from the nose of the aircraft, as a 
fractional part of 1b- The axixiliary engine package 
consists of the auxiliary engine section, auxiliary 
engine and auxiliary engine installation. 

Loc 2688 Center of gravity of the auxiliary drive system as 
a fractional part of the distance between the 
auxiliary engine and auxiliary rotor system. 

Loc 2689 Center of gravity of the auxiliary rotor and 

auxiliary rotor controls, measured from the nose of 
the aircraft, as a fractional part of Jl^g. 

Loc 2690 Center of gravity of the system controls, measured 
from the nose of the aircraft, as a fractional part 
of 1b- 

Loc 2691 Center of gravity of the auxiliary system controls, 
measured from the nose of the aircraft, as a 
fractional part of 1b- 

Loc 2692 Total weight of the avionics group weight plus SAS 
input from flight controls column of weight input 
sheet. 

Loc 2693 Total weight of furnishings and equipment group 

located in the pilot's compartment and the weight of 
the cockpit controls (CC) as determined from the 
input constant in flight controls column of weight 
input sheet. 

Loc 2694 Total weight of auxiliary power unit (APU) installa- 
tion. 

4-178 



LOG 2695 Fractional part of fixed useful load (pilot, co- 
pilot, etc.) located in the pilot's compartment • 

Loc 2696 Tail boom weight expressed as a fractional part of 
the computed body "weight. The center of gravity of 
the tail boom is automatically computed in the 
program. 

Items of the operating weight empty not included in the loca- 
tion descriptions presented above are. located at the aircraft 
center of gravity as computed by the balance subroutine. An 
example of a completed weight-balance information sheet for a 
typical single rotor helicopter is shown below. 



WEIGHT-BALANCE INFORMATION 
(Required Only When MRPIND > 0) 



Variable 


Loc, 


Value 


(Xcgf/^> 


2678 


0.425 


^Gr 


2679 


0.10 


'"ng/^b' 


2680 


0.216 


"'mg/^b' 


2681 


0.754 


(Xpe/Ib) 


2682 


0.727 


( "POS^-^POS ' 


2683 


0.593 


(Xav/Ib" 


2684 


0.495 



Variable 


Loc. 


Value 


(^furn/^b) 


2685 


0.334 


(Xapu/Ib) 


2686 


0.424 


(Xae/^b) 


2687 





(Xads/ xads) 


2688 





t^R^^TB^ 


2689 





(XSC/IB' 


2690 


0.581 


(Xasc/Ib) 


2691 






Variable 


Loc. 


Value 


Wav 


2692 


469 


WpURN 


2693 


416 


Wapu 


2694 


172 


KrULS 


2595 


0,731 


J^TBBS 


2696 


0.130 



4-179 



M1L-STD.1374 PART I 

Nas*^ .- — __^^_^_— .^— ^ 

D*u 



R«P*rt - 



GROUP WEIGHT STATEMENT 
AIRCRAFT 

(INCLUDING ROTORCRAFT) 
ESTIMATED - CALCULATED - ACTUAL 
(Cross Out Thos* Not Applicable] 



CONTRACT NO. 

AIRCRAFT, GOVERNMENT NO.. 
AIRCRAFT, CONTRACTOR NO.. 
MANUFACTURED BY 



MANUFACTURED BY 



MODEL 



NO. 



TYPE 



MAIN 



AUX 



PAGES REMOVED 



PAGE NO. 



4-180 



MILSTD 1374 PART I 



GROUP WEIGHT STATEMENT 
WEIGHT EMPTY 



D.u_ 


— 


-■- ■ — .^..-. .- - "^Repwl 






\ 


WING GROUP 






7 


8ASIC STUUCTURE CENTER SECTION 






3 


- INTERMEDIATE PANEl 




4 


- OUTER PANEl 




5 


GLOVE 




6 


SECONDARY STRUaURE fine!. Wing Fold Weight Lbt.) 




7 


AtlERONS (Inct. 8c(anc« W«ight Lb») 




8 


FLAPS ■ TRAILING EDGE 




9 


LEADING EDGE 




10 


SLATS 




11 


SPOILERS 




^2 






13 






14 


ROTOR GROUP 1 




15 


BLADE ASSEMBLY 






16 


HUB & HINGE (Incl. Btod* Fold W«igM Lb«.) 




17 






16 






19 


TAIL GROUP 




20 


BASIC & SECONDARY STRUO. - STABILIZER 






21 


. FIN (Inci Dorsal] 




22 


VENTRAL 




1 231 


ELEVATOR (Inci Solonc* W«ight Lb$.) 




24 


RUDDERS (Incl Balanc* Weight Lbi.) 




25 


TAIL ROTOR - BLADES 




26 


. HUB & HINGE 




27 






28 


BODY GROUP 




29 


BASIC STRUCTURE . FUSELAGE or HULL 






30 


BOOMS 




31 


SECONDARY STRUCTURE FUSELAGE or HULL 




32 ' 800MS 




33 


SPEEDBRAKES 




34 


DOORS. RAMPS, PANELS. & MliC. 




35 






36 






37 
38 ' 


ALIGHTING GEAR GROUP (Type: 1 




LOCATION 


flunniftg G«ar* 


Aff»it Goor* 


Structure 


Controls 






39 














40 














41 














fTT 














1 *3 

44 










45 

46 

47 


ENGINE SECTION or NACELLE GROUP 




BODY INTERNAL 






EXTERNAL 




48 


1 WING INBOARD 




49 


OUTBOARD 




50 
51 










52 


AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM 




53 


DOORS. PANELS, & MISC. 




54 






55 






56 






57 


TOTAL STRUCTURE (To U Brought Forword) 





*C}taii9a ta fUoH 4 Sirwti for Wa»»r Typ* G«ar 



4-181 



GROUP WEIGHT STATEMENT 



MIL- 

N«OTC 


STD-U74 PART 1 ^' 


EIGHT EMPTY p.,. 




Report 








1 


PHOPULSlON GROUP | Auxillory 


Main 




3 


ENGINE INSTALLATION 









3 






4 


ACCESSORY GEAR BOXES & DRIVE 




5 






6 


EXHAUST SYSTEM 




7 


ENGINE COOLING 




8 


WATER INJECTION 




9 


ENGINE CONTROL 






10 
11 


STARTING SYSTEM 






PROPELLER INSTALLATION 






12 


SMOKE ABATEMENT 






13 


LUBRICATING SYSTEM 






U 


FUEL SYSTEM 






15 


TANKS PROTECTED 










16 


UNPROTECTED 






\7 


PLUMBING, ttc 






18 

19 


DRIVE SYSTEM 




ZiI^^^^=*"*==CIl 




GEAR BOXES, LUB SY & ROTOR BRK 










20 


TRANSMISSION DRIVE 






21 


ROTOR SHAFTS 






22 


JET DRIVE 




^^^]>— cC!l^ 




23 










2i 


FLIGHT CONTROLS GROUP 




25 


COCKPIT CONTROLS (Autopilot Lbrf 






26 


SYSTEMS CONTHOLS 




27 






28 








29 


AUXILIARY POWER PLANT GROUP 




30 


INSTRUMENTS GROUP 




31 


HYDRAULIC & PNEUMATIC GROUP 




32 






33 


ELEORICAL GROUP 




U 






35 


AViONiCS GROUP 




36 
137 


EQUIPMENT 






INSTALLATION 




38 






39 


ARMAMENT GROUP (Ind Po»»iv« Prot. Lbi.) 




40 


FURNISHINGS & EQUIPMENT GROUP 




41 
42 


ACCOMMODATION FOR PERSONNEL 






MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT 




43 


FURNISHINGS 




44 


EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 




45 






46 


AIR CONDITIONING GROUP 




47 

48 
49 

50 


ANTl iCtNG GROUP 








PHOTOGRAPHIC GROUP 










51 


LOAD 4 HANDLING GROUP 






52 


AIRCRAFT HANDLING 






53 
54 
55 


LOAD HANDLII^ 








MANUFACTURING VARIATION 




56 


TOTAL FROM PAGE 2 




57 


WEIGHT EMPTY 





4-182 



MIL.STD 1374 PART I 



GROUP WEIGHT STATEMENT 
USEFUL lOAD AND GROSS WEIGHT 






Dit* 




■■■■'r"-~, ^ - 


— ■^-■- 


- 


. ■■ . ■.._.„_ 





: Reporl _ 






1 1 lOAO CONDITION 

7 \ 













.1 ' CREW [No ) 

i PASSENGERS INo. ) 













5 FUEL 

6 UNUSABLE 


Locotion 


irp« 


vjaii. 












7 INTERNAL 


















s 


















9 


















)0 


















lU EXTERNAL 
(2 


















14 OIL 




. 


_ 












15 TRAPPED 

16 ENGINE 





. 








17 

18 FUEl TANKS {LocoHon ) 

19 WATER INJECTION FLUID \ GoU.| 












20 

21 BAGGAGE 

22 CARGO 












^i\ 










24 GUN INSTALL ATlONi 












25 GUNS 


Location 


FU. or Fl«M 


Quantity 


Calib*r 












L^* 




















27 




















28 AMMO. 




















29 




















30 




















• 31 SUPPT5 




















* 32' WEAPONS INSTALL 


(lr»cl. Submarino D«i*cHon E 


Kp«ndob)«t} 












33 














r¥. — 












36 












,37 












38 












j39 










- 


40 










- 


41 ' 










. 


'"42 . _.. _ 










- 


" 43 










, 


44 










_ 


45 










_ 


46 EQUIPMENT 










- 


47 










_ 


48 SURVIVAL KITS A LIFE RAR5 










_ 


49 










_ 


50 OXYGEN 










_ 


51 










_ 


52 










_ 


53 










_ 


54 










_ 


55 TOTAL USEFUL LOAD 










_ 


56 WEIGHT EMPTY 










_ 


57 GROSS WEIGHT 










J 



»*lMl &!•*••, MiMikt. S*fiobi.or*, •!€ f«tl«»«4 ky tock., l«y<.cli««* Chy»««. •»« N«« Fort of W«i«Kl Imptif 
Utj 1d«N»ifw«KM. l»c*ti*«. aftd Ow«iit!»y fm AB »•<•» Shown liwl»di«t« )i»i*o»oi.»»i 



4-183 



MIL-STD 1374 PART I 

Nam* »_, 



GROUP WEIGHT STATEMENT 
DIMENSIONAL AND STRUCTURAL DATA 



P.i«- 



i 


)>lr 




1t«pMt - 






1 

"3 
4" 

5 
6 


WING, ROTOR ATAIL GROUPS 

"wing _ /^_ 


?ii^^Jll^: 


S#AN A! •"• 
JS'. CMOtO 


rnio »OOi •• 
ChOIO UN 1 


MAI THC« •* 

•OOT CHOIO m 


ffitO T# 
CHOiD l!N! " 


MAI IN-i» 

Tip (nLllr IK 




















— 




MAIN ROTOR {Elad*$/Rotor | 












TAIL ROTOR iBlod«/Rolof ) 












HORIZ TAIL 














7 


VERT. TAIL 














8 

9 
10 


f 


Wing 














AREAS - (Sq Ft.) 


»4A>N tO^OI ' 
•lAOE AHA 


TAK ibfoi 

MAOf Atl* 


Horiz. Tail 


V«rt. Toil 


Dorsal 




fTh*o for Wing & Rotor, All Oth«rs Expo»«d| 
















^ 


Sp«ttd Brk». 


Flops (L.E.) 


Flops (T.E.I 


Slots 


Spoilers 


Ailerons 




12 
13 


AREAS - [Sq. Fl.l 










BODY & NACELLE GROUPS 


l«ngth (Ft.) 


D.plh (Ft.) 


Width (Ft.) ^wtmc Ah. so ".] 


Vol (Cu. Ft.) 


'Ol MtSi CKi i' 


. ^^4 


1 FUSELAGE or HULL 






\ 








f 


)5 


ftOOMS 

















J_6 

\7 

^18 


1 NACELLES 















1 ~ ~ ■■ 















i „ . 


Length . 










: '9 

rYo 

: 30 


' ALIGHTING GEAR GROUP 


Ol*o Ext 


OI«o Trovtl 


length - Arjtlt Hook 


t — ^ - — ~' " 


Axl« to 1 Trunnion 


Ext. to Coltops«d 


Hook Trunnion to Pt. 


' LOCATION 












1 I 


i DIMENSIONS |lnch#f) 















r 










^ 


PROPULSION GROUP 












ENGINES 


&IS ThtUSTlNltS FNC WtTH A"tt|k>tNtl 


SiS iHtuit IN lis INC 

WiThOuI AII|IIU*Nfl 


MAX St S iMAft Mf 




MAIN 














AUXILIARY 














ROTOR DRIVE SYSTEM 


Ovsign H.P. 


Input R.P.M. 


AT IQIOI 


.isiin tOfO* ** »• 


NUMllfCtAt lOitES 












■ 


Protected 


Uftprot«ct«d 


Integral | 




1 ^* 


\ FUEL - INTERNAL ••• LOCATION 


No. Tonki 


Gallons 


No. Tonki 1 Gallons 


No. Tanks 


Gallons 


! 32 WING 














33 FUSELAGE 














17 

V6 
37 

Ts 

J9 

40 

'*; 

43 

V - 

44 

"47 
"49 


EXTERNAL ••• 





























OIL 


G(Nf«*rat 


0UT»U1 AC 








ELECTRICAL & LOAD & HANDLING GROUPS ! g(nT..7o." 




C*»CO fiOOt *«A 




* 




^ - 




# 






^ 












STRUCTURAL DATA - CONDITION 
FLIGHT MANEUVER 


CONTIMT tIS 


MtttNAl Wl 

ON lODt 


»U(t 'N WINGS !tlS 




01 SKIN 

C«OSS w(»GMT 


Ult. L.F. 












1 


GUST 














LANDING 














^ 














MAX GROSS WITH ZERO WING FUEL 


5^ 


^^^^^'^^^^ 




^:::xc^ 






CATAPULTING 


"^^^^^^^ 




^^:>*=^^ 






LIMIT LANDING SINK SPEED (Ft /S«.| 

■.~n *isu-wc tot t>NCW*C WS»Cn 


^^> 


^;::r^»*:^^ 


^>-^=^^ 






^^ 


"^^^^* 


^^ 






STALL SPO LDG CONFIG. POWER OFF 


^^=*<^^ 




'so' VJiii''^i?.^t!^. VHr^^.*?. 


__R.PM 


"^^;>^=:^^ 






Til 


' ROTOR TIP SPD AT DESIGN LIMfT 


Pow«r 


Ft./Sec. 


"cONttACTOt " 
DES(CNfACTO« 








53 
'5: 

^5< 


\ 












\ % DESIGN LOAD 


Wing 
L*v»i 




Rotor 


Rotor ^ 




I 1 DESIGN SPEED AT SI. pCnot»| 




Div* 








rt DESIGN SPO AT OTHER ALTTTUDtS 




All 


Alt. 






i 







.1 








i^^ 


' DCPR WEIGHT lAiffrom«) 













"No»« »• ott li^ of t«*«l««« |»»cl*idiA9 •Qwip«i«f»f pforwtl*ren<«>| 
**f«f«lt«l *e (, 01 t Ai(Cf«(t f»( Wing 4 Totl ln»*rt inch«i froM i, l»t«f for lotoft 
•* •Total U»«bl« Copoeify 
•***1fi««H IikKoi Kom i iotar ta Hod* Afta<KiMiit f«f letari 



4-184 





GROUP WEIGHT STATEMENT 
MILSTD.t374 PART I **•«-- 

N.m* M»J'>- 

AIRFRAME WEIGHT 



The Airframe Weight to be entered on line 57 of page 5 of the Group Weight 
Statement should be derived hero in detail showing those items deducted 
from weight empty as required by the document "Cost Information Reports 
(CIR) for Aircraft, Missiles, and Space Systems" dated 21 April, 1966, or 
subsequent revisions thereto. Airframe weight is the same as previously 
called AMPR andDCPR and is not to be confused with "Work Breakdown 
Structure (WBS) Airframe Cost Definition," 



WEIGHT EMPTY 

DEDUCT THE FOLLOWING ITEMS 

(ITEMIZE) 



AIRFRAME WEIGHT 



4-185 



4.12 PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS SUBPROGRAM 

The flow chart of the control loop for the performance calcu- 
lations subprogram is shown in Figure 4-41. This routine 
monitors the flow during calculation of mission performance 
data and calculates the total fuel required at the end of the 
mission. 



4-186 



\ SUBRgUUH E PRFRM / 



<r; 



IF 






JT" 



U 



If 



<fffPlWfl5.HE.2, J,OR.OP■li^D.HE.2,01>- 
CO 10 ?3 




53 



:x. 



)f 



'-^FJHD.CJ.i.JI}, 



HRnn€,<;rjr. 



A. 



}f 



^-^tifJHD. £0:2.01 -' ^ 




llJXJHD.EO.l.Ol 



i 



'' <. unji£i6.20'3j)__;- 



'"tfUyjHO. £0.2.01 



i 



X 




MriJl£i6.203^i / 

"3 "■"■ 











ir 



<-^ilXIHO.£:O.M.Dl ^ 







Figure 4-41. 



Performance Calculations Subprogram Flow Chart 
(Part 1 of 5) . 



4-187 



CO TO 51 ..-- 




Figure 4-41. 



Performance Calculations Subprogram Flow Chart 
(Part 2 of 5) . 



4-188 



101 itidEY * iHO£X/lD 



(;0 10 200 



2 \lf^^ * JTOttl ^ 1 
CALL lOML iJIOHLl 




<D 



<!) 







5 JLOJIR- JUOiin t I 

CALL LOJlfllJlOJiai 
CO 10 200 



ri 



7 jnj£L * JFUEL 1- \ 
CALL CMCFW IJFUELl 
CO 10 200 



JTTCMCPL- ICHCPL * I 
"n C:flLL CHCPLIJCHCPLl 



CO 10 2DD 



g Jl^Ll ^ JlflLl » t I 




<iJOPlH.EQ.O,OR.SClJflOIJ*^ll .rt£.4.t 
CO 10 102 




^ IF 

<fHrjf1IJlflLll .Liaoooj 
^\. CO 10 102 



■^ 



iflOPlN * I 

jnoe:x3 - jcRus ^ ; 



t02 ZPLL IRflLl IJlflLll 
JHOPIH ^ 



(200) 



Figure 4-41. 



Performance Calculations Subprogram Flow Chart 
(Part 3 of 5) . 



4-189 




i^ ik 



r-tn 








0© 

Figure 4-41, 



J. 



-I t| QL, 

Jfe'- 

5=S 




:n 



u 

1 
—II- ! 



t 







Performance Calculations Subprogram Flow Chart 
(Part 4 of 5) . 



4-190 




^^"^ i 101FU - CKl*WfSfl *• DCLWf 



fl£5FU - ICKl - l.UWr'5-si ^ OELWF t WFL 
SJMFU - ItllFU - RESfU 
SAVt 1^51 ^ irtOSGl 

IF 

k 




[iwei 25u 5 cufiD ijn)"l 



L 



<^^iSmifi,50fl2L ii^^ 



f.Hoi. iti()PiJfin.ca.'2.i .^H 
4. ISflVE 1-251 .[Q.iOD.nn 



1 



[TnuBN 



/^^anE!6.522Mr^y 
<r HflJIt 16.5225) > 
\ MRnEI6.522M1 .^^ 



Ijctubh I 



Figure 4-41. 



Performance Calculations Subprogram Flow Chart 
(Part 5 of 5) . 

4-191 



4. 12*1 Taxi Calculations Subroutine 

The taxi calculations subroutine (specified by SGTIND = 1) , 
calculates the fuel required to taxi at ground idlp engine 
setting for a specified period of time. For aircraft which 
have independent auxiliary cruise propulsion systems (AIPIND = 
2) / the program will calculate taxi performance for either 
primary engines operating alone, or both primary and auxiliary 
cruise propulsion engines operating. This is accomplished by 
means of the input constant kpj. If kpj = 0, the program will 
consider only primary engines in operation in determining fuel 
flow rates. If kpi = 1, the program will include both primary 
and lift propulsion systems in calculating the fuel flow rates 
and the corresponding reduction in aircraft gross weight. 
Figure 4-4 2 is a flow chart of this subroutine. 

Input to this subroutine consists of the time for taxi, value 
of kpj, and atmospheric conditions. 



4-192 



'^ 



IlIEX ^ I 

oAMm « ide:x 

V ^ 0.0 

n - 0.0 





CALL iHRflVLnCiBI.D.O) 

IKEi ^ 1P£AJ 

HfJ ^ hPUHl*- I 

TLPJ ^ bHPftI ^ ^^^ 

n ^ WSHPflJ* QELIA ^ SlHHfl 

CALL iHRflVL UMAXI.a.Ol 

P£Hn - ILPI/ SHPAI 

CO la ^ 



CALL POWAVJ HGJRKO.ai 

IKEi ^ IPEfll 

KEl ^ HPLIMli- I 

BLPI * SHPAI 

n - WSiiPfll* OtLlA « olrtElfl - 8HPPI 

call PowAVi n^iAxi, a. 01 

PEhFi ^ aiPl/ iMPAI 



T- 



3 C^LL P8WAVL IIGI.O.OI 
IKE * IPEfl 
^i ^ NPLin •- I 

n» ^ MShlPH « OELIA « SIHEIA « BhPP 
CALL POWAVl niAX.O.Ol 
PEnF ^ dLP / StiPA 
i;o 10 I 




Figure 4-42. Taxi Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 1 of 2) . 



4-193 






f 


i n ^ fp - n * sKFL iJiflxn 
«n -= n • DEm tn^xi) 
M ^ w - wn 

Wf ^ WF >WF1 




Wne 16.9002) S1tl,B,yFU,Mll.H.V.1Kt,£0lKei .PtMF.Fl.lKCi. 
I EOlKEi) , PEhFI.fi 
MBilEIG. 90051 S1,R.14F.U.H,V,1KE,£0IKE» ,P£hF,F1.1KE1 . EO iKEU 

I pehfi.fi 




IJEL^F ^ ^0 


- U 


«F ^ wr - 


OELWf 


M ^ 140 




SI * SIO 




REIURH 





Figure 4-42. Taxi Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 2 of 2) . 



4-194 



4.12.2 Takeoff, Hover, and Landing Calculations Subroutine 

The takeoff, hover, and landing calculations subroutine 
(specified by SGTIND = 2) will calculate the thrust or power 
required and corresponding fuel flow rates during simulated 
takeoff /hover/landing operations. Four options are available, 
specified by the input indicator TOLIND: 



TOLIND = 1 - Input required thrust-weight ratio and vertical 
rate of climb. Program will calculate required 
power fractions. 



TOLIND = 2 - 



Input the required power fraction and vertical 
rate of climb. Program will calculate thrust- 
weight ratio. 



TOLIND = 3 - This option is the same as TOLIN0 = T, except 

hover in ground effect is assumed, requiring the 
input of height of fuselage bottom above ground 
as a fraction of main rotor diameter. 

TOLIND = 4 - This option is the same as TOLIND = 2 , except 

hover in ground effect is assumed, requiring the 
input of height of fuselage bottom above ground 
as a f ?"^<='tio^ of main rotor diameter. 

In all cases, the program will print out the power fraction 
and thrust-weight ratio. The program will permit operation 
at power fractions greater than 1.0 (more than 100 percent of 
available power) in order to make it easier to perform studies 
in which engine power is being varied parametrically to sat- 
isfy specified takeoff or landing requirements as a site. The 
program will , however",' print a cautionary note that power 
fraction exceeds 100 percent. In the case (TOHL = 2 or 4) 
where the required power fraction is input, if the calculated 
thrust-weight ratio is less than the design thrust-weight 
ratio input (LOG 0228) , the following cautionary note will be 
printed: INSUFFICIENT POWER AVAILABLE TO HOVER. T/W AVAIL- 
ABLE LESS THAN T/W REQUIRED AT DESIGN DOWNLOAD. 

For a helicopter configuration having auxiliary independent 
engines, the program sets the auxiliary engine power setting 
at ground idle. 

It is possible to use a hover segment in the mission profile to 
account for a reserve fuel requirement (SGTIND = 20) , in such a 
case the helicopter weight at the end of hover is set back to 
the weight at the beginning of hover, or as a part of the basic 
mission (in this case the weight is not reset) . In either 
case, the fuel used during hover is included in the total fuel 
required to size the helicopter. 

Figure 4-43 is a flow chart for this subroutine. 

:.>; 4-195 



\ SUBRflUlJHE TOHLIJIOHU / 

IT 



IFUOGE ^ nOhL 
lOEX^ I 
RAUIU •* JOEX 




1 



< annE 16.3000) iuimnQHL) .siHinohii . 1005 iLi^^ibO.i^ j^i.mi > 



HBi1Et6,6333) Pfn^nighL) .SlHinOHLI . iOOS ILIhlhO,!! , !^m) > 



< i<RI1Ei6 300m > 



^ 



21 ;*H^MflX - AH^M^ tnOHLl 




iov^<-i.o 1 



Figure 4-43. 



Takeoff, Hover, and Landing Subroutine 
Flow Chart (Part 1 of 4) • 



4-196 




HO- w 

SI 0^51 

SiMflX -s il »■ 51H inOhLl 

lCI ^ 

lC2 ^ 

^fH - H 

IHDAln ^ flliiJNO tnDHL_v_iGl 



35(1 


CALL Al(l0^iHH,<(*1tlJiiD inOHL 


♦•101 


MH 


1 1 1 3ttL »• 


i -3) J 






IN010L * lOLJHOt 


JIflHLl 














n * M.(3«w* novw 


^ aiovuiwt 


/ lBH(I^<PJ*«0««'2*t 


Hh«r'*n 


<^l 




(TIP - Ll 
















fli-lU * 9.0 
















1/ ^ a. a 
















CXfl - 0.0 
















B 




511 CALL POW^VL nMAX.3. 0) 

etP - SHPfl 

U - HPlJM - I ^ _ 

ehPS!JP^3LP*tttiPP«0£L1«*5l^inft 
CALL ROIPOW 




SHPR 


^ BHPH / l9hPP' 


.D£LTfl*blHnm 


CALL 


pgwR[3ta.ai 


_ 


fP - 


^ SHPB« BrtP'^* Otul^* SlnEI^ 


1K£ ^ IPtM 




K£ -- 


6 




lHF- 




CO 10 'iQ2 






Figure 4-43. 



Takeoff, Hover, and Landing Subroutine 
Flow Chart (Part 2 of 4) . 



4-197 



& 




TT 

i 



C r-XE 
— -JtZtr* 

r- M 3 r- _^ 







i 




a 




5- 


C3 


rca 




1— - 


e» 


tnc3 


_" 


5^-5 


— ( ,— 


::st 


to 4- 


wr'-o 


/— 


or-\ 






— trr 


^-l-^a_ 




^tnC3 1| U-) 




Q_ M 


^OL 


M 


II -.o 


—1—' 


— ' i| ^U_f- 




a^tZcja-t-a 



I 






f— 

^'= 'I 

— rCwtC 0- Oi 

I| l| 1) l| 1| C3 

M C—i M ^ J r- 






0) 

c 

-P 
O 



CO 



•f-l • 



o 

en 



n3 

C 
rd 

- U 
U (^ 

> ^-^ 
O 

K -P 
U 

>^ O 



I 



4-198 




/ imjlEIB 30021 Sl.FI.Mf.H. M.V.IHE.EDIKEl ,P£HF,f,lflVU,fM,BhPR. \ 

V I nun, nam / 




Figure 4-43. 



Takeoff", HoverV^nd" Landing Siab routine 
Flow Chart (Part 4 of 4) . 



4-199 



4.12.3 Climb Calculations Subroutine 

The third performance segment is a calculation of climb 
performance. Four options are available, specified by the 
indicator CLMIND: 

CLMIND = 1 - The program calculates performance of the air- 
craft in a maximum rate of climb ascent limited 
by maximum operating airspeed and maximum operat- 
ing Mach number. In no event will the aircraft 
be required to fly at an airspeed greater than 
the input maximiam operating airspeed. 

CLMIND == 2 - The program calculates the climb performance of 
the aircraft at specified constant equivalent 
airspeed limited, as before, by M^^^ and Vj^q. 

CLMIND ~ 3 - Climb performance is calculated at constant 

specified Mach number. Otherwise, the option is 
similar to CLMIND = 2. 

CLMIND = 4 - Climb will be calculated at constant true air- 
speed with the same constraints as for CLMIND = 2, 

For all options, the user may input the power setting of the 
engines which will be considered to be the maximum permissible 
rating. This is accomplished by means of the indicator 
POWIND : 



POWIND 



: Maximum 



POWIND = 1: Military > engine rating 



1 



POWIND = 2: Normal J 

The user may specify a value for incremental equivalent flat 
plate area parasite drag during climb, AFecLU^, to represent 
variations in store drag. 

Engine shutdown during climb may be simulated by inputs for 
NpsD (primary engines) and Npsoi (auxiliary independent 
engines) . One or more engines may be shutdown. 

If the flight path (climb) angle exceeds 9 degrees, the 
engine power setting is reduced and the program prints out: 

CAUTION: CLIMB ANGLE TOO LARGE DUE TO EXCESSIVE POWER 
AVAILABLE AT THIS FLIGHT CONDITION. POWER 
SETTING REDUCED TO ENGINE RATING. 

If there is insufficient power available for climb, the engine 
power setting is increased and the program prints out: 



4-200 



CAUTION: INSUFFICIENT POWER AVAILABLE FOR CLIMB AT 
THIS FLIGHT CONDITION. POWER SETTING 
INCREASED TO ENGINE RATING. 



The input h^ax ^^^ two applications. If hoPTIND ~ ^ (optxmum 
altitude search) and the climb is followed by a cruise, the 
input value of hmax wiH be interpreted as the maximum flight 
altitude for the following cruise. If the optimum cruise 
altitude is determined by the program to be at an altitude 



less than hmax» 



the climb will terminate at the lower altitude 



If an optimum altitude search is not being used or if the fol- 
lowing segment is other than a cruise, the input h^ax ^^ 
interpreted as the final altitude for the climb segment. 

It is possible to use a climb segment in the mission profile 
to account for a reserve fuel requirement (SGTIND = 30) (in 
such a case the helicopter weight at the end of climb is set 
back to the weight at the beginning of climb) or as a part of 
the basic mission (in this case the weight is not reset) . In 
either case, the fuel used during climb is included in the 
total fuel required to size the helicopter. 

Figure 4-44 is a flow chart for this subroutine. 



4-201 



d 









5*' 




4-202 



/\ 






4-203 




/ wRjiEifi. 90011 loot ij, 11 ,1-1.11 . loenij.n ,j-i, 21 , \ 



< mni\^.3QQu > 




MFiJ1£ifi.900^r^ 



312 MCLJMO * JCLJMO 

irtOfliM - ;nMjrtoiJCLJMfl ^ 201 



<D 



I n^p - 1 . 




nflp - £7ii»pi 



(TtLlflN - 0. 

fl«2Hyj - flrt2h3i IJCLJMOl 

«2SlRi - A-2HPiY}^f\l\7Hy} 

/JH2M/Ry - Afi2H1tJCLJH01 

g251R--^2MAV*AN2H/qV 

nO' 51 

UQ « W 
LC25-0 
P * fl2S1R-"V1 



C;»LL ;»lM(5SlH.fllMJrtOliCLiM9^20^ JJ« (JCLJHfl^201 1 
l^H/*V-VM0/'Sflfl1i5JCM/ll 




<D 



UM/l^ -Sfl^tMMO 



216 V - ENflCHliCLJMfll 
CO 10 110 




Figure 4-44 



Climb Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 3 of 13) . 



4-204 



211 V - CHflCH UCLJMfll VSflRI tSJCHfll 
GO 10 310 



© 








r 




a2 CM -- tMflCM tJ:../H3. 
00 10 310 




ftHU--l.688*V /P 

CALL ORAClCLWd iJClJ«0)l 



Figure 4-44 . 



2fl5 LC26-0 
LC2>0 
LC30-0 
LC25^0 
LC28 * 




VrtP ^ l.l6M*50R"i IW/ .nhO<PJ*0^<*2n ^ 
(PJ*0^^2/ U2.*f£.Tl i-^a.2S 



^^P - 0. 831* 5 Oftl tW/ iRHO*»F]# 0**2)1 
/PJ*0**<;/n.«^£7U -*0/2^ 



Climb Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 4 of 13) • 
4-205 




G> 



GO 10 561 



982 Bonoi ' noci 

CO 10 861 




I , 

861 FP ' W5HPA ^ D£Llfl < SlMH^ ^ 8HPP | 




n -0.0 

GO 10 4128 



W128 5HP5V - SHPfl 
ShPSVJ' SHPfli 

r - fp ^ f J 

CALL POWflVLIlMflX,£Ml 
f£Hf * SHPSV/SMPfl 



985 fl0Cl-R0C2 
l^ - v-io. 

LC25 ' 2 
LC26 - I 
LC28 ' I 
CO 10 961 


i| 


f 



984 LC21 - I 
ROCt - B0C2 
i' -- Vt l.O 
LC25 * 2 
LC26 ' I 
CO 10 961 




LC28 - 
GO 10 981 




flOCl ' R0C2 
V - VflO. 
LC25 - 2 
CO 10 983 





CO 10 961 



CALL iHn/lVLllPSJ.O.Ol 

TK£J - 1P£AJ 

K£) * rtPLJMJ ♦ \ 

7LPJ - 6HPflJ „ ,„ 

f j - WSHPflJ*0£LlH*SlM£lfl^lP 

GO 10 4128 



1 



965 V-VnO. 

LC25-LC25M 



^-VMflX 




1^326 CALL POWflVJ IIPSJ. 0.0) 
1K£J - IPEflJ 
til ^ rtPLJMJ *^1 
XPJ- SMPflJ 

n - WSMPfli*0£Llfl^SlH£lfl*flHPPJ 
GO 10 4328 



J 



Figure 4-44. Climb Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 5 of 13) . 



4-206 



a. 







pa 















ru 




' ▼ 




» 




S " 




? 




9= 


/"■^ 


T 


C«) 


—1 


^^ 


i 






i*j 






£ 


X 






i 


r 






\ 


> 
n 








6 


7> 






r— 1 


^ 


s. 


CC 


c» 


S 


\ 


v» 


t 


r -> 


\ 


\ 






W^ 




^ g 1 


f^ 




*C 


-» a.v 


/ 


n 




— -^^ 


/ 


c 


cc 


d itjs 




UJ 




3 ^i: 


1 P 


CT) 


d sH 




_ 




1 —V—, 




„ di;s 




fMr- *t_ir 




? i: — u-i 




'S d%d 




:>cr CL w-i 




is^" , ^ 




<E<->> 1 -13 




^iii^^ 




(O V t^uj-'-JQ 




^^ '~ -S • 


qJ 












n 









i© 



u 

o 



0) 

G 

-P 

o 



cn 

CO 

c 

O 

-H ^ 
-P ro 

U 



^ 
'"^r 



CD 
U 

IK 

•H 

04 



4-207 



201 IPS * 1MJL 

CO 10 7C^ 
, 



16 OELSMP'O.O 




200 IPS * TMfly 
CO 10 204 



202 ip{ ^ imp I 



20M CALL POWflVL HPS.EH) 
7H£ - 1P£fl 
K£ -- rtPLJM "l 
8LP - 3MP.R 

6MPSUP - 3LP^eMPP*0£L1fl*Slhnfl 
SHPfl ^ 8MP3UP-YLS2 



©■ 




0£lSHP - iyX7CLIiCLJM8)*0aBHP/ 
t nyVlCLIJCLJM91 ^ nflP3*lt.O - lV>C1CL!JCLiMgi)/<(*HPl 

OilSm * 0£L6HP - 0£LSHP 

CO 10 U12\ 

i 



I SI £1^P3 ^ 0.60 I 



611 0£L5M1 * lyxiCLIJCLJMQl^OELOhP/ 

i nVXlCLIJCLJMai ^ £lflP>ll.O - IXXlCLUCUMOIl/flKP) 
SMPfl - mPfm * 0£L5H1 
CALL iHflUS! IIPBOPI 
GAPI - £1*^P 
{T£LSH2 * IVyiCL UCLJM01*0£LOHP/ 

I nyyicLiJCLJMSi ^ £iflP3*u,o - lyxicLUCLJuQn ^akpi 




a£LSHP - 0£L5H2 
UHm * 0£L9HP-0tL5H2 
QO 10 412i 



\m\ RCPflW ^13000. ^£1fl>^0£LSHn^flKP^ OELSHP-^EIflPll/IW^PHJ)"] 




Figure 4-44. Climb Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 7 of 13) . 

4-208 




n 


- 


•1 

r— 


- 


r 


- 





u 






0) 

&4 



4-209 





*^ 




r- 




UJ 




X 




r— 




to 




i 




J— 




—1 




UJ 




Q— ( 


X. 


TO* 


UJ 


— IVI 


• 


a — 1 


a. 


: 15 


r- 


-• fO. 




— qr— 1 v» 


^<da_a:a. 


>UJ 


:i5%s 


<ra 


3r~ 


a-3tn 


« n n H 


a. 1 






1 a:a.-> 


— 1"^ 


Q^IAet 


iU 


-^ro-o. 


^sss 


E 




e^ 






t 



Q.r— 
« I 



CM M 




v» a. cM_ 

a. ^ r- v*o_ 

f- «• ^» _J(- 

— 1-1^-1 jpr I 



3 
> 

-JO. 

▼ * 

rrcc 

— 0- 
OtJOJ 

r» 
a. 

Si? 

CLCL 



-0 




I 

M 

&4 



4-210 




>r r 




fo 



o 



i 
0) 

u 

en 
-H 



4-211 




4-212 





2H9 


fl^RlO 




M ^ WIO 




H -- hlO 




SI- V]10 




Wf- WflD 




ftnUHrt 



Figure 4-44. 



Climb Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 12 of 13) . 



4-213 



< 




< MflilC 16. 10201 > 



t02t WflJlC 16,50021 SI, fl.WF.W.H.V, 
_IJL/0L,OCflM.8HP701.ftdn01 



1K£.£0IK£1 ,P£HF.£fiS,;»MU,ClPSMfl, 



> 



WflJl£ 16.90051 P.flMPMR,PlFi,RMPl,Plflfl.rP. 
0HPflUX,£l*qP.1flUX71,rj,1K£J,eOIK£Jl ,PEHri,9MPC, 
C^^m, CPJrtO. CPP-«iR. CPftUO. COOMR. OCOS. OCOM, CYf^MAU. 
CCP.CC1,CLWCL IJCLJM01 .COWj.Rrt 





Mr -. wr ^ oeiWF 

M ^ wo 

n^ sio 
unuRH 



RIO - R 




MIO - W 




mo ^ H 




mo- ST 




HFIO- WF 




H - H »- 0£nflH 




» - R <- 0£LlflH/l601« 


[^if\Hmm\ 


M - W - fiiO£L1flH/i50 


0^flOC107) 


Mf ^ Wf*- f*0£n^N / 


IfiO.O'-ROClOTl 


Vl - V 




ST * S1^0£LTflH/l60.0*R0n011 


LC29 ' IC25^1 




CO 10 I 






Figure 4-44, 



4-214 



Climb Calculations 
Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 13 of 13) . 



4.12.4 Cruise Calculations Subroutine 

The fourth performance segment is the calculation of cruise 
performance. The cruise performance calculation contains six 
separate options specifying the type of cruise for the air- 
craft. This option is determined by an input idnicator, 
CRSIND. ..^^ . T . - . 




CRSIND = 1 - This is a calculation of helicopter cruise 

performance at a fixed cruise power setting and 
at a constant altitude, constrained by limiting 
airspeed and Mach number. This option calculates 
the true airspeed, helicopter advance ratio, 
specific rangeV^ arid reduction in gross weight 
during cruise. In the case p| compound and aux- 
iliary propulsion helicopters, if the auxiliary 
propulsion power required Cto satisfy the input 
Taux/TtOT) is greater than that available, as 
determined by POWIND, TauxAtot is readjusted to 
match the power requirements. It should be 
further noted that in the case of a configuration 
having auxiliary independent engines "POWIND, 
which specifies the desired power setting for the 
primary engines, is used as a limiting factor for 
the auxiliaries. 




CRSIND = 2 - This option will calculate the cruise performance 
constrained by cruise power and by limiting air- 
' ^p^ed and Mach nxomber of the aircraft at constant 
true a^irspeed and constant altitude. The program 
will calculate the ^power setting required, true 
airspeed, specific range, and corresponding re- 
duction in gross weight of the aircraft during 
cruise. In the case of an auxiliary independent 
engine configuration, if either the primary or 
auxiliary engine power required is greater than 
that available, TauxAtOT is readjusted accord- 
ingly. Then, if a power required-power available 
match is not achieved, cruise speed is reduced. 

CRSIND = 3 - This option calculates the airspeed during cruise 
required for best specific range, constrained by 
normal power setting and by limiting airspeed and 
Mach number. Flight is at constant altitude. 
When auxiliary independent engines are employed, 
cruise speed is reduced (Taux/'^TOT ^^^ being re- 
adjusted from its input value) until both auxil- 
iary and primary power required are less than 
available. 

CRSIND = 4 - This option will calculate the "long range 

cruise" condition; that is, cruise at speed for 



4-215 



99% of best specific range* Flight is con- 
strained by normal power setting, limiting 
airspeed and Mach number and is at constant 
altitude. 

CRSIND = 5 - This option is a calculation for a cruise-climb 
at a constant value of w/6 (airplane weight to 
ambient pressure ratio) . The airspeed will be 
the speed for best specific range. 

CRSIND = 6 - This is a calculation for a cruise climb 

(constant W/6) at the speed for 99% of best 
specific range. 

Cruise power setting as discussed above is defined by user 
input to be maximum (POWIND = 0) , military (POWIND = 1) , or 
normal (POWIND = 2) engine rating. This subroutine permits 
simulation of cruise performance of an aircraft with an arbi- 
trary number of engines (both primary and auxiliary) shut 
down. 

The program user specifies the nimiber of engines shut down and a 
corresponding increment in airplane equivalent flat plate area 
drag. 

The user may also specify a desired value of headwind when 
CRSIND = 3 through 6. 

It is possible to use a cruise segment in the mission profile 
to account for a reserve fuel requirement (SGTIND =40) (in 
such a case the helicopter weight at the end of cruise is set 
back to the weight at the beginning of cruise) or as a part of 
the basic mission (in this case the weight is not reset) . In 
either case, the fuel used during cruise is included in the 
total fuel required to size the helicopter. 

The input for the subroutine consists of the final range for 
cruise, the step size (incremental range) , number of engines 
shut down, increment in drag coefficient, atmospheric condi- 
tions, required true airspeed (if CRSIND = 2) the headwind 
(if CRSIND = 3, 4, 5, or 6) and the settings for CRSIND and 
POWIND. Figure 4-45 is a flow chart of this subroutine. 



4-216 




SUBROUTINE 

CRUSl 
FIGURE i^-i\Sh 



SUBROUTINE 

CRUS2 
FIGURE M5c 



SUBROUTINE 

CRUS3 
FIGURE 4-45D 



Figure 4-45a. Cruise Calculations Subroutine. 



4-217 



\^ SUBflgUIIHE CRUSUiCRUSl / 



flhflXl - RnflXllCPUSl 

KOLJH * 

IFUDCE - iCRUS 

lOEX - I 

RAM tU ' lOEX 

J - DflR 



it 




2G05 BO^iJ.ll * 88-3 1]. 2) 
(;S 10 2009 

r" 



1 2001 ofl^ij.n ^ oniiTMi 



■/\/\/vv\r^\/\/\,\/\^'vvv>^\r>/vvv>^\/vv>J"<</\f 




/ HBJIEiS, 30001 (Ofl-aiJ.U .J^l,2) , iOBSlLlRJHO.ilJ^UMl \ 

\ Mffnne.aooti _^ / 



< unnE i6.9oom > 




Figure 4-45b. Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 

(Part 1 of 8) . 



4-218 



e^ 



ft^SlR - «N2MflX-«fl'2MflX 

ftH2tixj ^ flH^fiUJ iicnusi 

ft?SlBi ^ flH2tlXi*A2MflXI 

fftUB -» .01 

ffELl -"10. 

QELll -« .01 

Mflfl -= 

YLS2 ^ lEHP - EHPCBiiCBUSn/£HP 

TLSl-l./TLS^ 

rL52J ' lEHPi - tHPCRlUCPUSlWEHPI 

rUSU ' l.Q/tu52i 




NEXT - 
KOUiH •* I 

in - I 

VSAVE * V 




ifluxn X ixxicBiicRUsi 

UQ .> M 

Slfl ^ 51 

LCI - 

LC12 - 

p * VT * fl2SlR 

CALL fllMfl3lhl,A1tiJ«0IJCBU5O(I) ,1 JH IJCRUS»30) i 

in ' 

llflS - 





TOO Q - I.M2636 * BMD * V«2 
€h * V / 5fl 

HP ' ^!'fl**^U - CLUCRiJCFtU31«SU-.0)/iBH0*P**2*PI-«0*-ii2*CHRl 

qnU ^ 1.688 * V / P 

GRLL OBflClCLUCRriCRUSl) 

CXl--CXr l2.«ffnU^i-2«Q£LrCBiiCRU3n/ lP!*g-<2^iEHRl _^ 





2 CXR ^ CXI* II. P - IflUXlD 

lflUX^CX1«1flLlxn«Ri1(J*PI*£HB* iO*P) **2/lk. 
Ca 13 5 



Figure 4-45b, Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 

(Part 2 of 8) . 



4-219 



201 IPS - IHiL 
(TS 10 20M 




I 202 IPS J IrtRP 



200 IPS - iHf^t 
C6 10 7^ 



20M CALL POUflVLHPS.CMl 
8LP ' SHPfl 
THE ^ lP£fl 
KE - HPLJfl ' I 
WSMPfl - HSHPfl 
BhPW - ILP « BHPP -■ DEUfl * SlHElfl 
BhPfl ■• 8MPSUP « YLS? 
CPLl ROIPOW 




ai * BhPfl " BhPfl 
(TELV * 1 0.0 
CO 10 535 



lOt BhPft -= BhPfl 

BMP SUP ' ariPflWLSl 
ELP-BNPSUP/ l8hPP«5lME1fl*0El1fll 
SHPfl * BLP 
CPLl P0H5EQ lEn) 
THE - IPEfi 
KE ^ 6 








Figure 4-45b. 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 3 of 8) . 



4-220 














'I n r- 



-0 



00 
O 



-P 

u 
o 

iH 

c 

•H 





w 

to 

c 

•S 

cd 

::* 
o 

a 

<u 

CO 

-H 

:3 
u 
u 



in 



0) 

en 



4-221 










r— 
ui 

r 

r- 



• r-Cr- ru> 
r-r- Mr- »l — 



-^ It r— 

Lurw 



© 



:<H) 



© 




— vn 

f— 

|5 



0© 



GO 

o 
in 

(d 

4J 

u 

x: 
o 

o 

[^ 

(D 
C 
-H 
+J 

O 



cn 

CO 

c 

•3 

H 

o 

u 
<u 

CQ 

u 
a 



in 

I 

•^ 

Q> 
U 

■H 



4-222 



0- 








fHF ' BMPsup / iSHPfl«artPP«DeuiA«siHnfl) 
nnr * PEiF 




58:3 CALL IHIV^VL l]nAX| . £fl) 



CALL PGWAVi nHft^J.E«i ^^^ ^ ^^,^ 
PEIFJ - BHPC/iSHPAI-0tL1fl«Slhnfl-8HPPn 
PErtFJ - PC1F1 
CD 10 58V 



set J1AB ^ HAS *- I 

CALL SC^iSEinAa.lCRUS.lgKni 




flEIUPli 



LH ^ 
V ^ V3AVt 

IflUXIl ^ IXXICRlICFtUSi 




I CB 18 \ 



Figure 4-45b. 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 6 of 8) . 



4-223 









■^ -^ ^ '1 
SS B n Qs »— vU. 




00 

o 



-p 

M 

x; 
u 

^ 

o 

a 

O 
U 



C/3 

c 
o 

-H 

-P 

o 

u 

<u 
to 

M 

a 



in 
I 

<u 

M 

Cn 

■H 



4-224 



© 



i 



1 2"? mnni * sriPR » BhP^MUx 




(;o is 1005 




© 




Figure 4-45b. 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 8 of 8) . 



4-225 



I* 






& 



■I r— •! 




4-226 





flN^MflX ■• flh2HM liCRUS) 

fl^Sin ^ flH'2MfiX*A'3HS)( 

ftH^HXJ -= Al<?HMi iJCRiJSI 

R251RJ ^ AH2MXJ*<R2HiRXi 

HAS'O 

rLS2 ■= l[HP - £hPCRliCnUSn/EHP 

rii^j^^'iErlpP- EHPCRJ iJCRUsn/CHPf 

^ aVJHiJCRUS) 
LCM ' 
HO ' W 
S10 - SI 

LCI - 

IC\7 ■- _ 

lC16 •■ 

LC18 * . _ 

C;Li-%1HgSiH.fl1HJHfliJCRUS05. ^IJHtJCRJSOQn 




j ^ ^ ^hO/SQRf ISJCHf^^ I 



V ^ s^ * imo 



Q ^ l.g^BlS^RHO^V^ni? 
Iflijxn - 1XX1CR1JCRUS1 

HP'^Vo^W - CLWCRIICRU5)*SW*Ql/.RhO*P**2*PJ^0**2*£fjm 

RMU -» 1.566 * V / P 

riSlI ^ 1./YL52] 

riSt ^ l./TLS^ 

CALL DRACiawCR.KBUS)) 




ftn'jRN 



CXI ^ ex ^ i?.o^;^HU^^^*3ELrc'^tiCRUsn/iPuo«^^^'[HRi 




^ 



Figure 4-45c. 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 2 of 7) . 



4-227 




OCR - CX1 
CALL nOlPOH 
EHPAUX * 0.0 
{TO 10 10 




5 CXFUCXIhiILO-IiRUXTT) 
CALL R flip OH 
imx ^ CX1*1AU>£11^RH0<PN0«2*£NR*P^.*2 /M. 





nPP^ ^ XLiHin8£M5,1B8flPU,£M.I*n^U.Ml 




WRililS.IOfllT^ 



{TO 10 10 



I 15 C>^LL P0^4CRn>RUX)"| 



10 8HP1fl1 ^ i^\^ ^ BHPflUX I 




201 1P5 - IMJL 
aO 10 20M 



202 IPS ^ 1HRP 



200 IPS ^ IMflX 
(?fl 70 204 



20M CALL POWflVLdPS.EMl 
IKE -= 7P£fl 
U - HPLIM t-l 
BLP ^ SHPfl 

BHPSUP * IIlP * DELIfl * SiHEIfl « BHPP 
BHPfl ^ BHPSUP * rLS2 




Figure 4-45c. 



1 0£LV - Ifl, 1 


1 


< i^J1£ 16.10061 > 










33 «£X1 ' 1 

Ci^L CRUSl liCRUM 




H 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 3 of 7) . 



4-228 




301 IPS ^ IMiL 





I 302 IPS^ IHRP 



300 IPS -= IM.^^ 



3014 C^L P8H(RVLnP5,£M) 
TK£ - 1PM 
K£ -• NPLJH M 
BLP •• ShPfl 

BhPSJP ■• 8LP«0ELlfl*S7MnA*BHPP 
dte^ ^ artPSUP « YLS2 






< t4RJl£l6. 


90111 > 






■ ■-■■ -^- ----- 


\ 






CXI - 


. CXR 








PI - 


Srt^n 








cxn ^ 


' 0,0 








CALL 


ROlPflW 








*2 ^ 


BHPR 








ff£,P 


^ P2 - PI 








TfiUXTi ^ ilPiKiU 


iPi 


- 3HPfl)/l0£LP^ 


.CXI) 


aa 10 2001 











© 



nflP4 ^ XLiNinS£fi5.168flPL4.£M,N£lflPM,m 

nflp -nflPM 



26 CftLL POW£nj ilflUXI 
BrtPi ^ BrtPAUX 
CALL ROIPO^ 



Figure 4-45c 





C fjRiie if;. 1131) > 



BtiPI^lflUX « V/t:}25.8 «£1flPM « £lflll 
Qfi "in 56 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 4 of 7) . 

4-229 












>c 




5 J 




i-o 




3" 




1 




-^1— ■ 






tr> 




a_o 




r-C3 




^ 




^ 






s\ 






c 


^^ \ 


,-» 


1 rj\ 




--0 \ 


X J 


u-ij \ 






J 
t 


cjo /■ — ■*' 




— >rr / 


— <r- 






^^ I 


Q_ja 


ca^ / 


r-t3 


tj:3-/ 




r* / 




fa / 






C3 




3" 



I 



I 



^ — % 

§555, S- 

Da._i 1 

s 



© 




d 
I 



It 11 •! « <0<^ ^ 7 









M-1 

o 

in 

o 




4-230 



m\ 



IPSJ - IMJLRJ 
CO la MIM 



0. 




4"1(! 



IPS] -• IMAXJ 

ao la -iiM 



I mi IPSi ■■ 1NRPJ 



mU CALL lMRflVLnPSI.£Hl 
IHEI -« IPCAI 
K£i ^ HPLiMi ^ I 
ILP - SHPr^ll ^ ^^, . 
1SUBP - UP * 1P * OELI^ 
ISUSP * YLS2i 




ehpc ' ic 

UP -r 1C/nP«0£Llfll 
SHPfll ^ UP 
CPLl IHRRCfl .£M1 
iiSHPftI ^ ^^SrtPRI 
IKEJ - IPEflJ 

r]^-"wShPAJ«0El1^*SlHElft*lP*YLj2I 
ehPlOl-^BHPR """ 



MOfl\ BHPfl^BHPlfll 

BHPSUP -a BHPrR * YLSl 

SHPR -= BhPSUP/ i8HPP«D£L1fl*SlHnfll 

CALL POWnEfllEMl 

HSrtPA ■= WShPP 

TK£ - IPEfl 

)p ^ WShPA*!)t^1*^*SlHEia*BrtPP*YL5? 
r ^ FP ► n 

fH ^ V / ^ 




<D 



Figure 4-4 5c. 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 6 of 7) . 

4-231 





CflS - V « SOmfSIDHfll 

^fl - ilHPSUP/iOELlfl*31Hnfl*ar^Pl 

Qf^l POWflVL UMAX. EMI 

RNiCE ^ SHPfl 

PEIF - VQ /flHIC£ 

PEmF - PHF 




6^ CfllL IHRflVLnhflXI.EHl 

PEHfi ^ "IC/iSHPflNIP^OCLl-ll 



CALL POWflVJ llMflXl.EMl 

PEHFi ^ BHPSPi/ l5HPflJ*0tL.lfl*SlHElfl*8nPPJ) 

PEIFi - PEHFI 

CO 10 U 



CALL SCRJB£inflMTOSJEXrn 




Figure 4-4 5c, Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 

(Part 7 of 7) . 



4-232 



\ SUBROUIIHE CRUS3IICnUSl / 
T 



RKflXl - ( 


^/IXliCRUS) 






n - 0.0 








ir - wn 








IFU0CE - 


JCRUS 






mt - I 








fmit) ' 


IDE^ 






CALL fllMflSIH,fllHlliOliCflUS*-301 
MffVBEL - W/DELIfl 


.llHIiCflUS 


►'30) ) 




R2S1R 
»H2HXf 
ft2SlRI 
nA8*0 
rLS2 - 

rist - 

rLS2J 

TLSU 

LCI * 
LC2 - 
LP-O 
LCU-0 
LC5-0 
LCS - 



flN2MMIICRUS) 
* -RH2MftX«fl2H/^X 
^ fqH2HMJ (JCRUS) 
- flH2NXJ*A2N/»XJ 

lEHP - ENPCRIJCRIIS)! ^EHP 
I. / YLS2 

- lENPJ - EHPCBJ IJCRUS)1/ENPI 

- 1.0/YL52J 





D 
* 0. 




Figure 4-45dV Cruise Calculations Subroutine fIow Chart 

(Part 1 of 6) . 



4-233 



0- 



(D 




rio2ij 



t021 INOJC « 
HO « U 
S10 - 57 
LCB - 

V - VSflVE ^ 20 
P * fl2SlR « V7 
BHPflUX » 0.0 

CALL fllMOSiH.fllMJMDIiCRUS^-lOl ,1JN liCRUS*30) 1 
LCi2- 



52 VMflX » VMO / SORT (SICMfll 



VM«X-SA«ENHO 



I y * VH^X I 




V-VMflX 



2 Q - UM2636 « RHO « V««2 
EH- V / Sfl 



a: 



222 CIP - 4. 0* (W - CLWCR flCRUSI «SN«Q1 / IRH0«P««2«PJ«0*i*2*ENR) 
mS ' 1.688-V/P 
LC3 - LC3 ^ I 
tHJL DRACICLWCRdCSUSn 




Figure 4-45d. 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 2 of 6) . 



4-234 





/\ 




G 
■H 

o 

M 



CO 

c 
o 

■H 
-P 

fd 

u 

*d 
o 

a> 



T3 
in 

I 
0) 

&4 



4-235 



rM 




0- si 



r- 
_) 



tar 1 >I(l'~«oS 




CL 



^ r = -> 



aSotnp-cca. Q_ 
X v> t E cotn 

<C S<_> 3» i 9b af X lIJ-- 
f- r- »~- ol ^ 0» (_» H- »e u. 




1% 



/\ 




I 




£ s s ^ as o ^^ m: iZ C3 



10 




00 



o 



4J 

)^ 

-p 
u 

o 

O 



cn 

CO 

c 

o 

+J 

H 

o 

rH 

fd 
u 

(U 
CQ 
•H 

;3 
M 

a 



13 

in 

"^ 

I 

•H 

PL4 



4-236 



9S3 EN ' CNl 
VSflVE - V 



REIURH 





tNl ^ 0. 
GO 18 ^11 



WS ' V«SORliSi CHft^ 

CALL PON^VLHM/^X.EM) 

PEHF * ^#SUP/ IDEUfl^SlHETft^'BHPP^SHPAl 





2*31 C^L lHRflVLnMAXfȣH) 

PEHFI * 1SU8P/ ID£UiMP«SMPfliJ 



on 16 221 



321 ITAI ^ HflBM 

CALL SCRIBE 11 IflB.iCfflJSJEXrn 




fiE1UR« 



in ^ 




LW - 




LC5 * 




LCB - 




INOIC'l 




IflUXTT - 


IXXICF^IICBUSI 




H - 11. 0-DELlfl** II. /5, 256111 ^6.8'/5E-06 

CO 10 8M 

] 




8M CALL AlHflSIH.fllHJNDIiCRU5O0).lI«liCRUSO0)l 
CO 10 52 



52K- 



Figure 4-45d. 



Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 5 of 6) . 



4-237 



935 EHl M 0,35«CHt 
LC6 - I 



931 V a V - 0.5 

act 18 n 





98"? F - FP *• Fi 

LC5 - I 




0-^ 



< 2011 WRJ1E 16.10061 > 
--^ 



REIURN 



Figure 4-45d. Cruise Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 

(Part 6 of 6) . 



4-238 



4.12,5 Descent Calculations Subroutine • 

Twelve different options for descent performance calculation 
are available. The options fall into three different cat- 
egories: descent at constant true air speedT (TAS) , descent 
at constant equivalent air speed (EAS) , and descent at con- 
stant Mach number. In addition, each type of descent may be 
calculated for a specified type of descent flight path, 
specified by RMAXND as follows: 



Value of RMAXND 



Type of Flight Path 

Descent flight path ends at 
specified terminal range. 

Program checks terminal range 
ri^^uirement, but does not match 
it. . "7 



2 Descent flight ^path ends at a 

~ specified minimum altitude, the 
terminal range requirement not 
being considered. 

3 Fuel used ^ 1^ time required for 

de scent ^^^EeiJ^aHL^ but no 
range cteditis' given (i.e., 
spiral descent path) . 

Rate of descent (R/D) is always input, ff" the airspeed-rate 
^descent coSuDination (as specified by DESIND) exceeds the 
dLcent boundaries, the airspeed will be held constant whxle 
the R/D is adjusted accordingly. Figure 4-46 in which R/D is 
plotted tgainst flight speed, illustrates the descent 
boundaries. They are: 

(a) Vertical rate of descent boundary 

(y = -90°) 
(vortex ring state) limit descent speed - defined by 



(b) Vvrl 

the equation 



V, 



VRL 



2 

I 



V 2dA 



where T = total rotor thrust 

A = disc area. 

(c) Autorotative descent (power required 

4-239 



= 0) 



R/D 




(a) Vertical rate of descent boundary 

(b) Vortex ring state limit descent speed 

(c) Autorotative descent bo\indary 



Figure 4-46. Descent Boundaries 



4-240 



The distinction between the first type of descent flight path 
(as specified by RMAXND =0) and the last three (RMAXND = 1, 
2, 3) in regard to the range at which the descent starts, when 
terminal range is specified, should be cj.early understood. 



a. 



b. 



If RMAXND = 0, no spiral descent path is permitted. The 
program will calculate the value for range at the begin- 
ning of the descent which is required to satisfy the 
terminal condition on range and altitude. In order to do 
this, the program "backs up" on the previous segment. If 
this option (RMAXND =0) is used, the descent must be pre- 
ceded by a cruise segment. The input value for maximum 
range for the preceding cruise segment is a dummny value 
eind the cruise will actually terminate, in order to begin 
descent, at an earlier point. It is recommended, however, 
that when the RMAXND = option is to be used, the maximum 
range during the preceding cruise be input as the same 
value as the terminal range at the end of the following 
descent . ^117 

If RMAXND = 1, the descent will start at the current value 
for range and, as previously described, the aircraft will 
fly a straight- line path to the desired terminal point. 
If the predicted flight path (as checked against the 
specified terminal range by the program) ends beyond the 
specified terminal range, a spiral descent path from the 
aiititude at that point to the final altitude is assumed. 
If the predicted flight path ends before reaching the 
specified terminal range point, the program prints 
"SHALLOWER DESCENT REQUIRED". The descent may follow 
any other segment (climb, cruise, etc.) or may start the 
mission. 

If RMAXND = 2 or 3, the descent will start at the current 
value for range; and, depending on the option chosen, will 
either end at the minimum altitude (RMAXND = 2) specified, 
with no constraint on the resulting range, or a spiral 
descent path (RMAXND = 3) will be assumed. As with 
RMAXND = 1, the descent options may follow any other seg- 
ment, or may start the mission. 

An increment in aircraft parasite drag may be input in order to 
simulate the effects of dive brakes, external stores, etc. It 
is possible to use a descent segment in the "Jission Profile 
to account for a reserve fuel requirement (SGTIND = 50) (in 
such a case the helicopter weight at the end of descent is set 
back to the weight at the beginning of descent) or as a part of 
the basic mission (in this case the weight is not reset) . In 
either case, the fuel used during descent is included m the 
total fuel required to size the helicopter. 

Input to the subroutine consists of the settings for DESIND 

4-241 



c. 



and RMAXND, atmospheric conditions, R/D, the propulsive thrust 
split, the incremental parasite drag, the operating wing lift 
coefficient (winged and compound helicopters), the final alti- 
tude, the step size, the required TAS, EAS or Mach niimber, the 
terminal range requirement (RMAXND =0, 1) and the number of 
engines shut down. Subroutine DESPOW (which is called by the 
Descent calculations subroutine) calculates the power required 
for descent at the desired flight conditions. Figure 4-47 is 
a flow chart of subroutine DESPOW and Figure 4-48 is a flow 
chart of the descent calculations subroutine. 



4-242 






id- 






4-243 




4-244 



Sob e.OOT/N» C i>£ SC€ MT 




iro-baE = xi>sc/OT' 
X2>EX ^ / 



XPRT 

xvR r 










los 




ttszx = (€MPi-eK.pi>si)/eKjPx 



7IGG. 






lex = i£x ^-^ 



M 



N/. 






€) 



Isx^X 



Y 



'^>RRRCi) 



.Y 



7t68 




STAreMe^jT 248 it 

I 



^ :jiG7 



r(?.OAA. Pft,Cv<00$ c^UiSe TO 
OBTAIKI V^jJtj-h, AT CaJtetK^T 
VAUUt OF (CawGC^ R. 



RETuftMl 



I 



;^7 



wr g WFSTAI^ - W-t- NNSTAR 1 



X>CUTAH = O- 



Figure 4-48. Descent Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 1 of 6) . 

4-245 



»-^3*5) 



V2 ^ EASB 



&234SJ 



CAUU ATM^S j 




|v2 = eAS5/5^fcT(si(;.»/>A) 



VMAX = SA-K BfAtAO 






.Y 



VWAX=V ^ ft/s<ftftTrsi:tM A^ 



sVMAX 



V2 = VMAX 



^^^El-TAH ^^ 


11-^ 


Vi=VZ 


Nj 




1 






EM - V2/SA 


.34.*<V2.:) 






r 



GAM1= AfeSXlsiCSX^sic;.) 
R6AMl= <^AM1 

RGAMi = RGAMl>«r f^T^P 








Figure 4^48. Descent Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 2 of 6) • 



4-246 



Figure 4-48. Descent Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 3 of 6) . 







RS= 3^oto, X 



gTAT^X<Pl>K l&HPR/fW->cPHX)| 



SIM&=^ - RS/OOL'!>4-^ VZ) 




HPl - Hf>2. 



StfJG-* -0*999^ 



RGAMl^ &AMX 





RSI * «S 



"CL as TOO uAftCE 
Foe i>ESc:et4T** 

NEXT =-1 










fiSA*ll=-8»g<»9j 




V1>S =s VVRL 

RS^AVE=^ RS 
^% = RSVRu 

xvyftx =* i 


CALL 


i>esp^vAy 1 



3o7 




351 



ltavL= 7Ufe9eZ* /z 



^o*l 



(tS* R^s*.ve 



T 



IVRX= 1 
^AWii = -AS! 

I>£LV> *=- ^0> 



3ia 



Rc:AiMi=^6AMr 

CALL DC^POW 



3t6 




VmRx^ WRX-<" i>^vk 



RSVRX' 1i.6&a2^<^'VpX 



r^:^ 



yv^u=: VVP.X 



VVRX=^ VV tX -lO.O 
J?eL VX — ^'O 




4-247 



RSVRLg^^^ftL + ^VZ'VVRL)l<qi^V^a-R-SV<^Ly{>lvftU-VVftL) 



Figure 4-48. 



Descent Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 4 of 6) . 



Z8i 








VDS ^ vz 

(?.(;AMi :r <;AMi ^ RT^J 
CALL "DPS P0yN/ 



CAML*Aes»N(s/Nc;) 





SimG^ • -^,9^9-^ 



403 




CALL Pov^AVlCrr 
V\P:I>lT«^5hPAT * 5£tTAx 

riULt «r wsmpax 
TKtX ^TPeAX ^ 




<: ALL PowAVIfTNftr^ 
nwRpixw«iH*>AL 

Ker-NpLXMiH-i 

HPAVLI- 5Hf>AI.-«' 
>LLTA^ ©HPPl-^ YLSZX 
__MlTHfrA 



AT ^CC»*^€i) SPECD 




Call THOA/l {taj/^pi) 
TAVLXs SHf>AlMt>tLTA 

K£I= NfLIMI+i 



4-4-5 



i. 



j?£ru RAJ 




CALL THItAVL (TFIftl^ 
Tlt>UI»5viPMHl>«UrA»TP*v'LUI 
n^Ll = wSHPAX 
TtcCI «TP€AX 



FI = 



nULl ** ^ £ LT A •>( STHETA 
MS^4?PX^ vrs2x 



. VL51I*^ftHpD$X/ 
fW-LTA* &HPP1 ItSTHCm) 

TriPi/TverA 



5HPRX 

TEA^ 
LOOK- uP ^VAPAX@ M^^^ 




rX- w^HP^*?X*<l>£L.TA^^T^HETA 

^ BrtPPX -n-ru^ZX 
Ticei =r TpeAX 
KEX = C> 



A^7 



4 54 



ri=Fxi>L,i**l>£LrA 

^St>A£TA^TP 
■>4 VLStI 




SMPRX« TI-K VLSl-X/ri>€LTA'*« 
T£A ^TrtRl/THETA 
LOOK Ur^ ^HPAie M.TCA 



TP) 




CAUU P^WAVU (ThJiRP) 

HPAVL^ S.HPA^ l>ELTA>*STMErK'4 

Tr:E » TPea 




Ct>£uTAMSTHCTA* &rtPP) 
T£A=i"rri/TKCTA 



4-35 



*lwSuFriCi€»4T 
I>€SC6Ma> AT 



I 



CALu f><^WA^VL(Trx) 
HPII>U= ^Hf>K)tI>eLTA 
^StH£TA^ BM<>P^*rL^2 

TKC^TPtA 
jtE^NPLiirttl 



RtTu^Kj 



4^ 2. 



F- rx^L*i>eLTA 
-^fSTrteTAi^&HPF* 

tfVLSZ 




CALL THRR€<Sl 
FX=. VVSHfRX^l>£uTA»STHCTA 
-KTP^YuSiX 

TKEX =i rreAx 

Kg.x - <; 




^STHeTA^SHPP 



4971 



F = F -^ Fl I 

BHPr6T= &HPR^-aHP^UX 



4-248 









^13 



H^ H-1>ElTAH 
I>ClT^T = 1>£lTAH/ 

ST:=ST-*-l>LUTAT 

>fl>EL.TAT 
V*|:= W-F->tiEUTAT 
^F= v^r-»^F^I>£LTAT 



^Cl=r i 



i^eruR Ni 



R^ (5ST^R-^RMAxi-R 
H^HSTAR 




L 



£7 







R^eruf^N -* 



DeirA(?= R- R.STAR 





SAvEt* 'W PREVIOUS 

cRuiSE TO (ser 

FffciAu Cf^UtSE PplMJ 



EXCE.SS RAKiG^e 



J 



RETUf^N 




MOT ATTAlWET>-u^£ 
MoRECRu'Se oft A 



GOl 



^ =: RMAX 1 




iiL 



Call P(^WAvl(Tm^x) 

PCKrrSHPR:/SMf>A 



WRITC TIT LES -*• 

L.^^_y- 



(M> 




CALL POWAVI(TMAyl) 

peHFI=SHPR/SHPA 






WRITE T\TlE S Po^ 
OPTIoi^M^ I>AT A 





CALL THR.AVL(TMAX) 
PETri=SHPK/SHPA 



Figure 4-48 



Descent Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 5 of 6) . 



4-249 




CAOnow TAtU f^oToR 




Wf^lTE OUTPUT I>KTA 



FR^if^r OPTION SL 

OUT Pur J>ArA 




® 



Figure 4-48 



Descent Calculations Subroutine Flow Chart 
(Part 6 of 6) . 



4-250 



4.12.6 Loiter Calculations Subroutine 

The sixth performance segment represents a calculation of 
helicopter loiter performance. In this subroutine, the heli- 
copter will fly at the airspeed for best endurance. This 
subroutine calculates the power required and the airspeed to 
maximize the endurance of the helicopter. It also determines 
the fuel required to loiter for a specified period of time. 

Engine shutdown during loiter may be simulated by inputs for 
NpsD (primary engines) and NpsDi (auxiliary independent 
engines). One or more engines may be shutdown. An increment 
in helicopter drag (AFeLoiTER) «^ay be input to represent drag 
changes due to external stores, windmilling propellers (m the 
case of a compound helicopter using propellers), etc. 

For a compound helicopter, the split of propulsive thrust 
required between the main rotor and the auxiliary propulsion 
system may be specified by an input for (Tj^ux>^*TOT^ * 

It is possible to use a loiter segment in the mission profile 
to account for a reserve fuel requirement (SGTIND = 60) (m 
such case the helicopter weight at the end of loiter is set 
back to the weight at the beginning of loiter) or as a part 
of the basic mission (in this case the weight is not reset) . 
In either case, the fuel used during loiter is included in the 
total fuel required to size the helicopter. 

The input to this subroutine consists oOhe time for loiter, 
step size (incremental time) , the incremental parasite drag 
area, the number of engines (primary and auxiliary independent) 
shut down, the atmospheric conditions, the operating wing lift 
coefficient (in the case of compound and winged helicopters) , 
and the propulsive thrust split. A flow chart of this sub- 
routine is shown in Figure 4-49. 



4-251 



\ SUBBOUTIWE LOU R IlLOnm / 
r 



U - DHR 




1 FUDGE * 


JLOnR 


lOEX - I 




RWUl ' 


IDtX 


H « D 




LlRiHO - 


I 



G> 




/ KRHE 16 



ORHE 16,30031 > 



' flM2M6liLBnRl 
flN2MflX*fl2MflX 
* flh2MBJ IJLOnRl 
« »RH2HXNfl2HflXl 



213 flH2M«X 
fl2SlR . 
RN?HXi 
fl^SlRI 
HH - H 

SIO -SI 

rL52 * lEHP - ENPL1 (JLOnmj/EHP 

rL5i'i./rLS2 

SIMflX * SI »- SILUlffHRl 

rLS2J - lEflPJ - EnPLii iiLonRn/EHPi 

rLSU'l,/YLS21 
P - VI * fl2SlR 
C/iLL AlH8SIHH,/RTMlflDliL8nR*501 ,lin ilLOnR^SD) 1 



1 LCl^O 
LC2'0 
LC3-0 
lCM-0 
LC5^0 
LCB^O 
LCm*0 
LC15-0 
LClfl=0 
LC20-0 
LC21-0 
TflUXll 
CHPAUX 



IXXinilLOITRl 
0.0 



I^M*RXWM0/S0R7 tSJCMfll 



.CT. 



F ^\^ 






ISfl«EMMOl>^ 




r 


^^ 


VMflX-=5fl«EMM0 









y ^ vHax I 




Figure 4-49. Loiter Calculations Subroutine (Part 1 of 7) 

'4-252 




© 



CO 

c 
o 

-H 
4J 

rH 

O 

rH 

rd 
O 

S-l 

ii 



I 
0) 



4-253 







© 



©0 



0-i 






2C3CUiOT^-^u 




4-254 




4-255 



©■ 




n«3 CALL P9M£RnflUXn 



31 BHPT81 ' BHPR *-8HPAUXn 
if 




CALL P5WAVLnHRP.ENl 
BLP - SHPA 

6HPSUP-BLP*0fLlA«S1HElfl«BHPP 
! ehPfl - BHPSUP«rLS2 
ITELP - BHPfl-BHPlfl-r 



1 

fei' BHPSUP * 'bhPI aVYuS2 I 

f ibSS ' i.^5l^^*^^^^*0£LH*SIHnfl) i 
SHPR * BLPR 
CALL POWRlO I£m1 
IKE - TPtfl 

FP2 * HSNPR^.QCLlA^iS7HE1fl*«BHPPi«rLS^ j 




Figure 4-49. 



Loiter Calculations Subroutine (Part 5 of 7) • 
4-256 







uoi oav ' *\.Q 



< 


^^0 i F^ 

LC5.E0.0) 
v^e M0]> 


J 

> 


^ 




!T£LV - l.O 
LC4-3 
CO TO Htn 






i 











305 ElftPM ' XLlft1llBEM5,lB8/^PM.EM,H£lflPU.H) I 
EiaP - ETflPU I 




BHPI ' iaUX*V/n25,8^»ElAP4^£Tfi1^ I 



402 V ■- V ► DELV 
f\ ' F2 
FFl ' FP2 
FJl - Fi2 

CO TO rm 




V - V - 10. 

n-F2 

FFl - FP2 

rii - ?12 

LCM-2 




307 8HPSPI-BMPI/YL52f 
AhPT ~ RHP 5P 1 

BLPPr-BMPSPI/lBHPPN0ELlfl*STH£TA1 
SHPRJ ' BLPRi 
CALL PflWRfll lEMl 
TKEi * 7PE^! 
KEi - 6 

r]fS^HlHPflNDELT^^STHE7fl^BHPPNYLS2J 



o 



I 302 F2 ' FP2 «• FJ2 | 



<D 



V ^ VHIH 
LCM '0 
LC5 -1 
GO 18 ITU 





eftS - V^SORllSIGMfll 




CO 18 301 



301 V - V " I. 
Fl - F2 
rPl ' FP2 
n\ ' FI2 
LCU ^ 3 




Figure 4-49. Loiter Calculations Sxibroutine (Part 6 of 7) 

4-257 



m ZPLl IHRflVLIlMflXJ.EH) 

PEHFJ - BHPSPJ/ISHPflJ«0£Llfl<SlH£lfl-lPl 




701 CALL pnuf\yi mMii^tH) 

li^ll f JHPSPi/ ISHPfli*D£nfl*SlHElfl«BHPPJ) 
CO Ifl 5616 



< 



5B15 WRilE 16.30021 S7,fl.WF.W.H,V JKE.Efl IKE) , PEHF. EflS.flMU. CTPSMR, 
i ALFDL.FUBHPR 




> 



MR JIE (6,9005) P.RHPHR.PlR.RHPl.PlMR.FPl, 
BHPflUX.EIAPJflUXn.FilJKEJ.EOIKEil .PEHn.BHPC, 
C^PRO.CPfNCCPPflfl.CPMUO.CDOHR^OCOS.DCOH.CXR.REALJ, 

ccp. cn . awLi ijiejim , cowi .r« 



r 




OELlfll-SlNflX-Sl 



(TELWFl * WO - H 
MFL - NFL ^ OELWFL 
M ^ WO 
SI ■« SIO 
RElURfi 



LC6 - 1 



©■ 



MP ^ WF " Fl « OELlfll 

M ^ W - Fl -OELlfll 

SI ' SI * OELTflT 
GO TO I 



J 







€) 



Figure 4-49. Loiter Calculations Subroutine (Part 7 of 7) 



4-258 



4.12.7 Change of Weight Subroutines 

The seventh and eighth performance segments represent an 
incremental change in weight of fuel or payload* These 
options would be used to simulate refueling, unloading or 
loading of passengers, or a fuel drop. The in put to th e sub- 
routines consists of the increment in weight and a correspond- 
ing increment in time. The fuel or payload weight which is 
added is not allowed to increase the aircraft weight to a 
value greater than the gross weight unless a performance case 
is being run and WGTIND = 1. Inputting a large value for the 
increment in weight will bring the aircraft weight up to gross 
weight if WGTIND = or a sizing case is being run. Figures 
4-50 and 4-51 are flow charts of these subroutines. 



4-259 



— * ; — 




Figure 4-50. Change of Fuel Weight Subroutine, Flow Chart. 



Reproduced from 
best available copy. 



4-260 



y mmuiinc CHflPiuchyLi / 



B^nCt'.Jggffl »<UlKg*«2.U«ftWI<t ^ 




CWIU<lt.MgajSl.W.MF,M,_n > 



ftOURH I 



Figure 



4-51. Change of Payload Weight Subroutine, Flow Chart, 



4-261 



4.12,8 Transfer Altitude 

There are many different applications for which a discon- 
tinuous change in altitude may be desirable: 

1. The flight profile may require takeoff at hot day, high 
altitude conditions followed by climb from sea level to 
specified altitude for standard day conditions. 

2. It may be required that no credit be taken for range, 
fuel, or distance during descent (for example, 
Reference 9) . 

3. It may be required to study cruise speed at specified 
power at a series of different altitudes. This can be 
accomplished by a series of very short cruise segments 
interspersed with altitude transfers. 

For these and other reasons, the program includes a transfer 
altitude segment, specified by SGTIND - 9. The only required 
input is the altitude to which the aircraft is to be 
transferred. 

Transfer altitude may also be used during an optimum altitude 
search when it is followed by a cruise. In that case, the 
altitude which is input represents the maximum altitude per- 
mitted for the subsequent cruise. 

Figure 4-52 is a flow chart of this subroutine. 



4-262 




f' aMttT"" 



Figure 4-52. Transfer Altitude Subroutine, Flow Chart. 



4-263 



Reproduced from 
best available copy. 



5.0 PROGRAM INPUT 

5.1 GENERAL 

Input to the program is made by means of a standard set of 
input sheets. Although there are large quantities of possible 
input, necessitated by the requirement to keep the program 
flexible and general, the input sheets have been configured 
to give maximum visibility and reduce the tediousness of in- 
putting the data. This has been accomplished through several 
means: 

1. All input of a similar nature has been grouped together. 
Thus, all dimensional information is on the same input 
sheet, regardless of whether it is used in the size trends 
sxibroutine or elsewhere. 

2. The input sheets have been color-coded to distinguish 
between the data required in the sizing option (OPTIND ^ 1) 
and the much smaller amount of data required for perform- 
ance calculations (OPTIND « 2 or 3) . 

3. Footnotes on the input sheets call attention to input 
which is not required due to selection of one of the op- 
tional paths of computation. 

4. For parametric studies where only one or two variables 
are being changed from case to case, a special supple- 
mentary input sheet may be used, thus reducing the 
quantity of paper work. 

Altogether there are 31 different input sheets which can be 
loosely grouped into seven categories: general information, 
aircraft descriptive information, mission profile information, 
engine cycle information, rotor data, propeller data, and 
supplementary information, A specimen copy of each input 
sheet is included in this section. Descriptions of input 
variables and indicators are given in paragraphs 5.3.1 and 
5.3.2. The use of the various input sheets is discussed below 
in paragraphs 5.1.1 and 5.1.2. 

5.1.1 General Information . 

Input all primary program indicators (except those f or ^ 
specific mission segments, such as CRSIND) , mission initial 
conditions, reserve fuel factors, and maneuver load factor. 

5.1.2 Aircraft Description Information 

5.1.2.1 Dimensional Information - Input characterisitc 
geometric information for aircraft being studied. 

5-1 

Pagination of Section 5 per Source- 
Pages intentionally blank. 



5.1.2 .2 Propulsion Information - Input data for numbers of 
primary and auxiliary independent propulsion engines, pro- 
pellers, propeller cruise efficiencies, etc., and critical 
engine sizing conditions. There are three different input 
sheets for propulsion information: one for the primary en- 
gines (always used) and two for use with compound and auxil- 
iary propulsion helicopter configurations. Of these two, one 
sheet is for propeller data and the other for aioxiliary inde- 
pendent propulsion engine data. 

5.1.2.3 Aerodynamics Information - Input aircraft drag 
characteristic and (in the case of compound and winged heli- 
copters) wing section lift/drag characteristics. 

5.1.2.4 Weight Information - Input the factors and constants 
for weight trends calculations. 

5.1.3 Mission Profile Information 

There are seven input sheets for mission profile information. 
They are: 

1. Taxi Information 

2. Takeoff, Hover, and Landing Information 

3. Climb Information 

4. Cruise Information 

5. Descent Information 

6. Loiter Information 

7. Change of Weight and Transfer Altitude Information 

(incorporating change of fuel weight, change of payload 
weight, and transfer altitude) 

Each input variable on the mission profile sheets is repre- 
sented by an array of ten input locations. The data for these 
locations is filled in sequentially by rows as the particular 
mission segment is used. For example, the first time that 
taxi is used in a particular case, the required input informa- 
tion is filled in on the first row of the input sheet. Data 
for the second taxi of a case is filled in on the second row, 
and so on. Thus, up to ten of any particular segment may be 
used in a case. 

5.1.4 Engine Cycle Information 

The engine cycle sheets may be used to input engine cycle data 
when one of the standard engine cycles is not used. The three 
engine cycle sheets are divided into standard performance in- 
formation and nonstandard performance information. The stand- 
ard performance data, of which there are two sheets, represent 
the performance of idealized engine cycles. These data are 
unlimited except for the effect of engine ratings, which are 
dictated by values of turbine temperature. The nonstandard 

5-2 



performance represents limiting values of fuel flow, torque, 
rpm and other nonstandard effects. It should be noted that 
auxiliary independent engine input data can be created from 
the HESCOMP engine cycle library data simply by the input 
of the applicable engine cycle IBM card deck, preceded and 
followed by a "66666" card. Nonstandard auxiliary independent 
engine performance is input using the sheet provided for that 
purpose. 

5.1.5 Propeller Performance Data 

The propeller performance sheets may be used to input data for 
a specific propeller when using npIND =1. The data is input 
as a table of Cp as a function of Ciji and J. 

5.1.6 Rotor Performance Data 

Rotor performance data can be input in two ways. If the short 
form "aero" performance computation method is used (ROTIND - 
1) , rotor data is input using the rotor "cycle" input sheet. 
Alternatively, rotor performance data may be input in map 
form (ROTIND =2, 3) on the five rotor performance map input 
sheets. The first sheet is for hover performance data which 
is input as a table of Cpn/a as a function of Ct/cj and Mtip- 
The remaining four sheets are for cruise performance data 
which is input as a table of Cp/a as a function of y, Ct/o, 
Cx/a. 

5.1.7 Supplementary Information 

The supplementary input sheet may be used for the second and 
subsequent cases of a parametric study. For example, m the 
case of a tandem rotor helicopter, if the user wishes to 
change both the rotor overlap/diameter ratio (location 0132 - 
see dimensional information sheet) and the disc loading 
(location 0173 - see dimensional information sheet) , these 
locations and their new values may be filled in on the supple- 
mentary input sheet. 

Two typical problems, from input to output, are discussed in 
Section 7.6 of this manual. 



5-3 



BOEING VERTOL COtAPANY 

A DIVISION or THE BOEING COMPANY 

GENERAL INFORMATION 



HESCOMP HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 
COMPUTER PROGRAM B-91 



SHEET NO. 
OF 



CASE NO. 



TITLE 
CARD 

(72) 
(DIGITS) 



J I 1 I L 1 l_J^ 

25 26 3t 



1 1 I ] I L 



_J, 



i I I 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 L- — I 

Sa 55 88 «1 



_1_ 



.J I L 



40 42 

J I L L 



70 



73 



75 



78 



OPTION 
INDICATOR 



PRINT 
INDICATOR 



AERO* 

DYNAMICS 
i N D f C A T O R S' 




VARIABLE 


UNIT 


LOG. 


VALUE 


OPTIND 




0001 


^ 


Of^TrONAl. 
PRIHT 




0002 




DRG1ND 




0003 




OSWIND 




0004 





PULSION 
INDICATORS 
(ALWAYS 
INPUT} 



CNFINP 



AUXIND 



RDMIND 



FIXIND 



ROTIND 



0005 



0006 



0007 



0008 



0009 



-•ND 

^DER 

ZE 
TREND 
AND 
PRO- 
PULSION 
INDICATORS 
(OPTIONAL 
INPUT] 



. 



SvylND 



byylND 



AIPIND 



EMGIND 



FIXINDi 



TRDIND 



TRSiND 



VTFIND 



NOTE 



NOTE 

b 



NOTE 



NOTE 

d 



NOTE 

d 



NOTE 

d 



HTIND 



MRP1ND 



FDMIND 



APHIND 



ESCINO 



NOTE 

d 



0010 



0011 



0012 



0013 



0014 



0015 



0016 



0017 



NOTE 

d 



NOTE 
f 



0018 



0019 



0020 



0021 



0022 



INITIAL J 

CONDITIONS^ 



FLIGHT PATH 
CONTROL IN- 
DICATOR 



LIMITING 
SPEED 



ANEUVER 
t-OAD 
FACTOR 



"OPT 



IND 



0027 



«M0 



^MO 



Vqive 



KTS 
EAS 



KTS 

EAS 



0028 



0029 



0030 



RESERVE 
FUEL ^ 

FACTORS ^ 



5Wr 



Kff 



LBS 



0032 



0033 



0034 



1 = SIZE AIRCRAFT 

2 = PERFORMANCE ONLY 

3 = FUEL ITERATION 

= 3TD PRINT 

1 = DETAILED PRINT 



1 = COMPONENT DRAG BUILD-UP 

2 - {GW/Fe} DRAG TREND 



= INPUT e 

1 - PROG. CALC. e 



64 67 

MISSION PROFILE INFORMATION 

MAXIMUM OF 50 CONSECUTIVE SEGMENTS 
VALUES OF SGTIND 

0=END OF MISSION 5=DESCENT 

1 = TAXI 6=LOITER 

2=T.O., HOVER, LAND 7=CHANGE FUEL 
3 = CLIMB 8 = CHANGE PAYLOAD 

4=CRUtSE 9=TRANSFER ALTITUDE 

100= END OF CASE 



1 = SINGLE ROTOR 

2 = TANDEM ROTOR 



1 = PURE HELICOPTER 

2 = INC LUOiNG WINGS (ONLY* 1 -a 

3 = iNCL, AUX. PROPULSION (ONLY) ' ** 
. 4 = COMPOUND {WINGS ft AUX, PROP) 

1=(nPUTDmr, ^ 2 = INPUT « , 

3 = INPUT DMR,rj/C7 W/A, CT ^nO 

____ 4 = INPUT W/A, Cj/a 

= INPUT FIXED SIZE PRIM. EN G. 

1 = PROG, SIZE PRtM.CNG. 



1 = SHORT FORM ROTOR PERF. 
2,3 = ROTOR MAP INPUT 

1 = INPUT Su* 

2 = INPUT w7s 

3 = SIZE FOR MANEUVER 



1 = INPUT b^/0 

2 = INPUT Art 

3 = OETER BY PROP CLEAR 

1 = NO INOEP. AUX. ENGINES 

2 = tNOEP, AUX. ENGINES 

0=T/SHAFT INOEP. AUX. ENG* 



Srd 
4th 
5th 
6th 
7th 
. 8th 

1 =T/FAN OR t/jET INDEP. AUX.ENG. 

9th 



t - PROG. SIZE AUX.INDEP.ENC. 
\ - PROG. USES Dtr trend 

2 = INPUT Dtr 

3 = INPUT (T/A) NET 

1 = INPUT CTyft 

2 = INPUT c^/cr 

1 = INPUT AR^^, ^yy 

2 = INPUT CLjjg;s, Vdes.^vT 
3= INPUT Cl^^^. VoES* A«V 

= NO HOR. TAfL 

1 - FIXED SIZE HOR, TAIL 
2 = INPUT TAIL VOL. COEFF. 

= fNPUT X|^ /'I a 
1,2 = PROG.CAtC Xm/1 g 

1 - iNPUTU0/L)/Dj,R0T0R P05N'sl5th 

2 = rNPUTU0y'L)/D),lc 

3 - INPUT I c, ROTOR POSN'5 IZaL 

I = INPUT hP2 ^^tn 

2 = INPUT g/s 

1 =SIZE PRIM. ENG. TOR T/O 0NLy]7th 
2=SIZE PRIM. ENG. FOR T /O OR 
CRUISE 



10th 

nth 

12th 
13th 
14th 



WGo 


LBS 


0023 




ho 


FT 


0024 




"o 


NM 


0025 




♦o 


HR 


0026 





GROSS WEI CHT 



ALTITUDE 



= CRUISE (S* SPECIFIED ALT* 
I = CRUISE (O OPT. ALT. 



18th 
19th 
20th 
21st 
22nd 
23rd 

24th 
25th 



LOC. 


VALUE 


0035 




0036 




0037 




0038 




0039 




0040 




0041 




0042 




0043 




0044 




0045 




0046 




0047 




0048 




0049 




0050 




0051 




0052 




0053 




0054 




0055 




0056 




0057 




0058 




0059 





26th 

27th 

28th 

29th 

30th 

31st 

32nd 

33rd 

34th 

35th 

36th 

37th 

38th 

39th 

40th 

41st 

42nd 

43rd 

44th 

45th 

46th 

47th 

48th 

49th 
50th 



LOC. 


VALUE 


0060 




0061 




0062 




0063 




0064 




0065 




0066 




0067 




0068 




0069 




0070 




0071 




0072 




0073 




0074 




0075 




0076 




0077 




0078 




0079 




0080 




0081 




0082 




0083 




0084 





Mlf 




0031 





NOM. = 1 .0 



MOM. - 0.0 



NOTES: INPUT ONLY IF: 

a. AUXIND = 2,4 e. CNFIND - 2 

b. AUXIND = 3.4 f. FiXIND - 1 

c. AIPIND = 2 

d. CNFIND ^ 1 

NOTE: WHEN OPTIND = 2 OR 3 CONSIDER ONLY 
THOSE ITEMS IN THE SHADED BLOCKS 



FORM 53t to n 1/73) 



FUEL FLOW MULTIPLIER 
MOM. = t .0 

5-5 



Preceding page blank 



BOEING VERTOL COMPANY 

A DIVISION OF THE BOEING COMPANY 



HESCOMP HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 
COMPUTER PROGRAM B-91 



HELICOPTER DIMENSIONAL INFORMATION 

NOTE: WHEN OPTIND = 2 OR 3 CONSIDER ONLY 
THOSE ITEMS IN THE SHADED BLOCKS 



SHEET NO. 
OF 



WING 



X 


NOTE 


VARIABLE 


UNIT 


LOC. 


VALUE 




a 


Sw 


FT2 


0101 






b 


w/s 


PSF 


0102 






c 


bw/D 


• 


0103 






d 


AR 




0104 




< 




(t/c)R 




0105 








(t/c)T 




0106 








Ac/4 


OEG 


0107 








\ 




0108 






e 


c,/c 




0109 








h'/hp 




0110 






. f 


% 




0111 





AUX. 

PROP, 



(IF LOCATED ON WING) 



GEN. 



NOTES: INPUT NOT NECESSARY WHEN: 


a. S^IND = 2,3 


j. MRPIND= 1,2 


b. 5wiND= 1,3 


k. CNFIND = 2 


c. bwlND = 2,3 


1. FDMIND = 3 


d. b^mD= 1,3 


m. FDMIND= 2 


e. AUXIND= 1,3 


n. VTFIND= 2 


f. S^IND= 1,2 


p. VTFIND = 3 


g. HTIND= 1 


q. VTFIND= 1 


h. HT[ND= 2 


r, AIPIND = 2 


i. bwIND = 1,2 




FORM 531 1 1 n 1/73) 





BODY 



NOM = 1.0 



/ 




ARht 




0112 








^h' 




0113 




HOR. 




(t/c)HT 




0114 




TAIL S 


g 


v„ 




0115 








Xh 




0116 






h 


Sht 


ft2 


0117 





/ 


i 


YCL 


FT 


0118 




\ 


i 


^2 




0119 





; 




ASwEx/Sr 




0120 




1 




AS WET 


Ft2 


0121 





PRIM. 
ENG. 
NAC. 



AUX. 

IND. 

ENG. 

NAC. 



HOTE 


VARIABLE 


UNIT 


LOC. 


VALUE 


' 


Hf 


FT 


0122 






Wp 


FT 


0123 






(l/d)p 




0124 






(l/d)r 




0125 






k 


FT 


0126 






^W 


FT 


0127 




J 


0^^/Ib) 




0128 




k 


(iTs/dTB^ 




0129 




k 


(d-y^/dfs) 




0130 




k 


'^T STING 




0131 




1 


((0/L)/D) 




0132 




m 


(Ax/Zp) 




0133 




V 


(Ax^/l,) 




0134 





VERT. . 
TAIL S 



r 



5-7 



Preceding page blank 



n 


AR^y 




0135 






Kt 




0136 






(t/c)vT 




0137 




P 


5VT 




0138 






Kz 




0139 




q 


CtDES 




0140 




q 


VoES 


KTS 
TAS 


0141 







h 




0142 






n 




0143 






% 




0144 






iU'h) 




0145 

...J 





r 


U 




0146 




r 


3-5 




0147 




r 


ye 




0148 




r 


(iAIA/ieA) 




0149 




r 


AS/SsTR 




0150 




r 


bNs/dn, 




0151 





BOEING VERTOL COMPANY HESCOMP HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 

A DIVISION OF THE BOEING COMPANY COMPUTER PROGRAM B-91 

HELICOPTER DIMENSIONAL INFORMATION 



SHEET NO. 
OF 



NOTE: WHEN OPTIND = 2 OR 3 CONSIDER ONLY 
THOSE ITEMS IN THE SHADED BLOCKS 



FWD. 

ROTOR 

PYLON 

t 





NOTE 


VARIABLE 


UNIT 


LOC. 


VALUE 




(t/c)Rp 




0152 






(t/c)Tp 




0153 






ARfp 




0154 






\,p 




0155 






hp, 


FT 


0156 





AFT 

ROTOR 

PYLON 



V. 





(t/c)R, 




0157 






(t/c)T, 




0158 






AR^p 




0159 






^AP 




0160 




a 


hp2 


FT 


0161 




b 


g/s 




0162 





♦ ~ IN THE CASE OF THE SINGLE ROTOR HELICOPTER, 
THIS BECOMES THE MAIN ROTOR PYLON 



NOTES: INPUT NOT NECESSARY IF: 

a. APH1ND = 2 

b. APHIND = 1 



Preceding page blank 



FORM 531 12 11 1/73) 



5-9 



o 

z 

% 




UJ 




8 




I 




H 




> 




-J 




§ 




EC 




Ui 


, 


Q 


S 


z 


8 


o 


-I 


u 


m 


CO 


Q 


X 


UJ 


o 


O 


04 


< 




X 




CO 


O 


UJ 


z 


T 


1- 


H- 


h 


Z 


Z 

LU 


i 


i 


t 


UJ 




H 




O 





li r iiijiii Vi I * 















Q 
Q 
< 

li 

M Z 

5^ 



-I O 
< Z CA 

pPog 

b DC u. o 
O UJ u. < 
CT > UJ u. 







WM 






M^ 






«;^ 




' '1^- 


■ SB; 


■'• 31.'' 


:o ■ -S? . 






i 


1 


P-"- 


|:;^^-^ 






^i:::-::-*- 





*^ T T *^ 

^ fs n ^ 

n N n R 

o o o o 

Z Z Z Z 

i i i i 

Q O O S 

C CC OC CE 



UJ 

X 

> 
< 

CO 
(O 

UJ 

UJ 



±^ 



o 
^ »- z 
« Z UJ 

t — w u- 
O -I UJ u. 
X U O UJ 






O 



Cj s 

o 

r^ ui 

t: ^ 

Uj u. 

::. o 

Uj > 

O o 

00 < 



^ mM 



iai^iiiijij 






i 



(0 



is 
"1 









1 






!:.:.:.j.v!.:.!. 



o :; 



5 :.*^ 







5 


GO 
O 






I 

O 


$ 

K 


-o 


■o 

















s 

o 






00 

o 


o 


3 

o 


o 




u. 













> 




^ 
^ 


X 

o 

S 


i 

UJ 

X 


X 

i 

X 


z 








-o 









g 

z 

UJ 

o 
cc 
o 

& 



i 

X 
UJ 

(3 

fe < 
§5 




b 6 6 o ^ 

X o u. X M 




Preceding page blank 



5-11 



Ul 






u 






z 






< 






S 






GC 






O 






Ik 






flC 






UJ 






a- f- 






Q 9 






Z ffl 






a < 






Z GC 






N§ 






CO flC 






cc a- 






UJ cc 






t" UJ 






si 


[] 




-1 s 

UJ O 


Q 




X a 


Z 




a. 


z 




^ 


oc 




UJ 


O 




I 


H 






O 


LU 




QC 


8 




-J 


X 




< 


> 
-1 




z 


S 




N 


QC 




CO 


Q^> 




QC 


« o 




O 
LL 


^2 

U 03 


> 


< 


n Q 


>^ 5 


H 


X UJ 


^ % 


< 
Q 

< 

Z 


°2 

2 X 


o 


Z. K 


o z 


CO 


|z 


■J 


z 

UJ 

Q 


O — 
X Ui 

5 t 


tNG VE 

ISION OF 


1 

CC 


ui 

z 


Uj > 






O o 






OQ < 







UJ 


1 


D 


mmm 


-J 


;';;|;|;;:::;>:; -:' 


< 


;S:S>:;^ 


> 


IF 


8 




H 


iS:;:''.;;--:::: 


Z 


y^:'y4:^ 


D 


:::::■■■■■•;■;■ 


LU 




-1 


f , :-■ ■•;, Lv. 


flQ 


;:■: :"■ ': ■ ■•'■:. 


< 


-3£ 


GC 


-■ ■ 2 


< 


:■ ^ -a^. 


> 




UJ 


:^-^:.-0 -vi 


H 




O 




z 


;; ;. ■- .:. . ■ 



CN C^ 



8 



< 



5 ^ U. ^ 

'" '- <N - 5 d ^ 



u. 

o 
z ii{ 

UJ D 



D C3 

z z 

5 Q 
QC QC 
1- I- 

z z z 

UJ UJ UJ 

> > > 

QC QC IT 

< < < 

w « « 

Ui 16 io 

UJ UJ Ui 

o o u 

UJ UJ UJ 

z z z 

I- H K 

O O O 

z z z 

H- H I- 

D 3 D 

a. a. 0. 

z z z 



Q. 

z 

UJ 

OQ 

> 
< 

UJ 

Z 

J- 

o 

J- 



Q 
2 
y> 

QC 

H 

Z 
UJ 

X 

X 

< 

(A 

UJ 

o 

UJ * 

ii 

Z u. 



S 



Z 111 

.3 3 

u < 

o > 

Ui < 

Q ^ 

5 < 

< o 



X 

< 

Ui 
o 

UJ 

Z 

(- 
o 

z 

CO 



A 

ui 



^ c5 -o ^ 



V) 

UJ 

H 
O 

z 



in 






I 



X 






;>; 









i-g:^;:;:;:;^::; 






::■■■..■■ 




1 


a> 


o 


i^j^M 


CM 


en 


■P 


in 


o 


s 


^mm 


s 


s 


m- 


s 




f>i 


S|ui 


liii; 






'm 






l9uj 


xlw 














C£AVi 




.;■:■■■:.:■:>■:.:.:■: 
















I'iiii-:; 










„^ 


l^ 


•^ 


::':*>i*i;;,':: 










X 


_j 




::::.J^ 










'— 


LU 


UJ 


u* 










V) 


o 


»- 


■:-:Z 












<> 


< 


:--|i^;; 






or 




o 

S 


< 

< 


X 

5 
< 


<4 




N 

N 




CO 

X 


o 


> 


> 


:•#,■ 


o 


^ 




^ 


■o 






M':- 


Q> 


-D 




■o 





X 
UI 



X < 
O X 



< O X 

H X O 



5-13 



X o . 

, O z Q 

d h- — z 

< O N O 

1- X en U 

Preceding page blank 



u 



u 




2 




< 




S 




cc 




o 




IL 




oc 




UJ 




Q. 


f 


o 


9 


2 


OD 


< 


S 


G 


< 


2 


cc 


N 


s 


CO 


oc 


CC 


a. 


UJ 


cc 


H 


UJ 


8 


D 

0. 







.-' \^' ' 












UJ 
















3 




:> .-:•:>' .": 












J 




'■'> :> ' .'. 












< 




•:■-:*•:':■:•; '. 












> 




:v;-;. 












o 


r* 


'W^^-^ 


S 


o 


- 


CM 


CO 


o 


;S" 


o 


3 


o 


s 


)^ 


H 














S 


Z 


u. 




U. 









u. 






,y 




o 
















H 












':■•■.■:• >'. 


,^^ 










UJ 




?:^^x-- 


I 






#L 




-J 

OQ 
< 

OC 


X 


o?'?>:^ 


Z 


< 

= 2 

z r 


D 
CO 


X 

ui 
a. 


Q 


< 

> 


Im 


^ 


z 


0. 

z 


I 


> 




UJ 
















H 

































z 














1 



f-< 



u 



> 



R 



UJ 

O 

z 



o 

X 

D 
< 



O 



C/3 

Z 



Ul 



Ul 

Z 



I 

8 

oc 

ui > 
O Q 

CQ < 



> 
Z 
< 

Q- 

s 


o 

o 

z 

Ul 

O 

CD 

UJ 

I 

K 
u. 
O 

Z 

o 



O 
2 
N 
(/3 
UJ 

Z 

z 

UJ 

> 
cc 
< 



0. 

cc 
o 

u. 

Q 
Ul 

E 

a 

UJ 

cc 



I- 
< 

cc 

o 



z 
o 

(/) 

-1 

D 
d. 
O 
oc 

0. 

oc 

UJ 

t 

O 
a 

UJ 

I 











o 




O 






^ 


o 


7 


nc 


O 




o 


O 


z 


IM 


K 


o 


u. 


UJ 


CO 



UJ CO 



58 




cr 

5 

« 

Q. 
X 
to 

cc 

o. 

I 
to 



^1 

Q- 
< 






8 



€S 



X 

3 
< 

♦ 

Q- 

I 

to 

CC 

< 

I 

to 



^ II 

11 

u- X 

z z 

UJ UJ 
X X 



^* <H « 



It 11 
a Q 
z z 

X X 

< < 

z z 

UJ UJ 

I X 

5 5 

> > 

X X 

UJ UJ 

o u 

UJ UJ 

Z Z 
Z Z 

z z 



UJ UJ 

o o 

UJ UJ 

z z 
z z 

55 

gl o- 

z z 



CD ^ tJ "D 
UJ 

5 

Z 



"■v^ 



— <o 
5 X 



t/) 

> 

I- < X 



5-15 



Preceding page blank 








CN 








11 








Q 








Z 








a. 








< 
















a 








z 




tu 




N 




u 








z 




W 




< 




UJ 




S 




z 




cc 




a 




o 




z 




u. 




UJ 




GC 












Ui 

52 




O 9 




D 




Z £0 




QC 




SI 




> 




z cc 




CC 




is 




< 




tA oc 








X a. 




X 




uj cc 




D 




tr w 




< 




§ = 




UJ 




U 0. 




< 




3 S 

UJ O 




OC 

< 




I O 




UJ 




a. 




in 




^ 




oc 

O 
u. 




UJ 




O 




Z 




UJ 








CC 


UJ 






B 


8 






UJ 


K 






cc 


>- 






z 


-J 






O 


Z 
O 






5 


GC 
UJ ^ 






S 


92 






GC 


CO o 

so 






O 






u. 


O J 




> 


2 


U CQ 


>^ 


z 
< 




rt Q 


^ 


Z 


5 iii 


5 


2 

u 


o 

en 


° 9 
7x 


1 


J 


II (/> 


a 

z 


a. 


2 I 


o 


Ui 


O 


H •- 




O 


cc 


fe? 


UJ 

X 


CC 
UJ 


2i 


oc 

U4 


1- 


1 1" 

5 t 


:i^ 


o 


O 






z 


o 


.. 


i 

Uj 




> 


-J 

Ui 

X 


UJ 

Z 


O 


Q 






QQ 


< 







UJ 

-J 
< 

> 



%■ 
t 



:'::ift,;:: 



o 



o 



z 






;^ 



z 



o 

z 

5 
o 

a. 



X 

< 

2 



Q 
X 

z 

UJ 

X 

> 

QC 
< 

Ui 

o 

UJ 

z 

o 

z 

H 
D 

0. 

Z 
(6 

00 
UJ 

Z 



:j uj 

X o o 

=> X z 

< Q. UJ 



UJ 

si 

iN 



U. 0. UJ t/) 



Preceri/ng page Wanl^ 



5-17 




UJ 






Trrr^ 








•.v; :';■ -■ ' 


:::-.vV:->" 


■^aM 


l^T^ 




;■ y " ; . 




::■.:.;:*'■ .;, 


" ■; ' : •: 


•■: .""'" ; 


;::^^:i>^:^' 


-;;x::::-f 




■'!:■■.; i'iO:- 


-■x" "*■*"■: 


■ ':• ■"'■:■ 


:' . 


■::■'••- 


!.^:^.t|:' 


::::•; :■ 


i?:W:f' 


»i^; 


>ri">--. 


?NC^ 




v-?i":":; 


:•■; ' : 


















: |;:;::X;: .:•: 




: ■ ; ": . . 




■1 


;'.; .-:•>: :*.-. 


> ;' '■ ■' :' :"; 


>: {.■■ 


-i'/xCxC:; 


?H-:^ 


"-■ V' 


Si 


■':'•■•:-' 




'■.' : • ;' . ■' 


■■.< 








m^^ 


f-*': :v': >:• 




5i:i:..«: 


''•'■''.':.".• 






;>. , 




- '='■:"■ 




mm: 

::^::::x^.■ 




: "'V':-; 


WM 




^M.:.^ 




u 


CM 


M 


^ 


to 


to 


r^ 


£? 


2* 






r*. 


r* 


r< 


P^ 


r^ 


r* 


t* 


r** 




O 


o 

-1 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 


M 

O 


CM 

o 


CN 

o 


a 


> < -J 3 UJ 05 O ^ 








y-l ■''■'..: 




w^> 




.:.v,: :•:,:. J 


^^ym 








i^i^iv:" -.-:■ 


■;■ . ■. : 




:•;;;.:..:.>;'.;*.: 




>. [ : '■'■■'■■'•' 




mm^- 






:;;:;:;';;:;::■. 


■y,:. : 








vo X;;.::; ; 




■':■':•':', :''■:■ 


mm:: 


:■■:■'■' :•:-.;:':: 


:<<■:••(: .;*■; 


■xvi-:'^:-;!: 


i;^: ':•: ': ,". 


:yoX': x-! 




^ 'y: ■: ■' 


x^x^^ivi' 


v.x*:*:;x;^ 


;;?-:x::>^*- 


mm 


;:x-' :';' :■'■" 




'^^x:^^ 


IP 






p:x:'( 


||ii 


MiM 


-;■;:'<-■::' 


':;;:;:;:-:';:;:x 


WB 


x'vv :':•:; 


^iii 


!■:■-«■■ 








:-;■;':', -:- ■ 






;-x':v--:'x 






■^m 


; ■< 


















: : . ■ 




^& 










:?.^:-' 








jx-: ':;;.,: . 


ill 


8 


fs 


S 


i 




to 


1^ 




§ 


o 


i 


-1 


° 


*^ 


° 


O 


o 


o 




^ 


o 


><-iDuJw ^ 5 



UJ 

u 

< 

o 
c 



LU 



z 

UJ 



a- r- 


I 


i^ 


^ 


< 5 




O < 


Z 

o 


Z ff 


5§ 


CO 

-J 


w tt 


D 


flC a- 


0. 

O 
cc 

> 


-1 s 


CC 

< 



UJ O 
I O 



bS 



i 

8 

CC 

i 

O 

OQ 



> 

z 
< 

I 

o 

o 

z 

UJ 

o 

CD 

Ui 

X 
I- 
u. 
O 
2 
O 



X 

< 

CC 
LU 

H 

0. 

O 
o 

-I 
Ui 

X 

Q 



O 
O 

QC 
O 
u. 

Q 
Ui 
QC 

D 

a 

UJ 
GC 

< 

I- 
< 
Q 
GC 
UJ 



Ui 

Q. 

o 

CC 

CL 







;'X;';';*"v;* 
■:•■'■* :<■:•:< 

■mm 


■-: ' 




Ui 


lii 


■■ :■::: 




D 


tiOiox^iS: 






-J 


:;•:;>.••:;:;:;" 


■'■* ■ '•■)>: 




< 


y.:-:'J'<<-k 


•. ■:■.■:,.','■ 




> 


WM 


,',: ' '/'V 


Ui 




•:^:::!:!^>:. 




o 


K- 




U 


o 


:-W"' 


;■.,' -S:- 




_J 






u. 




;':-x?>X', 


<; :^f^y. 


LL 




:-m-yyy. 


'■.'yyyjm 


Ui 








U. 


K 


WM- 


-•■m: 


O 


Z 


i<m^ '• 


;•'•.. '. ;.■.• :• 


(/) 


D 


•:o:':v:>::'.' 




UJ 




y>m&-' 




_) 




^m^:-: -1 




-1 
< 

> 


UJ 

-i 

< 


ill 






q: 
< 


■•■■■f 


If 




> 


hf: 


«? 




UJ 








t- 








o 


■X-: ■,■::■ 






2 i^:«>: 





CQ 



^ 



z 

UJ 
UJ 

O 



o 
j( 

Q 

Z 





|P| 




UJ 


lit!';':? 


:':-"' !■:■!■ !':■ ■; 


3 


rx^x/;:;. 


v:',',-: :"; x': 


-1 




■;:••■:•: ,',';•■■; 


< 


:>v:v;.';, . 


'■'.':'■■■:':■::'■: 


> 


:;>>:|x -xi . 




3 


:-;■:•:■'■:-:•.-.•: 

^X^v!^^^X 




K 


S:::S:xo': 




Z 


iK:K:H 


':: x.:.x*::v 


3 


xlviv 


X :::;;;:>:': 


UJ 

-I 


l|; 


S ?;:■'' 


CO 

< 

< 


■Ht ■ 


^1 


> 


f„S,. 


z« 


iXI 




: ":' :■": - : 


1- 






O 




■ X:XX;X; 


2 


. -^ 





1 


■!-;■:-"■'-:''■: 

'Mm 

■:■ ■ ■*■;■:■' 

■x;:-x;; X 

Mm 


SP&: 


■ 


[•:•:■:•:• x- 


y-^. : f :• 






i^x^i'X-' '' ' 


'■■■■©'' 


■x': X-: : '. < 


■ 32.;' 


■ ': :■ ■ ■ 


m 




a 


.-. .-.-: . : : ■ 


> -t?:: 


i':.:. '• • 


x^<- 


:•■:■: ':•■.'■: 


r^^> 


;-'>x-:<:x :- ■: 




^■^^'- m 


■i Ox' 


mn 


;xM 


M^\Mm 



t 

s 

S3 
o 



CQ 
< 

\- 

CL 

O 
X 



O 

-i 
< 



5 



3 



I M <if , i . i _ L> i 



*«^ 



UI 

8 

I 



2 
O 

UJ . 
Q 03 

is 

O 03 

«^ Q 
CC UJ 
O Q 
cs< 

O 5 



^-^ 



o 

z 






CC 

< 

X 




■:Z:x 



lU 

5 o 

5 = 8 

III 

II ti li 



I) 

o 






5-19 



Preceding page blank 



BOEING VERTOL COtAPANY HESCOMP HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 

A DiVtStON or THE BOEING COMPANY COMPUTER PROGRAM B-91 

HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS INFORMATION 

NOTE: WHEN OPTIND = 2 CONSIDER ONLY THOSE ITEMS IN THE SHADED BLOCKS 







— i 


SHEET NO. 


CASE NO. 




OF 







NOTE 

a 


VARIABLE 


LOC. 


VALUE 


^J^vTl 


0301 




a 


^Dhti 


0302 




b 


^D^p 


0303 






Copp 


0304 






^^csMR 


0305 






^OSHMR 


0306 




a 


^t)cSTR 


0307 




a 


^DsH-m 


0308 






Co. 


0309 






Co„, 


0310 






Cdns 


0311 




c 


(Gw/Fe) 


0312 




c 


KpED 


0313 




d 


e ■ 


0314 




a 


TFEF 


0315 






AFeFT^ 


0316 





NOTE 


VARIABLE 


LOC. 


VALUE 


a 


KvT 


0317 




a 


Kht 


0318 




b 


Kap 


0319 






Kpp 


0320 






^HPIM 


0321 




a 


Khpit 


0322 






Kn 


0323 






Kh. 


0324 






Kns 


0325 






Kp 


0326 






Kw 


0327 







(Re/ Hi 


0328 





CZa 



RAD-1 



0329 



WING PROFILE DRAG AS FUNCTION OF Cl 



NO. OF PAIRS 
IN TABLE 



0330 



NOTE: Clw. Cowi INPUT 
NOT NECESSARY 
WHEN AUXIND = 1»3 





C,^(U 


0331 




Clw(2' 


0332 






CtwOl 


0333 






Cl.w(*I 


0334 






Cuw(s) 


0335 






CLvy(6) 


0336 






Clw(7' 


0337 






Clw'8) 


0338 







CowiM) 


0339 






Cdwi<2J 


0340 






Cowt'3' 


0341 






Co«i(4) 


0342 






Cowi<5> 


0343 






Cow I (6' 


0344 






Cow,<" 


0345 






Cowi'S' 


0346 





NOTES: a. INPUT NOT NECESSARY WHEN CNFIND = 2 

b. INPUT NOT NECESSARY WHEN CNFIND = 1 

c. INPUT NOT NECESSARY WHEN DRGIND = 1 

d. INPUT NOT NECESSARY WHEN OSWIND = 1 



Preceding page blank 



FORM 531 !3 H 1/73) 



5-21 



BOEING VERTOL COMPANY 

A DIVIStON OF BOEING COMPANY 

HELICOPTER WEIGHT INFORMATION 

NOTE: WHEN OPTIND = 2 OR 3 CONSIDER ONLY 



SHEET NO. 



CASE NO. 



FLIGHT CONTROLS 



f OWE IS NOT NECESSARY WHEN 
OPTiND= 1,2 

ttwpL tS NOT NECESSARY 
WHEN OPTIND = 2 



a: 
o 



< 



yd 
_f < 

Cl z 

-J o 

2 



THOSE ITEMS IN THE SHADED BLOCKS 
INCREMENTAL GROUP WTS, NOM =0 





VARIABLE 


LOC. 


VALUE 


t 


OWE 


2601 






WpE 


2602 






WpUL 


2603 




tt 


WpL 


2604 





l^cc 


2613 




"RC 


2614 




kgc 


2615 




l<FW 


2616 




''tm 


2617 




■^SAS 


2618 




l<RCA 


2619 




^SCA 


2620 




•'mc 


2621 





Ki 


2654 




Ka 


2655 




K3 


2656 




K4 


2657 




K5 


2658 





VARIABLE 


LOG. 


VALUE 


AWpc 


2605 




AWp 


2606 




AWs^ 


2607 





GROUP WEIGHT INFORMATION 

STRUCTURAL 



ka 


2622 




AC.G. 


2623 




kLG 


2624 




^MG 


2625 




^WW 


2626 




LF 


2627 




l^ws 


2628 




k^p 


2629 




kHT 


2630 




kcLF 


2631 




**NAC 


2632 




l<A>P 


2633 




l<NACA 


2634 




^AIA 


2635 




Ks 


2636 





Kg 


2659 




K7 


2660 




Ka 


2661 




Kg 


2662 




K1O 


2663 




Kn 


2664 





Preceding page blank 



VARIABLE 


LOC. 


VALUE 


RM, 


2608 




Wi 


2609 




Wo 


2610 




<i. 


2611 




do 


2612 




PROPULSION 


kpRB 


2637 




l<RBF 


2638 




^PH 


2639 




^ amd 


2640 




^BLFD 


2641 




ktR 


2642 




kAR 


2643 




kpA 


2644 




l<VTAR 


2645 




kpDS 


2646 




kposz 


2647 




^TRDS 


2648 




•^ADS 


2649 




kAOSZ 


2650 




kps 


2651 




kpE. 


2652 




^AE\ 


2653 






K,2 


2665 




K,3 


2666 




K,4 


2667 




K,5 


2668 




K,6 


2669 




K,7 


2670 




K,8 


2671 




K,g 


2672 




K20 


2673 





FORM 531 14 (1 1/731 



5-23 



liJ 

-1 
< 

> 












6 
o 

-1 


O 

NO 






o 

NO 

CM 


^ 
^ 


_i 
ffl 

< 

< 
> 


> 
< 




a. 
< 




ffi 

1- 



UI 

u 

z 
< 

o 



il 

QC 0. 

UJ 
H 
Q. 
O 



lU 

H 

-I 2 
UJ o 
X u 



Q 

•z 

CL 
CXL 



UJ 
3 
-t 
< 
> 
















c3 
o 

J 


lO 




00 


CO 
00 




o 




u 

-J 

< 

a: 
< 

> 


5 

z 
a: 

X 


CL 
< 

X 


UJ 

< 
X 


s 

X 

(A 

Q 

< 

X 


m 

1- 

< 
X 


u 

if) 

X 


m 

o 

< 

X 



a. 

o 
u 

lU 



Q 

LU 

UJ 



>- 


< 


^ 


:S 


<t^ 


q: 


a.? 


O 


^^ 


LL 


oi 


Z 


U" 




a 


LU 


JI 


u 


OS 


5 




-1 
< 


>w 


CO 


o 


1 


^s 


1- 


^l 


X 




o 


OS 


LU 


GQ< 


* 



UJ 
D 
J 
< 

> 
















6 
o 


00 




o 




1 


i 


CN 


-1 

5 

< 
> 


3 

u. 

ID 

u 
X 


cr 
O 
U 

< 


CD 
O 

z 
X 


X 


CD 

u 

Q. 

X 


a 

a. 

X 

tn 

Q 
CL 

X 


ffi 

> 

< 

X 



Preceding page blank 



5-25 




a 

u. 
O 

(/3 
Ui 

D 

< 
> 


■ 

iff 






ill 


J;l 


:?:-?'-^-' 


H 

;,;-;#i! 


8 


s 


8 


8 


s 

8 


0) 

in 

8 




=r 


£* 


^ 


aT 


:i° 


=? 


dr 



o 
o 

lU 

D 
-1 
< 
> 








11 
■■; 

Si: 


;;.■: :'. . :•:,;. 


i 


O 

to 

8 


in 

8 


tn 

3 


s 


s 

"x 

o 


"x 

o 


CO 

s 

"x 

u 


c 


in 
S 

o 



i 

8 

u] > 

O o 

QQ < 



> 
Z 
< 
a. 

o 
u 

o 

2 
(u 
O 

(D 
UJ 

I 
I- 
U. 

O 

z 
o 



g 

er 
O 



CO 



O 



•«#^ 



- 






"•"'.'m- 


IS!" 


. ■ : . 




^^ 




















*:■:::;:= 








. ■ : :: 








> 


'■;:: f: 


-:!C:i-.:-: 




::^':x ^x • 




.•: .:: > .• 


■: ::;i»:l 


























.::...'.-; 








*••*■' >, : 


■>:■;: ' 




xx.w-: 




; 








:::;:::.:-;::::: •. 


■ '. ■ fy. : 






■';■;;-:;::• 




;: 


ri^: 




' '■'; '; '■*-: '' 


Ill ; 


!"',-x'' : 


: ■":*■*■ * * 




-:m 






|:|j^: 






*:; y'< ''■••. -. 






'■•':• ' ', '" 


■v;;.j 






:'<i(|: ; 


' ■ r 




•>B-*-^-- 




" '■ ■;■" •■ 




.,' .' -'' 




in 


tj-:^:* 




■"'/■ "';' 


^m 

m:^ 


';. ' .*" 






'■' 'if 




s 


UML i 






































X 

o 


o 


!» 


g 


m 


s 


CO 
0> 


S) 


^ 




u 

-1 


8 


o 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 






:;::'>'::^ 






iii 


•■■ ■■■ ■' " 




■;-x-.-:-.'," 








m^ 


:.>•'",: ■ ■: 


; " ■"■ 


ax 


;■:. ■ 




»s. 








■:-, :■:■;■. . 


m 




:iii 


































ipi: 


mm 


■iW^ 


III 


;" : : :*.'. : 


■yy'::^:: 


III 


■" ■ : ; 








.:::■::.;::;:.:: 


;^:: :::-.:.: 


:|:.X;:;X::;.- 




:■'.■. y.' 


:o>x:>>x 






i] 






v^;:, :;.;:.■; 


;5::::tx-;::::: 


: :• : >■: • 


::■;.:: m^i 


:::::;x:;;:::: 


-.:;>■■: 




S 




;;v::x>:: 




•:;::;x5;5x. 


:::-:■'■ 




"::::'::':':':i 


;x.;..>-^ 








































X 


U 


s 


to 

00 


s 


in 


g 


r^ 


s 




o 


O 


8 


8 


° 


° 


8 


° 






111 


THTi 




^i;: 




:■:::;.;:;«] 


■■■■■■H 




























::v ;:■■■;:: 




x^xfelx. 




:; ! : : : : 


I-^X^'^'X' ' 








■<■:■■>• 


■:■■:■:.■■:■: 




XvXvX;, . 




X . ■ .. 


•x::;:-: ■ 








:•:•:-:•:-■'-• 








-.-:■;■* :■;:■-: 


■:■■:■■ <«::■ ■:■■ 








:->; :-;■: : ,- 


: .-■•:•• :•:• ■■' 






: : ■ * ; ■ ■ 




>.■:;: X :=. ■ 








:■:■;•:■:■•■ ■ 


:■:■.■:■:■;■•■:■: 


X-:'::.-: .-,- 




.-.■.• :■ : 






■ ■■: ■ 


























i!§i-: 


m§ 


|P:'^i|i-^|f;;-'H; 


ill ;:;:.;:>; 


>:x" X 

X ■ :' ■ X' ' 


:-:-:■■: 






■>:'ii}-'' 


:■■ ■ : ■ J 


: .:■■:■*. 


X^^■:-Xv ' ■ 


::■•::■■: 




:,;..:. 


■ : x^ : ■ 


o 








:•' : '•■:■■: ■ 


|x|;J.>;X:; : ; 




> X-:'--: 


:"::;-::. 


:■ :■ , ■'■• :' ■ 


o^ 


CO 


» 


^•Vi'iv;' -■': 


-III 


ilS 


iniM-I^V 


i^/xf.:-. 

::-:;:xv.. 






K 


















s 


X 


u 


in 






00 


S 


s 


00 




o 


u 


r» 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


c 


UJ 




J 


O 


a 


a 


o 


o 


o 


o 


3 


















-r^T!^ 


-f 












:::■*:,;■,. 


, ■ X ;-x . .;■ 




< 








:; ■::■■::.:; 


■:x|.-:v.-'i" 






;■..-:■:. 


;x ■ . ::;:::;:;;: 


> 




li?: 


V :'^': y 


:-:;;:;v:::v: 


■..::■;.::: 


^M^ 






;>'■' '; ::':'x': 








:*!■:■:■;■:■ " ': 


■i^xixo-j 


•:■■■■;':■ '0; 


^f'l'-xi!;" 




j:; ; *:' '■ ': \- 


X. ■#>::: 






■:■;•:•:* ■■:- 




x::-:::-:v:-:: 


:- ■ :■■■ ■ ■■ 


•:•;:*:* •• :* '■ 


^■m^ 


■y. '■• : ■ ■:■ 


; : ■ >:::|x- 






m 


■■•<■■.<■: 






':'■:' "' 






-i" yy('. 






v:^- 




:■ >*x':vx- 




'■.':■. 


■ Wi^ 










^^■■iJI.' 




'-: .Oi^x-ix 




:■■ 


: |:;:ix:>x: 




:' V" 






:■<■■ 




;:>|--x|x|:|.- 






X>;.;Xx: 




:■■'■: '- ; 




II 


■•:>■ 




■;-^'^xl 


































o 




















X 




er\ 


o> 


o 


T— 


CM 


CO 


^t 










r^ 


r** 


n* 


r* 


PK 




CJ 


o 


O 


CO 


CO 


CO 


G 


G 






-1 


O 


° 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 










y:<i^M: 




;V '\"[ [' 


x-i^x::::-::: 




¥^mm 








1 :;.:.■ 


'Wm 


^ ■■■■'■; 




liii 


P:;:?^. 


III 
















: :::::;:;:::::x-; 












'-':■''':- ; ' 


ilill 




:.V ■;!■■■: 




.:j;X;X:;-:; 


iill-i 






i.-.-ttj.. 


■■ " "■ ■ 


f;:;:::;:;:::;.: 






: ::;::::;^:> 




x^i^ :•:■:>:•/:■ 






■■ r>' 




s;:;:;;;:;;::::: 






'yyfii^ 


:.:•:■:■■■:■:-: 








^^ J 




■■.■•■y.-y.-y.- 










:■;■:-■-■>>>•:: : 






;:■:•< 










-■'ivv:-:*:-:- 




l^'-X-.-X'X .= 




l{ 


;"> 




MM 






;iii 




XX.;..:,,y 








"' 




































"x 


8 


S 


(0 


s 


s 




i 


r^ 

s 




CJ 


-1 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 








11 


11 


» 


\i 


II 


ii 


It 








i" 


^ 


n" 


aT 


^ 


a" 


rT 



Preceding page blank 



5-27 



c 

z 



en 
< 
u 



O u. 
Z O 

UJ 

F 



1 


:: ■ ^ . ' ; -: 


in 


■ ;\ :;:;;/.;. 


f .v. ; .^ 




rh'^^-" 


'i 1 1' .^' . > 


wm 

mm 


;:-:^:;:S-;.:'- 




-:-Xv;v 'iv - 


; : . ■■ 


' : . ; ■ 










mm 


M^:,;j 


"'•;■;:; ^ S 




':>::.:: ■ 








:■._,:;■ 


■■ ■'. ■'' ; , 


mM 


B:;i; 


^•v.:vv' 


iii-^;'\:| 


•■*■''':' :'' ': 


mm 


■'.; "'!'^^' 


-[:■■:' - -: 






If. 


i;'f.-! 




:;:::■:.■■: : 












IP- 


i 


km 


*** 






■ ■ ^-1 'i-**^ 










mM 


? 1: :i i :.. 


^% i''. 


:;$:::^i;:g::!" 




!1 


III 


rixi 



ill 



< 
o 

UJ 

Q 9 
Z CO 

a ^ 

z cc 

^s 

(0 (£ 

oc a- 
lu er 



% 



o2 



X 

a. 



I 

UJ 

X 



i 

8 

Uj LL 

ai 

u3 > 
O Q 
QQ < 



> 
z 
< 

o 
u 

a 

z 

ui 
O 
ffl 

UJ 

X 



UJ 

cc 

!5 

LU 

a. 

UJ 

UJ 

oc 

UJ 

X 
o. 
en 
O 

5 






i^ 



j:;T^?Xijj 






ii 



mil 



i» i--^* 



W^ 



Q 

Z 

5; I ^ 

S2 - K 

^ cc " 

< oc 

to > 

Ui Ui 

a z 

UJ 



< 



Z i2 



UJ 

Z 



Mm 






■j* 



,^":;l ,t. 



■ 



^ 

M 






Preceding page blank 



5-29 



BOEING VERTOL COMPANY 

A DIVISION OF THE BOEING COMPANY 



HESCOMP HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 
COMPUTER PROGRAM B-91 



SHEET NO. 
OF 



CASE NO. 



TAXI INFORMATION 



,nd 



,rd 



-th 



=th 



=th 



-.th 



t>th 



r^th 



10 



th 



ATM IN D 



LOG 



y,M<'j,',!.i.l.|;|.! 



j$y iMii]i'l i t i lln ii i i i i j i i i i ijtij iii n iii Mn i j i i^ 



<rrri:iimfflji 



Wk^ 









VALUE 



MfWiiMviMtMri^^ 






":r':'\':" •!"''"!'' '^''''•''•'iWiiff^^^ 






SGTIND = 1 

(NOTE a) 



LOG 



VALUE 



■«)sM. 






Mn.: 



wm^ 



mm 






;ia*5f?- 



^PM 



rmlTi nXi i Lt[[i'l i !'[•]• j' yj I'l'wwiii^ 












■i^m 



'm& 



(PRIM ENG) 



LOC 



iiii'iimv'ti'tii 



i^t^-^yj^rAyiy, 



f^j^^ 



^ 



VALUE 



iii X i ji, i r,r i ;iY ^ i | iii i j j [ ij | iiii 



i.iifiMi.ri:fiyiviv'i>i.i..uj!: 



:iVi-"5c\f?"" 1 1 1'l 1 1 mt!t»>ftmimM**>!*f^¥0¥^ 



1 I i T i . i i i : i ' i i 



•iii'iiii'iii'iWiliW' 



t-M-'i;-i''--'-''rr 






t :>■ >:':X: ^JS'-^■'^.^M'^v 



mm tf^im ^i l. 






".':•>.': <'.:<■, ■>'-'::-r-v:,,v,^,:.>:.^-^ 



'• 'AV:; s'SWiS;. -^r^ 



:•:■;•;•;■, ;■■•.-:• 






■\.: f':^^ f^j:f:fr;r<S<;^t^v^Ao>a^ 



0-STD ATMOSPHERE 

1 »STD + At.j^ 

2 « ARBITRARY 0(h) 



2nd 



-,rd 



*th 



rth 



^th 



,th 



ath 



ath 



10 



th 



Xj (HR) 



LOC 






•^£ 



■■■ ■ ■ . ■ ■ ■ . ■ . ■ ■ ■ . I 



fiJIfr, 



mW 



9416 



;oiff 



~«4i«'; 



i'iriJiiiM'piiViVi'Wi 



VALUE 



Mi .il. ii M i . i ih i i. ji ' ii M ii 






^ftYiiiiri:/.;.':',:';'! 

a'i*! Yivi'riti'iYi'i'i 



i ^ i ' i YnTi'Jl''i'njjilli!?:'t'i'J i ' i^#|i 



'■■' ■''■'■ - '- "' •'• 



•:• ^i ■:}:;. ::^:::^i];^'' ^ ; 



LOG 



f-t^ 



<>^i 



"Fl 



i Mmj, i j: ;i :m ii 

'HI*- 



<mB 



04^ 



m^ 



pm 



VALUE 



M-A'^A'*ri 



I rt jj j i t i i 1 1 ^ i : i rijO'lt i [ ii I i ' l ' i y i .l i { \ ' if i * M 



1 [J i j -[Vi'f | .[' i r i .iy i I ' i ' i i \ ij i.i. i 'i'i j I ' i ' i i' l ' iij^ 



i ii i i MT i n iiriV i tfi ii r i tt. iiii t iij 



miitiiYi-iiiVi^ifflnmji 






I I I I i I i j- : i -rt I l ii ti iimf^y^Ofy . - - - 



NOTE: a. INPUT NOT NECESSARY WHEN ATMINO = 0, 2 



FORM 53125 (11/73) 



5-31 



Preceding page blank 



o 

z 

ui 

< 




Ui 

o 

< 
S 
cc 
o 

u. 
cc 

Ui 

& f- 

Q 9 
2 CO 

o 5 

2 OC 

w £ 
Ui cc 

li 

uj o 
X u 



UJ 

z 



CI 



::;:Ca^ 



X 





:■*■::::■■" ■ 


!■]':, 


;■ . ■ 














V- 


UJ 


:>o::; ■ ' ' 


















;, ■ : 


3 


m: 
















■:"■■- ■'.■■ 


- ■;■:■■-;■:':-. 


-1 


':■>:■■- : 


:.. " 






:■.■,■,-,■■;■ 










:: .■;■■ ■. . 


< 


m.: 


;:■;, :-■■■:: 
















'. ::!:;:V.v 


> 


If:' 
':■: .■■■■ . . 


■PJ 


hb 


F: 


• - y. ''•■ 






■::■:: 




^5 


o 




» 


:» 


* 


^a 


r. 


1 


't 


w 


o 

-1 


^^L^ 


i^ 


:t 


ti; 


S 


.^ 


:?> 


;^^ 


■ 





CM 

a 

z 

w 

z 
g 

< 

CC 

o 



o 

z 

o 
z 
< 



DC 
UJ 

> 

O 

X 



o 

UJ 



I- o 

z 



V* 



^1 



X 



^ 

























LU 


■li::::-:' 




















D 






















-J 


:>-:::-:v ■:■ 








;■:■:■;-:■:■:■■ 












< 






:':'y:- '■ 




■^y:■v:■■:■:■■. 












> 










s 


E-':-i' 


Wi 




:^:o.:x::: 


IB 






:::-■:;■■:■■ 


: ■ :,v.-. 


■:■'■■■ ■;;■■ ; 








;-■::::-.; ■:;:::;:-:>: 




2 




w> 




ifJi*^ 


ii 


i 




1 


^^-'-^ 



CO '" 

li II 
OQ 

zz 

?? 

z z 

LU UJ 

II 

>> 

ccc 

<< 



, 58 



IL (0 



'■ IS" 





UJ 






vU :V J 








:^: ■ ■,'; ■ 


■::;::-■ 




ii:i 

!:::;::■::;■: 




-1 
< 
> 




i::|:P:: 


ll 


i:-- 


U:^:^ 


-M 


■: . . :,:-■ 


!Hi 


|:^;'.-;-; 


::-:'-:-x:':": 


























<J 




^M::: 
















;;:.. . .. 


;::■:::■:■: 






:•:■::■.■,.-:- 




:■,-, . ■: : 


■:■: ■ .-.■.■ 




'■:■■ ■'■ '■ 


hlMM,^'"^'- 


;LLu- : : 


ilj":":":"."i 


> 


























f ^ 


:S*«;: 


:;::«*«:;■; 


;:".«^- 


;v-«^>; 


tt> 


■ ■:«■:■ 


■ -r^y- 


;>.;«&:- 


-m- 


■;-:0::- 






::v^:' 


:::■*••:■:■ 


. t**" 


■-■■-IE'- 


■ .ilt^' 


i:. ^" 


'■■ *?■ 


;:x*^-..: 










p: 


8 


8 


8 


^ 


i8 


S 


s 


S 


:S; 



e 



UJ 
QC 
UJ 

X 
a. 
w 

i i 

< : 

Z + 

<Q 
H K 
W W) 

II i 
o ^ 





























m 
























D 
























-1 
























< 






















XI 


> 






















UJ 
























u- H 
























XO 
























UJ 2 
























Q.S 






: .; . . 




















8 

-J 


i 


1 


1 


i 


i 


1 


1 


i 


1 


1' 



UJ UJ 

So 

UJ UJ 

zz 
zz 

a. 0- 

zz 

J T3 



ii 

to 

Z Z 

UJ UJ 

X X 

5S 

>> 

cc cc 
<< 

(/> tfi 

W CO 

UJ UJ 

U U 

UI UJ 

Z Z 

I- I- 

oo 

Z z 

K H 

D D 

a. Q. 

Z Z 



(6 ^ 

CO 

UJ 

H 


z 



2 
< 

O 
o 

o 

z 

LU 

o 

CO 



i 

I* 

Uj u. 
:&. O 

§1 

ui > 

O Q 
QQ < 



■:m 



LI. CD 
O -^ . O UJ 

y i y 5 ^ 

cc> oc> 5 
^ a- fe 

5 5-" 

(L Q. 
Z Z 



? "2 



£ -5 



to r- 



00 Ol 



*o 



Preceding page blank 



It n n n 
t- CM n ^ 



5-33 

























UJ 






















D 






















-J 






















< 






















> 


ll;-;::; 
























:-:■■■ .:.- 


















O 


■3?*^: 


>«:• 


•■:}3:: 


if: 


;■■■(£■■■ 


;je;: 


;i:f:: 


■r 


:^«;: 


■-■S'- 


3 


li: 


:-:l:: 

.::::;;.;:; 


s-S:: 


[:i-: 


■^ 


g:: 


•S: 


8 


rs- 


t 



t-cN«^ifltor^oo 



5 rB 
Oi O 



I- 
o 

'x [if 





iii 


i-M-::'^ 




111 








TOI 


:;>H;:;: 


mm 




iii 


WM: 


















ui 

O 

< 

> 


III 


::■>■■■■:■:-■■:■ 




S;-;|| 






'-9m 






nwWpiii 


8 

-1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


r^if^ 


1 




« 



o 

a. 
Z 



3 
-J 
< 

> 

O 



-J 

J 


Preceding page blank 


" :: 




1 


'1 


i 




:i 


8 

S 


: *^ 


1^ 


f 



Z X 



O 



Ui 

D 

< 
> 


ill 


■■iii 

;x;|:v:;:v 










':"!"! !"v:":- 








8 

-1 


■^:*!'^;::; 




1 


1 


III 








■ -ft,: 





u 

Q 



c* 





X »*J 




< > 


UI 


S QC 


U 


- < 


z 


z" 5 


< 


^;=i 


cc 


<*» 


o 


II 


IL 




flC 


o 


Ui 


z 


Q 9 
z fio 




< s 

a < 

Z K 


Z 

2 Q 


r: o 


H 2 


li! O 


< i 


W flc 


j£ Q- 


cc o- 


Ui s 


o 


t" Ui 


U. 


^5 


z 


«J sl 


OQ 


u s 


S 


Ui o 
I u 


-1 


Q. 




§ 


o^ 3 


Ui 

X 






< ^ 





III' 


ill 


















LU 
3 
-1 
< 

> 


mm> 

il::;; 
ii':'; 


:::■:■■:■:■■■:■:; 














III 




o 

-1 


i 


1 


^;;;«7; 


1 


i 


1 


:l 


fci 


1 


i 






9 



im 



UJ 

-J 

Ui^CL 



«-2s 
<-o 

SSZ 

» rt il 

O-CM 



i 



o 

z 



i 

8 

Ui 

§1 

u] > 
O Q 

QQ < 



> 
Z 
< 

a. 
2 
O 
u 

Z 
uJ 
O 
a 

UJ 

I 



i: 



;;i 



« 



s 



8 



LU 
UJ 

I 

« 

O 

< 

1^ 

Z + 

<o 

HH 

tn CO 

il il 

O •" 



Ob 

< 



< 

II 

CM 



'1 



i 



o 

z 

-I 
U 







ii 


















Ui 

3 
-J 
< 
> 






§r-i 














W^ 


O 

o 

-I 


i 


1 




1 




i 


i 


:i 


'i 



1^ 'g'2-e-5-5^^€-5_ 



^1^ s? 

Hi 21- -< 
^zzz 2cc o 

Xzzz sSz 

<ooo ^^ 
5 o oo 

II II n I) 
*- C4 n ^ 



5-35 



OQ 
zz 

5? 
u < 
z z 

UJ Ui 

X X 

>-> 

BTCC 
<< 

SS8 

UJ UJ 

U U 
Ui UJ 
ZZ 
HH 
O O 
Z 2 

hH 
3 D 
a. 0. 
2 2 



H il 

o o 

K3 

< < 
2 Z 

UJ Ui 

X X 
55 

> > 

< < 

Ui UJ 

u o 

UJ Ui 

z z 

55 

z z 

0. a. 
ZZ 



cri 

UI 

I- 
O 

z 



"2 "o £ -c 
N n ^ ifl 



■B "S € £ -5 

CO r^ 00 OS o 




I- « 



i>u ,,, ■.lAM-V-M-P 



^ 



UJ 

O 



o 

u. 

UJ 
0- f- 

Z ffl 

a < 

2 ff 

5g 

w cc 
ac a- 
uj cc 

-J S 
UJ O 
I o 



Ul 

X 



ii 

Z "* 



= < 

z s 

roc 

2 S; 



a 

CO 

Z Q 3 
O z ju 

I 2 5 

cc 
o 



UJ 

<2 

D 
CC 
o _ 

H O 

< 5 



g 



I 



GC' 
Q 

Z 



Preceding page blank 



:i 



o 

CO 

z 



8 



8 



-I 
< 
> 



n 



"be 
u 





m. 






|n-i 






;;;■■:■:■ 






Hi 


UJ 


\V ■]■':■■.'■: ■ 








■:■■.-:■ 




;;;;;;.-- 






^■:::r-:-:-:o::: 


3 




-:■-:■-:■:■:':■-:■ 
















■:■■:■::■>:■:■:■: 


-1 


■:':■:■:■■:■:■ 






:::■-:;;>■::■: 












■:■:■:■:■;-:■:■:■: 


< 


yyyK-:'^-: 






x^:-:'::--:': 












-::x-:->:o:- 


> 




::-;;;- 
















lli 




:>:ii»*-:: 


■^^^^t^-^ 


"■i*<»^ 


;:-^- 


ify 


V ^^ 


r« 


-'«■ 


C» 


O 


■.'■y.'ipr'-- 


:.":■***■ 


■:■ ■*»*■. 


:■ : ¥**. 


*«. 








■ '*-■ 




o 

-1 


m 


8 


;;;S 


m 


s 


8; 


s 


8 


8 


ill:; 



Ul 




;- ::'■- ■ 


■■■■;:;-::;S: 


-: ^ ^ 








,. 






D 


:■: ■ :■'.■ '■[ ' 




















J 


v:-:-y.--y ■ 






-.■- , , . 














4 


>■:■■:■■■:•:-■:■ 


';:■■.;: ':'. 




.' 














> 


lit; 


r ; ■ '■ ■ 


'^MM 
















O 

o 

-I 


1 


1 


1 


^1 


if 


;| 




1- 


;i 


J 



a: 

UJ 

<=lo 

2ZZ 

y 9 n 
o <- w 



z 

X 

< 

S 





^: ;■:;:■ 




















UJ 

D 

< 

> 


::i:;:;:;::--: 


Wm 








ii 










U 

o 

-1 


'^■''\'\' ■.'-'■'■■■ 


1 




^1 


1 


^•i 


;;,;p»*. 


'1 


'1 


iii 



Z 

I 



Ui 

D 

< 

> 






















8 

J 




1 


1 


5 


S 






■1 







CC 
I 
1- 
n 

I! 

Q 

Z 

35 

2C 

z 

UJ 

I 
5 
Q 

Z 

5 
o 

z< 

r UJ 
> X 

I- H 
D D 

z z 



i 

8 

-J 

Ui > 

QQ < 



> 

Z 
< 

5 
O 
u 

G 

Z 

UJ 

O 
o 

UJ 

I 

K 
u. 
O 

Z 

o 











-■■:-^- 


^■'■;:i-^ 














Q 

Z 

< 


Ui 

D 
_l 
< 
> 














































8 

-J 


>: ::■#*■■■■ 

§ 


1 




1 


■ 1 


1 


r* 


1 


J 


1 



UJ £ 

UJ ^ 

2 5 + 



w en 



CO 
< 



o ^ ot 



UJ 






















3 






















-1 






















< 






















> 




















;^i" 


O 

o 




<M 




i 


g 


i 


» 


S 


s 

^ r^L 


-J 


:, B 


o 


O 


;: O 


o 


Q 


o 


o 


■.■;:0: 


■■■■■W'' 





























UJ 




















:■::■::■-:: 




3 




















■::■:■:■-■.-■.-:■. 


n 


J 




















:;:■:■■ 


z 


< 
























> 




















y^.pW< 


o 


























8 


;;i:ii* :■ 


;: : :p*w ■ 


S 


i 


^^ 


iU 


■R 


^ 


1 


^1- 




_i 


x-<>^: 


: S 


;: P- 


s 


,:;, O, 


o 


o 


o 


o 


.: 0-: 



^ I 

<5 to 

I- Z UJ 

. Ouj Si 

i OCOOi 

n ff II 
' CM n ^ 



1 

o-Z 

Z 



So 

UJ 



(0 



T3 






















: 


UJ 






f... . 


















QH 
























zo 
























i- 


UJ 

D 






















< 


-J 






















UJ 


< 






















X 


> 


















io;:::";"- 




oc 






■^ ■ ■! '' 


















o 




















;;:;:>::;:>> 




z 


8 


^:-^':: 


iH 


1 


^ 


u3 






8 


;:■■§■ 


1 




J 


>'M: 


o 


s 


^ 


O 


o 


o 


o 


^,-,-f?; 


_oj 



?z ; 

5 w > 

K CC - 

< U * 

z z ; 

Ul Ui I 

X I : 
55: 

>> 

X cc 
< < 



ill Ui 

UJ UJ 

z z 
zz 

H H I 

DO : 
ZZ : 



ts c ^ £ -5 -£ 

*% ts en ^ lO <D 



S £ £ £ 

1^ CO OJ o 



5-37 



UJ 

"g E S -B 6 € €_ S_ S^ O 



Preceding page blank 



o 

z 
< 
s 

fiC 

s 

Ui 

a < 

2 K 
flC fl- 

Ui o 
X u 



UJ 

z 



in 

!l 

o 

z 

H 

o 

Z 

g 

< 

er 
O 



2 
UJ 
U 
CO 
LU 

Q 



i 

s 



> 

Z 
< 

a. 

o 
u 

O 

z 

UJ 

O 
o 

UJ 

X 
H 
u. 
O 

Z 

o 




l_ Q Q 
C Z^ OC 
^ cs <0 



X X I X X 

^r ^Lo ^<o "■- ^^ 



rv 00 0) 2 



5-39 



I- Q Q X X X X 
5 Z X K H H-. H 
»- CM CO ^ l« CD i^ 



I I f 











;'::::;/':'! 






^ 


?:->■: 












UJ 


M^ 


Ill:; 




i^ ^ 














1- 


D 




::;-:";:l-:-x: 


■ ■-■ ■'-!■,'; 
















o 


-J 


':■■;■:':■:■>:■: 




-:■■ ;■ ,;: 
















*--:; 


< 


m^ 




;. ■: / 
















H<f 
M 


> 






\^n\ 












i^^ 




O 


m^-A^m 


■■■■if**- 


'*■■ 


: ;. •»*■ 


:::.^; 




m 




■■■■■■^■■ 




-m 


yyy-m: 


:; ifm. 




- ««*.'. 


: ■.-***;: 


, -***.- 


■:-y.-iftn-: 




O 


-^- 


t»': 


-::#*<: 


LvXW*-: 


■:■ .■** : 


::,»«,r»-- 










-1 






Ws. 






:-tn--:-.^' 




'm 



CN 







H 






■mm 


b::;i-: 


^^W 




s^ 


ill::::;; 






mM 




WM 














UJ 

D 

< 
> 


mm 






§m 


Wi 












§ 


ii 




11 


m 


ii 


1 






ii 

;;■::**■ 


^^^■^1^:::: 



X 

ii 

— UJ 

? X 

Z < 



UJ 

a 

z 

EC 

o 
tc 

m 

^ 2 
< s 
z cc 

58 

ec a- 
ui cc 

-> 1 

UJ O 
I o 



m 



i 



m.: :■ m '■■':■ r^ 



ii 



LU 



a 

(A 

z 



UJ 


iiii 


mm:--< 


Wm-z 










|||i^ 






3 








-:•■:■■-■::■■:■'■•'■ 














^ 






















< 






















> 




■■":■■:;:■■ 




mm-:'. 














O 




ii 


m 


ii 


m 


ii 




m 


'% 


mf2^ 


o 




■:::*2i;v:;w: 


^::M, 


-,: :**■: 


;:;:;::»*♦ 


;:■:■:■:**»■ 


■■■y:^-r,,w^: 




-J 


iiiilli 


m^: 


iiiiiiiire 


■■.■■.■■.'^-: 



co 
II 

G 

Z 

H 

££- 

z 
o 

< 

CC 

o 

u. 

z 

cr 

LU 







E 




















o 


UJ 


mm : 




'; - ■ 
















Ic^ 


D 


:•:■ -: ,■: ■,' 


■:■ : 




















-1 

< 

> 




Hm 


■::" :': ■-, 






:■■:■?:•■■; 










? i 




;:;■;■>:■ : ■ 

::!-■■' •■■■ : ■ 


ml 


:■■ ?,;:-.': 
















5"! 


s 


||; 




If 


^■i- 


f|:: 


1 




1 


^1- 


i:|| 




J 


W^'^ 


;- ^- : 


^^m 


, r* 


:;ri^-" 


....»«■. 


: "«*■ 


; T"' 


^ .**. 


■;:yv^^ 








:; ■,■ -■ -; 




uiii 






■: '■ '■%..:. 




LiU 





UJ 














E:B 


:|li 


mm-: 


mm 


QC 


D 




:::;■. ::;.■ 




v::": ;:-:■:: 














UJ 


-J 






















H 


< 


:■:■:-:::■; 
















'-:■:-:■:■'■'■''. 


■'.■:::■:■:■■:■■:■. 


o 


> 


!;;->;;"■ i;:;^ 


■■■■■■'■■■V- 










































CO 

7 


O 


Ii 


m 




ii- 


Ei 


It 


m 


i 


m 


■■■■■'.r^y- 




O 


■■■■-'K- 




:o;;«iH.; 


■■■■r^: 


:-. '^^' 


:, .fif*-: 


■:-::.:rr- 


;:;.:**: 


-■/.■-'■^.-■. 






-I 


x:'*^|:;i:«r; 


v-rr: 


:■: ::Tir-: 


::..: :im: 


::-yri^- 




: : : V*' 




















iiii: 


mmmm 






UJ 
























D 






















^^ 


^ 


















:.::■:■;■:■ ■ ■■ 




^ -IS 


< 






















« 


> 














































ZH 
























fcTS 








II:;;:;: 






■:■::■:-■;■ 






MltUM^t 




^ 5 










mmm 


1 ■:■:■::;: 














8 


Ii 

;:■:■;***■ 


:| 




i 


i 


1 


1 

; ■*^:; 


1 


ii 

:;...»-•:■ 


i 



CC 

I 

























UJ 






















D 






















U 






















< 






















> 






















§ 


;"::■«**■■ 


:i 


1 


i 


1 


i 

:■ ■■«»*■ 


i 


1 


1 


1 

:. ¥*•;:■ 



ET 

I 



i 

-J 

i 

u] > 

O Q 

CO < 



> 

Z 

< 

o 
u 

o 

z 

Ui 

o 

03 
UJ 

I 
I- 
u. 
O 

Z , 

2 * 

en 

























UJ 

-J 
< 
> 


III; 




















8 

-J 


i 


1;:;?^:; 


i 


■"li't*: 




1 


8 


1 ''^■. 




1.; I'^--; 



UJ 

fiC 
tu 
X 
CL 
W 

o 

< 
Q Z 

11 

<Q 
HH 
w to 

o «- 







■ ' "."■ 


















UJ 






















D 






















-J 






















< 






















> 






















g 


8 


g 


1? 


?i 


§ 


i 


8 


§ 


i 


1 


s 


;,. t** 




■T- 


yM- 


■ rp»-- 


:--.:*^' 




.,» 


. *^ 


.■w 



> 

< 

tc 

H 
CC 

< 



u 



« o g 



«. 1. \ % -u, «» *^ *« 1» *o 

Preceding page blank 



Ul 






















3 






















-J 






















< 






















> 






















8 


:■ ■^■- 


i 


1 


i 


1 


1 


i 


1 


1 


1 


-1 


:;:.:.***:; 


1^ 


1^. 




**• 


-[- 


■; «««■' 


tf* 


^^■% 



M W CO 

II II il 
Q Q O 

z z z 

5 XX 

< < < 

z z z 

UJ UJ UJ 

I X X 

> > > 

cc cc X 

< < < 

W W 0) 

(/) (n <o 

Ui UJ Uf 

o o o 

UJ UJ UJ 

zzz 

ooo 
zzz 

Ki-H 

Q. Q. QL 
ZZZ 

a ^* u 
UJ 

I- 

O 

J z 



5-41 



*^^ >4 ^ >f to ;d r- 00 0> *-o 






cc 

X 

a. 



m 



w^ 

^ 



^■^t 






w;*:.!x=:t^ 



iww m mji" n^ 






ril 



i?f 



a 




X 



i^ 



173^ 



WVT. 









y^'¥i^ 



rr^ 









Q 
< 
O 

> 
< 

a. 

UJ 

O 

Z 
< 

X 

o 

oc 
o 

lii 

D 
u. 

ui 
CD 
Z 
< 

X 

o 



a 

z 

P 
o 
5 



^;',;::,^:j 










• V-:.::::"'::a 


^>^| 






;:x" -^ 




■>m>m 




-» M^m. 




< 


1^^;:^ 


> 


?^m 




......x. 












: ' :^*.'. 




o 


: .jjy- 


o 


. »•► 


-1 


*r:: 




■;. -^ 



5 

+ 



z 
o 

o 

E 

I- 

C/3 

LU 

X 

!- 
X 

o 

m 
5 
O 

z 



r* 


W 


II 


1) 


Q 


n 


Z 


r 


H 


1- 


O 


(T 


w 


tf) 


X 




a 





C/3 

GO 

-I 



5 



11 



m 

-I es*? 



■«»? 

^?::- 



% 



m 




0> 




tl 




Q 




Z 


5 ^ 


h- 


" if 


a 


2 Q 


52 

LU 

o 


2 Z 

11 


3 


£ ^ 



MSj 



*V ^cN « tr tn <o r-. oo oi -- 



-« t P 

< -^^ 

X I X 

UJ - < 

CO -c j: 

Z 

< 

tt q: 

H O 



K 



i 



i 



m 



w^ 



^;:?;-- 



•- ^(N CO 



PO %t U) <D I^ CO Oi »- 



5-43 



Preceding page blank 



BOEING VERTOL COMPANY HESCOMP HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 

A DIVISION or THE SOEINS COMPANY COMPUTER PROGRAM B-91 

ENGINE CYCLE DATA; NON-STANDARD PERFORMANCE 
PRIMARY ENGINE DATA 



SHEET NO. 



CASE NO. 



vAJitAite 


:%^^^ 


'^^vMrMZ.-':':^ 


imnm 


T2i: 


■ mmml 


N1IND 


nm 




NteiHp 


]M 




HarNO 


w 


-'':'-'WiWM 


QINP 


1205 





vARr^li^i;; 


WM 


^wmm&IM 


Wmax/SS 


\m 




'^Imax/K^*- 


1221 


^■i^^:-^i^:^':^^S^S 


^MMm 


1222 




*^itMAX/H^ 


1223 


Qm^x/q* 


1224 





INPUT IF WOUND 
INPUT IF NIIND 
INPUT IF NieiND 
INPUT IF N2IND 
INPUT IF QIND 



.2 



)0 = NO FU 
1-FUEL 



EL FLOW CUTOFF 
FLOW CUTOFF 



NIIND: 



1' 



NO N1 CUTOFF 
NT CUTOFF 



/O = NO HZ CUTOf 
N21ND: < 1 = N2 CUTOFF; 
I2 = N2 CUTOFF; 



fO = NO N2 CUTOFF; OPTIMUM N2 VARIATION 
OPTIMUM N2 VARIATION 
NON-OPTIMUM N2 VARIATION 



QIND: 



«0=N 

n = T 



O TORQUE CUTOFF 
TORQUE CUTOFF 



NieiND: 1^ ~ 



= NO REFERRED Nl CUTOFF 
REFERRED Nl CUTOFF 



V Am ABLE 



RHOIND 






VALUf 



0= NO REYNOLDS NO. CORRECTIONS 
1= REYNOLDS NO. CORRECTIONS 



REYNOLDS NO. CORRECTION FACTOR 
VALUES OF ^^ Vi VALUES OF KpR 



OUTPUT SHAFT SPEED CORRECTION 

Nil 
VALUES OF TTllOPT VALUES OF Kp^^ 



1«>C 


''Vmm' 


1207 


: .llfllllll 


ms 


;;; - ::;:V;MS:iim::M 


:.-' ■:;:■ .-j^Jxiv^io^io;:::;:;:; 


1209 




:"mK'' 




1211 




1212 




ml 




:-:i;ii' 




'^ms'. 




: mi I V::L.^:-^^i:i: 



v:l.oc' 


y-Simm::;. 


1225 




1226 




1227 




1228 




1229 




1230 




1231 




1232 




1233 




1234 





\ uoc 


.:. -;vAt;Si;;;S . 


1238 




T239 


-: :Hi;;™sv:V;:::*f ;S: 


: 1240 




ill ; 




1242 




1243 




1244 




yMsi 




B&> 




t^li^:;. 





uoc 


VAUUE 


1248 




1249 




1250 




1251 




1252 




1253 




1254 




1255 




1256 




1257 





INPUT THIS TABLE IF RNOIND = 1 



INPUT THIS TABLE IF N2IND = 7 AND 

NON-STANDARD CORRECTION IS DESIRED 



Preceding page blank 



5-45 



FORM 83138 {^ 1/73) 



BOEING VERTOL COMPANY HESCOMP HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 

A DIVISION OF THE BOEING COMPANY COMPUTER PROGRAM 8-91 



SHEET NO. 
OF 



CASE NO. 



ENGINE CYCLE DATA; NON-STANDARD PERFORMANCE 

AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT ENGINE DATA ^^^^^ 



ttWmmM 






. liiiii jT Tj i: i iTHiiT:i;iiw' i wi i W i i''' i !i 



Mmaf'; 



H2:iNpf 



"^mm' 



■im- 



ii^i 



iJSSG? 



ixam 



m^ 



^s 






iWxifiKfi 









'i^i^^tiiiiij^^^ijji^^^ii 






^^hm^mIM 



■im: 



7m' 



■2??i: 



222i-. 






tsm 






WDTINDhP'^^O FUEL FLOW CUTOFF 
CI « FUEL FLOW CUTOFF 



INPUT IF WDTINDI = 1 
INPUT IF N1INDI = 1 
INPUT IF Nl5lNDI = 1 

INPUT IF N2INDI - 1,2 
INPUT IF QIND! = 1 



N1INDI 



to- NO N1 CUTOFF 
M « N1 CUTOFF 



!0 = NO N2 CUTOFF; OPTIMUM N2 VARIATION 
1 - N2 CUTOFF; OPTIMUM N2 VARIATION 
2 = N2 CUTOFF; NON-OPTIMUM N2 VARIATION 



QINDI: 1^^ 



= NO TORQUE CUTOFF 
TORQUE CUTOFF 



NI^INDI: iO = NO REFERRED N1 CUTOFF 



)?: 



REFERRED N1 CUTOFF 





;3ii2 




KB^-.:. 


: ;.|-:>v;:J::Si;^;-S;:; 





= NO REYNOLDS NO. CORRECTIONS 

1 = REYNOLDS NO. CORRECTIONS 



REYNOLDS NO. CORRECTION FACTOR 

N, 
VALUES OF -J- 0_ 

],[,L M.u i .i...i.i.f..... ^^gHj!ffP*" 



VALUES OF K 






'^7 



mi; 



:?«P-: 



MM 



'Wl 



mi. 



2213 



m4 



>> w i r i>i fi:i'Jii-I;i'.j:i; r 



PR 



;!:l:.j.,:u. i xwjjj:wj" 



ir^ifiQlnifriiriiri^i-livri^ 



K' 



2^' 



..??»9i: 






223t 



2^? 



" • ti:"g-l:Vr i : i l- |iiiiM|ii V iji^^^^^ 



iii^;iyi:iYimi:ifiYi:i:i'i:i.ii 



■! " J !i ! i! il i [ i ! ! i!i !'!-"'!'!J!,0' ! ! ! :': ' ^ili!|'i!^j!-; ! !V ? 






2234 



INPUT THIS TABLE IF RNOINDI = 1 



■' . ' X^i'^C'-oJjji!?;? ^ 



r i 'i'"'n]-]'i:g::iif i ::j:i!j ! ii i [i[ij ! ir^!-:v!' 



OUTPUT SHAFT SPEED CORRECTION 
N. 



VALUES OF 



'iMi 



wm 






^^^mi: 



2244;; 



23^:;; 



II OPT 



^wMml 






J V. 



VALUES OF K 



FN 



IMT: 


^■";;v%f|||r'''"r^^ 


■2?4S:;"^ 


:■:;:;;■ j;:;::;:-;::: -.^^ii':'''^:^^;^]:;. 


zm 


■ J:^!X"!i/X;v,'"-. !?:':-':-: :^' ■;■:■>■■■':■■::" 


7m 


: ■ ^^mMS.S:i}':Mi 


;:mi.../ 


': :;:--:-:,"■■■■ ;,.':J ■.■:V^;L£ ■ 


'm^r- 




wm; ;; 




imi" 




22^ 


■ '. i...-^:.;... 


zm 


'::-':::::±Mmm: 


.,z^..:.... 


'■ .:■:^^:^:J<MMi^^St . 



INPUT THIS TABLE IF N2INDI = 2 AND 
NON-STANDARD CORRECTION IS DESIRED 



5-47 



Preceding page blank 



FORM 53118 (11/73) 






O 

z 
< 
s 
cc 
o 

IL 

X 
UJ 

o ^ 

2 cri 

O 1 

z cc 

5§ 

cc a- 

UJ QT 



UJ 

X 












z 
















w 








o 
















ui 








H 
















2 








< 

z 

CO 

UJ 


















O 


Ui 




GC 




O 
















u 




UJ 




-1 
















2 




Z 




















UJ 

tr 

UJ 

u. 

UJ 




-1 


^i 


o 

U- 

cr 
< 




















CCH 




















ii 
































U.O 


d 

z 










































z 


UJ 




fflO 


















o 


Q 
< 






^ 
















1- 
< 




















UJ 


O 

^2 




<r 
















o 


U 

z 

UI 


35 
















< 

2 




u. 


Q-ir 




^ 














z 


q: 


uLja: 




< 














« 


UJ 

u. 


Quj 




Q 














I 


UJ 


Zi< 




< 












UJ 




H 


CE 


CQK 




OC 












GC 






|8 

SJ UJ 

^ o 

u] > 

O o 



< 

CC 

o 



> 
u 

OC 

OC 

2 
< 

O 
QC 
UI 

< 

QC 
O 

H 
OC 

o 




UJ K D < 

> < OC H 
O 1" T < 



< 
> 

O 

X 






UJ 


11^ 




3 


::>::■:;.-■ ^ 


■ ■C-:-!-!-'".:^ 


-1 


••-:-; y. .■ 


: •:'. > ■ -:■ 


< 




: ■ '<•:■> ■■'■■] 


> 




ivin'mm^ 


8 


m 




-J 


R 


::5;:::^:Li.; 


UJ 


p^ 


PI 


m 


i::::;:::'» 


:::::■£;« 


< 

cc 
< 

> 


i 


ii 




te^ 





i^ 






e?l 



;.*^: 



S'f^'^^i ^'i^ :K 



i'liitt^ 



:**■ 



^11 



1 



mm 



:i»j 



OC — V) — 

UJ t- D < 

> < OC H 

O fc X < 

X ^ K Q 



Preceding page Wank 



5-49 




BOEING VERTOL COMPANY HESCOMP HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE 

A DIVISION OF THE BOEING COMPANY COMPUTER PROGRAM B-91 



SHCETNO, 1 
OF 5 



CASE NO. 



ROTOR PERFORMANCE MAP 



WMMW^W^ZW-:- «W 



■ ■■>.v-x^x^: ■•■■:.■: :■: .-.y^. . . :->. ^: ■■■■■ ^.■-. 



LOG 



VALUE 



HOVER PERFORMANCE 





LOC 


VALUE 


\i^i'^^^^>4^A^<M^ 


2|i:; 


•'•^•^:'-"v.o;.i.:::::::^:-{S 


■■^:i:ii;W'',- 


llf^lpii 


- 2JM; ■ . 


,-,'-'. ,'. ,-,-,^>,-v'>>>^-',%-;^;-j->>,^-,'-;-.VT-T^7-;/T''r''n-. 


r:f:t®« 


T^dl 







LOC 


VALUE 


|.^p^li« ■ 


, ''^^P'>^ :.■ 


^||!:{|ii:l;|Sili-:};:1 





LOC 


VALUE 




; 2*tr . 


■ V:V;;;--..L'-::.-:'-:'..>. :;::'■>: -::■:":::::.. 



'Ct^<^i 



(c-^cHj 



(Ct/0)3 



(c-r^"'^ 



(Cj/Oj 



(CT/0)g 



{C^O)^ 



(Cx/o)a 



(CT/a>g 



CjlO) 



10 



VALUES OF Cy/a 



r?;1lt» 



LOC VALUE 



mm 



wm' 



2708 



..jm» 



ilflO 



f-?Bt' 



■ (MP''. 



wn 



:J?1<': 



r ii trfrtfff i 'x ii nv w i i M 



VALUES OF M. 



TIP 





LOC 


VALUE 




;::af^C;. ■■ 


:K:;:^^-ii:;-::;i:^=::::^::i:i-:l^ 




"'^m'z 


;:;:::;g;:;;:::;i;;:;::::S^::;p;;r:ip^ 








liiiKMi 


-^1|^,. 


;il;;;i;;:-;:;:;-':;;ii!:;i^^^^^^ 


llliigTii 


i^^:. 


i:r^:^^mM0^-^-&^ 


::;.:::;:¥::K;;^:>5:;:i^v^"--:^;;!;:;'^;:;s; 




^:fiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiii: 



QjiG = 4T/P TT D^V-p^lM^a 



Cp /a=22O0RHP/p7rD^V^^Npja 
H 



INPUT VALUES OF Cp /a FOR COMBINATIONS 
^H 



NOTE: Cy & Cp ARE IN "ROTOR" NOTATION 









( 


3FCy'aANDM^,p 
















•^TlPi - 


"tIP2 = 


"TIP3. 


Mt1P4 = 


'^TIP5 = 


^TIP6 = 




LOC 


VALUE 


LOC 


VALUE 


LOC 


VALUE 


LOC 


VALUE 


LOC 


VALUE 


LOC 


VALUE 


iCjIO)^ - 


IHI:^ 


l::'::^M^M9:yy 


"alii;' 




-tSW 


i'y-i^MMWmm::-^ 


iil-lp; 


i':::::ia.ailii 


:^2 




2772 




iCj/0)^- 


^;.?f??- 


\-:y-'SMMi: ■■■'■■ 


"■?P:' 




Mf 


■■.■■mMmrn--: 

>-:-::v::::::-;:;.v.;.::;;::;.:- - 


'■:W- 




■ ^$3^-: 




2773 




<V^3 = 


:;2724; 




I^S-* 




2T4*"' 


;;;:;:; --V:;:; ::::■;■:;;:;■ ■ 


/ P^ 




2764 




2774 








iCjfO)^ = 


272^ 




2755 


.:;::::;::;:■;:.:::..:: 


2746, 




875B 




276S 




277$ 


V . V :::;V::V:r- "7" 


iCj/0)^ - 


\^W 




; 2736 


-..-..-::;::-:,■-- 


274ft 


. . ■m::-;!::^ „ 


2?» 




2766 




2776 




(C-p/a)g = 


itm 




;-2?37- 


"■■■":;;-;::v;v^:V::T^ 


.77W. 


.: ■■y^i-y:^^'yy^-i!<i^^:- 


;. »757 




; 2767 




2777 




(C^/o)^- 


i:Mm 


■ ■ ■^^<:^^^M:M'^':--'- 


L»:- 




^■■« 


...::;::;;;;:::-:;>:::;::;-:':i::::>: 


,:,|7|M 




27m 




mw 


■ ^^^^^^^^^sMi 


(C^O)^. 


mm 


^.^::;lliill''■■■ 


x5jpt-n 


■ :.!;!■;'!; .'::Z^r.--^--.-:''y^-yy 


i; ap^;;;: 


:-::iiiiiiir^-^ 


:^^::IP' 


■ ■ :;:;■;:;■; ;.;^i:i::::^i;>i::!::;;;i:i;"i; 


I im0 




■-■^M^ 


,, ■ ;■: ::o:;:::;o>:;Xw;;;|^,^:^;; 


(C^/0)9- 


mmi. 


■ ^r-'WSmS-)?-- 


mm. 

■.■:;:-:>::-;-:o:->;-:-; 




■■'■■■ ■;>■■;::■■=:■>> 


■ -WS 


i;:-IP: 


■ ^l:^:^}y^^fii0^:'yy'^ ':': 


2770 




:::!W^, 


^'^iiilli 


Cj/O)^0' 


im^i 




2741 




ItaS':- 




:i:W^' 




2774 




:tm: 


::-,- ■ ■■■■■■■:o:-:--^ yJ^^^^^^^^ 



Preceding page blank 



5-51 



FORM 53133 (11/73) 




St 

Z w 



X 

u 
u. 
O 
Ui 
Ui 
D 
-J 
< 
> 



X 

u 



X 



CO 

"x 

o 



X 

o 



LP 

X 

o 






O 

"x 

o 



00 
X 

u 



a. 5 



X 

o 



X 




< 

GC 

o 



a. ,- 


UJ 


a 0? 


a 


Z CD 

SI 

Z GC 

5g 

CO 2 


1 

o 


cc 

UJ 


tS5 
r5 




y 5- 


cc 


3 S 


o 



X o 



UJ 





:; ; :■; . :::;;: 


UJ 


■ : .. -.:■. 


D 


:■■■ m 


-1 


i'VLc: 


< 




> 


■•■ : 


8 


. ;':; : 


-J 


;:;; ^" 








o 




H> 




"■.*r 




3Si 




DC W 




Hg 




o^ 




DCO 








it"- 



U 



oo 
z o 



>:w 



cT 






J- 



cf- 



J- 



JO 

'5 






3- 



a- 



o 

O 



> 

1° 

o "* 

^ o 

u: > 

O Q 



< 

m 
(J 
Z 
< 

GC 

o 

u. 
cc 

Lii 
Q. 

CC 
O 

CC 



UJ 

o 
z 
< 

<^ 

o| 

o< 

Z QC 









'BM'i 


:'x-:-:;. ,-:'..: 




mm 


M§ 




ui 


:^'y.-:-:-.-:y- 








mm. 


::■:■ ■■;;;■: .-^ 




O 


imm 








':m->----:- 






-I 










■/:-\-'--:y- 






< 
















> 


:.■.;:-:■:■■■■■;;;; 












a 




;■ ;■;•;:::;::■;■■■ 












u. 




:■ :.■:-:■:-;■;■::::.: 












O 

V) 
UJ 

3 
















8 




W' 




W 




:vi:'i- 


-I 


-I 


i fSj: 


'■■.'.(^'■-' 


4^l 


hi . , 


<^ 


■■": -^N: -■>: 


< 




v-^;i^M 












> 




■ S:::';i:x-: 
















<N 


CO 


^ 


U) 


<D 






3. 


=1 


a. 


a. 


a 


:i 



> 

CO 



r t 



> i 



tr 

z 


O 
CC 

o 


QC 

z 


(JL 


u. 


cc 


tf' 


UJ 


S 


> 


o 


CN 

>- 


2 


CN 

1- 
> 


CN 


5. 


CN 


Q 


O 


Q 


t= 


^ CC 


*= 


Q. 


Q. 


a 



to 



X 



5-53 



Preceding page blank 



a. 

X 

ta 

X 

UJ 

5 
o 

a. 
X 

o 

\- 
o 

X 
X 



cc 

> 

CN 



o 

z 

UJ 

< 




a." 



O 

z 
ffi 
S 
o 
o 

o 



II 

o 

X 

o 



0> 

S 
"x 



CO 
X 

o 



il h1^ 



i 

e 

O Q 
QQ < 



> 

2 
< 

a. 

o 

z 

s 
ui 

z 

K 
O 

z 
o 



< 

2 



o 

Z 
< 

o 



UJ 

u 



o 
u 

X 
UJ 

o 

o 

oc 



UI 

D 

< 
> 

D 

Op 

z 



u- 
u. 

UJ 

O 
O 
UJ 

a 
o 

u. 

UJ 

> 



O 

cc 

GC 
O 
H 
O 
QC 



X 



CO 

S 

"x 

o 



X 

u 



X 

u 



to 
"x 



oc 
o 

_ u. 
tr flC 
UJ Ui 

£E UJ 

O i2 



o 

oc 



D 
CC 

u 



tl 
to 



rt 



M.. 



•1 



?S 



■*©:■ 



<5. ■ w 



X 

u 



LU 

o 

< cc 3. 



I) 

J- 



:<^:; 






12 



^: 



-m; 



» 



Ui 

D 

I! -I 

O < 

^ > 

to 



n 
to 



to 
"x 

o 



■c*: 



fi 

J- 



<^ 



tl 
CO 

to 



It 

to 
o 



II 

to 

V 
o 



i 



il 

to 
o 



X 



II 
CD 

X 



II 

00 

S 

o 



::6i;:i 



X 

o 



II 
to 



o 

to 



I- 
o 



X 



UJ 

o 

< X 



a 



I- 



n 
o 



to 



tp 



!!J 



8 



n 



to 



to 



O 



II 

to 

to 



M 



m. 



mm 



O 



00 

to 






5-55 



Preceding page blank 






■1: 



O 

to 



o 

X 

u 



It 

S 

"x 

o 



^|o 



& ^ 



i 
u. 
o 

CO 



5 

z 

S 
o 
o 

s 
o 



II 

00 

s 

o 



H 
Z 

UJ 



X 

u 



I 

8 

oc 



Z 
< 
a. 
2 
O 
u 

o 

z 

UJ 

o 

s 

UJ 

I 
H 
u. 
O 

z 
o 

m 



o k 



z 

Ui 

3 

u. 
u. 

UJ 

O 

o 

cc 

Ui 

i 

OC 

o 

cc 

u. 

o 

CO 

UJ 

D 

< 

> 

D 



UJ 

O 

a 

UJ 

o 
cc 
O 
u. 

UJ 

> 

-J 
Q. 

o 

oc 

CC 

O 

O 

OC 



H 

X 

u 



X 

o 



X 

u 



tl 

CO 

X 

o 



t) 

s 

"x 



< 

UJ 

o 
z 
< 

cc 
o 

u. 

cc 

UJ 

cc 

o 

H 

o 
cc 



< 

oc 
o 

u. 

oc 

UJ 

a. 

UJ 
CO 

5 
cc 
u 



X 

u 



^**-;:; 



UJ 

3|: 



< 



^: 



^Vl: 



m 



m^ 




W 



1 



Mi- 



^ 



11 



tl 

s 

o 



II 

CO 

s 

u 



:i. 



<^ 



I 






1:, 



it^ 



«a 



!£P 



O 



«» 



II 

to 

— . 

V 

u 



M 



8 



::ic: 






^9 



00 

S 

V 
u 



S 

o 



X 



01 



X 

u 



X 

o 



II 

(O 
X 

o 



J- 



in 
B 



B 
u 



tl 

CO 

I 

X 

o 



it 

"x 

o 



X 

o 



< 
> 



o 



m 

:.:.C.»:.::: 



■■m' 



m 



::8:^ 



^:w^^: 






;;«>■:■ 

<» 



it: 









^:<^^:: 



:0:::: 









" IT* . 






I 



:"::«!*:;■: 
x:*^^;:; 






yVCty 

: ::^':"v 



::gi; 

■;":*»*■"■":: 



lif 



0^\ 






m^i 



Wi 






■■■■■vr*-:--: 



m 












:n\\ 






i <n^ ■ 









m 



M 



M: 









'•FT 



5 












06 






g 

CO 



s 



8 



::■<-»:-;: 






to 



i» 



f9 



00 






c> 



I 






f4 



to 



8 






8 



8 



CO 



:».;■ 















■■■;>»■"■: 



CD 

♦»♦:'. 



<4 



8 



B 



-P 

o 



:?a 



tl 
O 

o 



B 

o 



II 

& 

5- 



a- 



00 

B 

V 
u 



It 






Preceding page blank 



5-57 
















O 

CO 

Z H 

O Z 

^ UJ 



O QC 

J^ o 
cJpuj 

>^ SE 

Hi t^ 



S 

"x 

o 



n 

S 
o 



X o 



CL O til 

p 2< 

O UJ 5 
^ 2 '^^ 

ft ^£ 

go? 
Uj > oc 

O Q 
QQ < 



8 

UJ 

o 

cc 
u. 

o 

CO 



H 
D 

a. 
z 



< 

cc 

o 

IL 
CC 
UJ 

a. 

UJ 
CO 

5 
cc 
o 



cc 

o 

cc 



X 

o 



X 



X 



X 

o 



<S:. 






^l 



mr 



r> 



t^:;; 



W- 






UJ 

o 

> H 

Q < lf> 

< QC :i ii 



^:i; 



u 



i 



O 



^ 



I 



**;;. 



w. 



o 



8 



jwr- 



o 



X 

u 



>*<** > ■•?' 

K 



M. 



in 
S 

o 



II 
B 

O 



S 
""x 



n 



<^ 



^^■ 



X 



;tn^;^ 



S 






X 

o 






UJ 
O 

< QC zT 



^:::S:;: 



■ 












W .M, ' . ' , ' . ' . ' 



iii 






m 



:;:;d5::: 









;:«^:-; 












::f^-;;: 



:::«:" 

:i::<*>-^- 



i 






■ o 



I 



Vi 









s 






0> 



o 



CM 









S 



S 



o 



O 









rr 






I- 






I- 



*1 



it 

V 
o 



8 



o 



Preceding page blank 



5-59 



5.3 PROGRAM INPUT 

5.3.1 Program Variables 

AF Activity factor (per blade) of propeller 

AR Wing aspect ratio 

ARp^ Aft rotor pylon aspect ratio (tanden rotor 

helicopter) 

ARpp Forward rotor pylon aspect ratio (tandem 

rotor helicopter) 

ARjjip Horizontal tail aspect ratio 

ARyr Vertical tail aspect ratio 

b /u K \ Blade number per rotor or propeller 

b /^ Ratio of auxiliary independent engine nacelle 
BS^TJI strut span to nacelle diameter 

w,/D Ratio of wing span to main rotor diameter 

C Tail rotor/fin blockage factor 

Cq Baseline rotor cruise profile drag coefficient 

B (input in rotor "cycle") 

Cpj Baseline rotor hover profile drag coefficient 

BO (input in rotor "cycle") 

C^ Aft rotor pylon profile drag coefficient at 

^AP Re=10 (based on aft pylon planform area) 

C Forward rotor pylon profile drag coefficient at 

^FP R_=107 (based on forward pylon max frontal area) 

Cp. Main rotor hub center section profile drag 

^CSMR coefficient (based on center section frontal 
area) 

Q Tail rotor hub center section profile drag 

L^CSTR coefficient (based on center section frontal area) 

C Profile drag coefficient of horizontal tail at 

^HT Re=10'7 (based q^ horizontal tail planform area) 



5-60 



Cp,^ Profile drag coefficient of primary engine 

nacelles at Rg=10'7 (based on wetted area of all 
nacelles) 



-DN 



C Profile drag coefficient of auxiliary independ- 

°NI gj^t engine nacelle at Rg'lO^ (based on wetted 

area of all nacelles) 



'DNS 



Profile drag coefficient of auxiliary independent 
engine nacelle strut at Rg-lO? (based on wetted 
area of strut (s) ) 



Crj Main rotor hub shank profile drag coefficient 

SHMR (based on shank frontal area) 

p Tail rotor hub shank profile drag coefficient 

'^SHTR (based on shank frontal area) 

Cdt™ Profile drag coefficient of vertical tail at 

Rg=10^ (based on vertical tail planform area) 

Cj^yj^ Profile drag coefficient of wing at Re=10 ' 

(based on winq planform area) 

C /c Ratio of download alleviating flap chord 

to wing chord 

AC.G. Helicopter eg travel (ft) 

^C.G, Location of main rotor in the longitudinal 

R- direction relative to the aircraft operating 
weight empty (OWE) eg position (ft) 

Ct Wing lift coefficient 

^W 



Ct Wing design lift coeffiment 

C Wing operating lift coefficient at cruise 

-^DP condition for engine si2ing 

Ct Tail fin design lift coefficient 

Ses 



C Tail fin cruise lift coefficient 

Q^^ Propeller integrated design lift coefficient 

: Two-dimen 

^ci (Rad. -1) 



C Two-dimensional wing lift coefficient slope 



5-61 



3 5 

C Propeller power coefficient (550 HP/pir D ) 

Cp„/cy Ratio of rotor power coefficient to rotor 

solidity {C_„/a =550 RHP/PAV*a) 

Fn 

Cip Propeller thrust coefficient (Thrust/ pn^D**) 

Ctjj Rotor thurst coefficient (Thrust/PAV^jp^) 

(Cip/a) Ratio of thrust coefficient to rotor solidity 

(helicopter Crji=« Thrust/PAVfiiTp2) , includes 
(Gr/a) , (C*r/a)Des (H) , (0^/0) cr 

(Ctq/Cji ) Ratio of tail rotor total thrust coefficient 

^^^ to net thrust coefficient, where Cj, =C,j,--Fin 
blocking losses ^^^ 

Cy/a Rotor propulsive thrust coefficient divided by 
main rotor solidity. Used in defining rotor 
limits C^/a = Thrust required 

P ^^mr'^r^tip" QMR 



D^„ Main rotor diameter (feet) 

MR 

Drpj^ Tail rotor diameter (feet) 

--'- >0P Propeller diameter (feet) 

d^ Position of inboard underwing store 

(fraction of wing semi-span) 

d Position of outboard underwing store 

(fraction of wing semi-span) 

'"TB^^TB Ratio of average tail boom tip diameter to 
average tail boom diameter 

EhS Equivalent airspeed required during climb 

and/or descent 

e Spfin loading efficiency factor 

AFg Increment in equivalent flat plate area 

parasite drag of fuselage (ft^) 



5-62 



N 



Auxiliary indenendent engine maximum static 
thrust at seal level, standard conditions 
(total thrust for all engines) 



AF, 



AF. 



'CL 



AF, 



AF 



'CR 



'DSC 



^LOITER 
Fn/5Fn* 

^RQMT 

^ROT 

g/S 

^mr/^^ 



(GW/F^) 



hVhp 
HEADWIND 

^C(C) 

he 

^BF/D 
^FINAL 



Increment in equivalent flat plate area ^ 
parasite drag (climb performance segment) - ft 

Increment in equivalent flat plate area 
parasite (cruise performance segment) - ft^ 

Increment in equivalent flat plate area ^ 
parasite drag (descent performance segment) - ft 

Increment in equivalent flat plate area parasite 
drag (loiter performance segment) - ft^ 

Referred thrust for turbojet/fan engine cycles 

Total maneuver g requifement Helicopter must 
satisfy (wing + rotor) - g 

Maneuver g's which rotor must carry. In the 
case of a pure helicopter, g^Qj^T = ^ROT 

Tandem rotor gap/stagger ratio 

Gap between tail rotor disc and main rotor 
disc (ft) 



Ratio of configuration design gross weight to 
equivalent flat plate area parasite drag (lb/ft) ^ 

Ratio of wing height on fuselage (relative to 
the bottom of the fuselage) , h' , to the total 
fuselage height, hp. 

Headwind during cruise (knots) 

Initial altitude at start of mission (ft) 

Cruise altitude for sizing main rotor solidity (ft) 

Cruise altitude for sizing primary engines (ft) 

Ratio of fuselage bottom height above ground 
to main rotor diameter 

Final altitude for transfer altitude segment 
(SGTIND=9) 



5-63 



h„ Aft rotor pylon height (ft) 

^2 



■^1 



Forward rotor pylon height (ft) 



h-Q Takeoff altitude for sizing engines (ft) 

h, Maximum altitude during climb (ft) or during 

^^^ transfer altitude (ft) 

hj^in Minimum altitude during descent (ft) 

Ah Step size for climb or descent (ft) 

h„ Height of fuselage (ft) 
f 

J Propeller advance ratio, J = V/nD 

k3 Primary engine weight factors 

k^ Primary engine weight factors 

k^ind Main irotor weight factor 

k,„^ Auxiliary engine installation weight factor 
AEI 

k- Body group weight factor 

}ti Cockpit controls weight factor 

k-„ Fuel system weight factor 
FS 

k__. Fixed wing controls weight factor 

k^- Landing gear weight factor 

LG 

k,,^ Miscellaneous controls weight factor 
MC 

k„- Main landing gear weight factor 
MG 

k___ Primary engine installation weight factor 

Prix 

k-^ Main rotor controls weight factor 

k„^. Auxiliary rotor controls weight factor 

£\QA 

k_-_ stability Augmentation System (SAS) weight factor 



5-64 



]t-- Main rotor system controls weight factor 

kg^^ Auxiliary rotor system controls weight factor 

k'jn Tilt mechanism weight factor 

^r qTTNG "^^il ^^^^ ^^^ single rotor helicopter) length 

extending aft of tail rotor center as a 
fraction of tail rotor radius 

}(i Detailed wing weight factor 

k Single rotor helicopter yaw moment of inertia 

^^^ adjustment factor 

Ki Main rotor controls weight factor 

K2 Main rotor system controls weight multi- 

plicative factor 

K3 Fixed wing controls weight multiplicative 

factor 

K^ Auxiliary rotor controls weight multi- 

plicative factor 



K5 



Kg 

Kio 
Kll 



Kl3 



K 



14 



Kl5 



K16 



Auxiliary rotor system controls weight 
multiplicative factor 



Kg Body weight multiplicative factor 

K7 Landing gear weight multiplicative factor 

Kg Wing weight multiplicative factor 

Horizontal tail weight multiplicative factor 
Primary nacelle weight "multiplicative factor 
Auxiliary nacelle weight multiplicative factor 

K,2 Primary rotor blade weight multiplicative factor 

Primary rotor hub weight multiplicative factoid 
Tail rotor weight multiplicative factor 
Auxiliary rotor weight multiplicative factor 
Primary drive system weight multiplicative factor 



5-65 



K- _ Auxiliary drive system weight multiplicative 



17 



20 



factor 



K Primary engine weight multiplicative factor 
18 

K - Auxiliary engine weight multiplicative factor 

K^- Tail rotor drive system weight multiplicative 



factor 



kjvyj. Auxiliary air induction system weight factor 

kj^jp Primcory air induction system weight factor 

kj^g Atoxiliary drive system weight factor 

^ADSZ Auxiliary drive system weight factor (number 

of gears in system) 

^ATT PAYT Ratio of alternate payload increment to design 

payload (used in XMSN sizing) 

K^^ Aft rotor pylon multiplicative drag factor 

kj^ Auxiliary rotor weight factor 

^BLFD Blade fold weight factor 

k^jj Crash load factor 

Kpp Forward rotor pylon multiplicative drag factor 

Kp Rotor retreating blade stall profile drag 

1 parameters (input in rotor "cycle") 

K-, Rotor retreating blade stall profile drag 

2 parameters (input in rotor "cycle") 

K^ \ Rotor advancing tip mach number compressibility 

^f ' drag parameters (input in rotor "cycle") 

KC4 

Kp Fuselage multiplicative drag factor 



5-66 



K 



FED 



^FI 



TF 



K 



FULS 



K 



HI 



K 



H2 



^H3 



K 



H4 



K 



HOV, 



^HT 



K 



N 



K 



Slimb 



NAC 



NACA 



K 



NI 



NS 

PA 

^PEI 

P DESCENT 
kpDS 



Trend constant input with GW/Fe when DRGIND = 2 

Auxiliary independent engines fuel flow 
multiplicative factor (used in TAXI) 

Fuel flow multiplicative factor 

Fraction of fixed useful load located in 
cockpit area 

Rotor (hover) blade profile drag parameter 
(input in rotor "cycle") 

Rotor blade (hover) compressibility drag 
parameter (input in rotor "cycle") 

Rotor blade (hover) compressibility drag 
parameter (input in rotor "cycle") 

Rotor blade (hover) drag divergence Mach 
number parameter (input in rotor "cycle") 

Rotor hover induced power factor 
(input in rotor "cycle") 

Horizontal tail multiplicative drag factor 

Primary nacelle multiplicative drag factor 

Helicopter forward flight climb efficiency 

Primary cowling weight factor (psf) 

Auxiliary cowling weight factor (psf) 

Auxiliary independent engine nacelle 
multiplicative drag factor 

Nacelle strut weight factor 

Auxiliary rotor weight factor 

Primary engine installation weight factor 

Main rotor descent efficiency 

Primary drive system weight factor 

Primary drive system weight factor 
(number of gears in system) 



5-67 



K 



'PN 
PR 

^PRB 

^HPIM 

Khpit 

kRBF 
KtbBS 

kipR 
^TRDS 

^TRS 



K 



VT 



K 



W 



^WP 

LF 



Primary hub weight factor 

Ratio of power available at specified N^^ to 
power available at optimum Njj 

Correction factor for engine power to account 
for Reynolds number effects 

Primary rotor blade weight factor 

Main rotor hub/shank multiplicative drag 
factor 

Tail rotor hub/shank multiplicative drag 
factor 

Primary rotor blade weight factor 

Weight of tail boom as a fraction of total 
fuselage weight 

Tail rotor weight factor 

Tail rotor drive system weight factor 



Tail rotor solidity multiplicative factor 
(used to determine tail rotor solidity) 

Vertical tail multiplicative drag factor 

Auxiliary rotor weight factor 

Wing multiplicative drag factor 

Wing weight/area factor (psf) 

Wing stores only weight trend factor 

Vertical tail fin height factor 

Wing unload factor 

Ratio of air induction system length to engine 
length (auxiliary independent engines) 



Ratio of air induction system length to engine 
length (primary engines) 



ilCONST DIA(ilc) Constant diameter section (cabin) length (ft) 



5-68 



mw 

ATH' 

(Vd)p 
(il/d)T 
( ATg/dTB) 

MACH 



M, 



MO 



M 



DO 



**DBO 

Mrpip 

N 

Np 

Npi 

NpSD 

NpSD ( ) 

(Npso) c 

%SDi ( ) 



N. 



PROP 



Hr 



NIMAX/^I* 



Length of ramp well (ft) 

Ratio of horizontal tail moment arm to 
main rotor radius 

Fineness ratio of aircraft nose section 

Fineness ratio of aircraft tail section 

Fineness ratio of tail boom (single rotor 
helicopter) 

Mach number required during climb and/or descent 

Maneuver load factor (g's) 

Maximum operating Mach number 

Baseline rotor advancing tip compressibility 
drag rise Mach number (input in rotor "cycle") 

Baseline rotor hover compressibility drag rise 
(lift=0) Mach No. (input in rotor "cycle") 

Rotor hover tip Mach No. 

Rotor loading (rotor lift/GW) 

Nxomber of primary engines 

Number of auxiliary independent engines 

Number of primary engines inoperative 
(for engine sizing) 

Number of primary engines shut down during 
cruise, loiter, climb or descent 

Number of primary engines shut down during 
cruise (for engine sizing) 

Number of auxiliary independent engines shut 
down during cruise, loiter, climb or descent 

Number of propellers 

Number of rotors 

Gas generator RPM limit - ratio of max gas 
generator RPM to RPM at maximum static power, 
sea level,, standard 



5-69 



Ni/Ni*)max 

Nll/Nji 
(NJIMAX/Nll*) 



(Nll/NjiMAx) C 


(Nll/NiiMAX> i 


<Nli/NliMAX^TO 


((0/L)/D) 


OWE 


PEHF 


Qmax/Q* 



max 

RMj 

R/D 
(Re/ii)^ 



Gas generator referred RPM limit (9 == temperature 
ratio @ compression face) , this input simulates 
a restriction on compression speed 

Ratio of operating power turbine speed to 
optimum power turbine speed (input when N2IND - 2) 

Ratio of operating power turbine speed to maxi- 
mum power turbine speed (input for both primary 
and auxiliary independent engines in performance 
segments 1-6) 

Power turbine speed limit ratio of maximum 
power turbine speed to power turbine speed at 
maximum static power, sea level, standard 

Ratio of operating power turbine speed to maximum 
power turbine speed (input when sizing primary 
engines for takeoff) 

Ratio of operating power turbine speed to maximum 
power, turbine speed (input when sizing auxiliary 
independent engines for cruise) 

Ratio of operating power turbine speed to maximum 
power turbine speed (input when sizing primary 
engines for cruise) 

Tandem rotor overlap/main rotor diameter ratio 

Operating weight empty (pounds) 

Primary engine power fraction. Required 
when TOLIND = 2 and 4 

Ratio of maximum torque limit to torque 
developed at sea level static standard day 
conditions 

Initial range at start of mission (nautical miles) 

Range at end of cruise and/or descent 

Wing relief as percentage of GW 

Step size for cruise (nautical miles) 

Rate of descent (fpm) 

Mean Reynolds number per foot for mission 



5-70 



HT 
SW 

shpmrx 

SHP*MR 

TRP* 
SHP/S/e" SHP* 

ff^UX 
SHP* 



Area of horizontal tail. Used when HTIND = 1 

2 
Wing planform area (ft ) 

Ratio of main rotor drive system XMSN rating to 
main rotor design power 

Ratio of tail rotor drive system XMSN rating 
to tail rotor design power 

Referred power for turboshaft engine cycles 

Ratio of auxiliary propulsion drive system 
XMSN rating to auxiliary propeller design power 



AUX 



SHP*. 



SHP^ 



SHP 



ACC 
SHPg/SHP* 



AS/S 



STR 



AS 



WET 
wet' "F 



AS„^^^S 



(T/A) 



TAS 



NET 



'^AUX'^'^'^TOT 



TFEF 
TFI 



TGI 



Auxiliary independent engine installed power 
(total for all engines) 

Primary engine installed power (total for all 
engines) 

Accessory power losses (SHP) 

Ratio of design engine rating to maximxim S.L. 
static (STD DAY) engine power 

Ratio of incremental auxiliary independent 
engine nacelle strut planform area to auxiliary 
independent engine nacelle strut planform area 

2 
Incremental wetted area of aircraft (ft ) 

Incremental wetted area of airplane ratioed to 
fuselage wetted area , 

Net tail rotor disc loading ( psf) 
True airspeed (knots) 

Ratio of thrust produced by auxiliary propulsive 
device to total helicopter thrust required 

Tail fin aspect ratio effectiveness factor 

Turbine inlet temperature (flight idle power 
setting) , or input on engine cycle sheets 

Turbine inlet temperature (ground idle power 
setting) , or input on engine cycle sheets 



5-71 



TMAX 

TMIL 

TNP 

T/W 
(T/W) ^ 



AT. 



in 



CE 



AT. 
in, 



TO 



T/e 

^O 

(t/C). 
(t/C), 
(t/C) 



HT 



Turbine inlet temperature (maximum power 
setting) , or input on engine cycle sheets 

Turbine inlet temperature (military power 
setting) , or input on engine cycle sheets 

Turbine inlet temperature (normal power setting) 
or input on engine cycle sheets 

Configuration thrust/weight ratio (hover) 

Configuration design thrust/weight ratio (hover) 

Ratio of thrust produced by auxiliary propulsive 
device to total helicopter thrust required. 
This value input as design point for sizing 
primary or auxiliary independent engines in 
cruise. 

Increment in ambient temperature for primary 
engine sizing at cruise condition (^R) 

Increment in ambient temperature for engine 
sizing at takeoff conditions (*^R) 

Referred turbine temperature (*R) 

Initial time at start of mission (hours) 

Incremental time for taxi (hours) 

Incremental time for hover (hours) 

Incremental time for loiter (hours) 

Incremental time for change of fuel weight 
(hours) 

Incremental time forchange of pay load weight 
(hours) 

Step size for hover (hours) 

Step size for loiter (hours) 

Wing root thickness to chord ratio 

Wing tip thickness to chord ratio 

Horizontal tail mean thickness to chord ratio 



5-72 



(t/C) 



VT 



(t/C)R^ 
(t/C)Rp 

(t/C)T^ 



(t/C)T, 



(t/C) 



V 



CEHl 



.25R 



"V 



V 



CEH2 



V, 



DES 



DIVE 



xn 



(V. 



R/C) 



'r/c 



V, 



TIP 



V, 



TTR 



TIP, 



H 



W 



APU 



Vertical tail mean thickness to chord ratio 

Aft rotor pylon root thickness to chord ratio 

Forward rotor pylon root thickness to chord 
ratio 

Aft rotor pylon tip thickness to chord ratio 

Forward rotor pylon tip thickness to chord ratio 

Main rotor blade thickness to chord ratio @0.25 
rotor radius 



Design cruise speed for engine sizing (kts) 
Main rotor vertical R/C efficiency factors 



Flight speed at which single rotor helicopter 
vertical _tail_ is sized to provide complete 
directional stability in the event of the loss 
of the tail rotor (kt) 

Dive speed (knots EAS) 

True airspeed for cruise during cruise segment 
with CRSIND = 2 (kt) 

Maximum operating equivalent airspeed (kt) 

Design vertical rate of climb (ft/min) used 
in sizing primary engines in hover 

Vertical rate of climb (ft/min) 

Main rotor design tip speed (pfs) . 

Note: This is the tip speed corresponding 

to N =N* 

Tail rotor design tip speed (hover) -(fps) 
Propeller design tip speed (fps) 



Horizontal tail volume coefficient 

Auxiliary power unit weight (lb) 
5-73 



Wj.^ Avionics weight (lb) 

Wp_ Weight of fixed equipment (lb) 

Wpy- Weight of fixed useful load (lb) 

^PURN Furnishings and equipment weight (lb) 

W- Initial gross weight at start of mission (lb) 

W. Weight of inboard store 

W Weight of outboard store 

Wp- Weight of pay load (lb) 

W/A Disc loading ( psf) 

W/S Wing loading (psf) 

• • 

W /W* Fuel flow limit - ratio of maximim fuel flow 

to fuel flow at maximum static power, sea 

level f standard 

AWpp Flight controls group incremental weights (lb) 

AWp Propulsion group incremental weight (lb) 

AWg- Structures group incremental weight (lb) 

AW^ Increment in fuel weight during change of fuel 

weight subroutine (lb) 

AWp Increment in payload weight during change of 

payload weight subroutine (lb) 

6W- Fuel required additive reserve factor 

Wp Width of fuselage (ft) 

W /6/9 F * Referred fuel flow for turbojet/fan engine cycles 

W /6/9 SHP* Referred fuel flow rate for primary engines 

^ (turboshaft engine cycles, Ib/hr/SHP*) 



5-74 



^ADS^^^ADS 



^ae/^b 



^APl/^ 



B 



AR 



^ar/^'tb 



^ASC^^B 



^Av/^B 



^CGF^^B 



''CMR 



X 



CTR 



^URN/^B 
XM/Jl, 



B 



^q/^b 



Auxiriafy indeplend Hrive system C.G- 
position aft of nose as a fraction of the 
di 3 1 an ce be tween _ the auxiliary independent 
engine and tKe "propeller 

Auxiliary independent "engine C.G- position 
aft of nos e as a fraction of body length 

Auxiliary power unit Ccr position aft of 
nose as a fraction of body length 

Propeller blade attachment point as a fraction 
of propeller radius 

Propeller position aft oft b body/tail boom 
junction as a fraction of tail boom length 

Avixiliary rotor (propeller) systems controls 
C.G. position aft of nose as a fraction of 
body length 



Avionics C.G. position aft of nose as a fraction 
of body length 

Single rotor fuselage {minus tail boom) C.G. 
position aft of nose as a fraction of body 
length 

Main rotor blade cutout (end of blade shank, 
beginning of rotor airfoil sections) position 
as a fraction of rotor radius^_ 

Tail rotor blade cutout Ten^S^o? blade shank/ 
beginning of rotor airfoil sections) position 
as a fraction of rotor r ad iu^_ 

Furnishings and equipment C.G. position aft 
of nose as a fraction of body length 

Ratio of distance from tip of nose to rotor 
shaft, X , to main fuselage length (B) (single 
rotor hexicopter) 

Main landing gear position aft of nose as a " 
fraction of body length 

Main rotor blade attachment point as a fraction 
of rotor radius 

Nose landing gear position aft of nose as a 
fraction of body length 



5-75 



X^ /^ Primary engine C.G. position aft of nose as 

a fraction of body length 

Xpj.-/AXp-.g Primary drive system C.G, position aft of nose 

as a fraction of the distance between main and 
tail rotor centers 

^qp/^R Rotor system controls C.G. position aft of 

nose as a fraction of body length 

X_- Tail rotor blade attachment point as a fraction 

of rotor radius 

Xl/AP Distance of forward rotor center from aircraft 
nose as a fraction of aircraft nose section 
length 

xVJlm Distance of aft rotor center from aircraft 

tail cone as a fraction of aircraft tail section 
length 

Y-- Clearance from inboard propeller tip to 



CL 



inboard propeller tip across fuselage (ft) 



Primary engine nacelle dimensional factors 



Auxiliary independent engine nacelle dimensional 
factors 



Wing airfoil section angle of zero lift 
Sweep angle of wing quarter chord (degrees) 
Taper ratio of wing 
Taper ratio of aft rotor pylon 

Taper ratio of forward rotor pylon 
Taper ratio of horizontal tail 
Taper ratio of vertical tail 

5-76 



^P3 
^P5 

n 



^AUX 



aMR 



Propeller propulsive efficiency for SGTIND = 3 
Propeller propulsive efficiency for SGTIND = 5 
Propeller propulsive efficiency for SGTIND = 



P4 4^ g tabular function of Mach nxamber 

Ti Transmission efficiency 

T 



Transmission efficiency (auxiliary drive system) 



5 Vertical tail span Qverlap distance/tail rotor 

VT radius ratio -• input as a function of tail 

rotor radius 

5 Propeller over wing tip overlap (fraction of 

^ radius) 

e Ambient temperature ratio, tabular function 

of altitude 

e Main rotor "blade twist (degrees) 

T 

®T Tail rotor blade twist (degrees) 
TR 

^4 Primary engine dimensional factor 

4) Helicopter yaw rate, rad/sec 



2 

Helicopter yaw acceleration, rad/sec 

Main rotor solidity (a=bc/7rR) 



oTR Tail rotor solidity (a=bc/7rR) 

y Rotor forward flight advance ratio 

(^ = ^FPS/^TIP^ 



5-77 



5.3»2 Program Indicators 
Option Indicators 



OPTIND 



OPTIONAL 
PRINT 



1 5E size aircraft 

2 = calculate performance (specify initial 
gross weight) 

3 = calculate performance (specify operating 
weight empty) 

^ standard print 

1 = detailed print 
Propulsion Indicator 

AIPIND 1 * single gas generator connected to main 

rotor and auxiliary propulsion 

2 = independent gas generators 
ENGIND = turboshaft (power producing) cycle 

1 = turbofan or turbojet (thrust producing) 

cycle 

ESCIND 1 = program will size engines for takeoff 

only 

2 = program will size engines for more 

critical choice of takeoff or cruise 

NOTE: ESCIND is applicable only if FIXIND = 1 



FIXIND 



FIXINDI 



NIIND, 

NIINDI 



= fixed size engines, user inputs maximum 

power 

1 = rubberized engines, program will 

calculate maximum power 

= user inputs fixed size auxiliary 

independent engines 

1 = program sizes auxiliary independent 

engines to meet cruise requirement 

- no Ni limit 

1 = Nj limit 

5-78 



NieiND, 

N19INDI 



N2IND, 

N2INDI 



POWIND 



QIND, 

QINDI 



RNOIND, 

RNOINDI 



WDTIND, 

WDTINDI 



ROTIND 



npiND 



= no Nj//eY limit 

1 ^Nf/TeY limit 

^ no ^Nfi' limit/ engine operating at 

optimxim Njj 

1 = Nji limit, engine operating at known 

value of Nji (in general nonoptimum) 

^0== maximum' engine rating 

1 - military engine ratirig 

2 * normal engine rating 

« no torque limit 

1 = torque limit 

= no Reynolds number corrections 

1 = Reynolds number corrections 

= Reynolds number corrections 

1 = fuel flow limit 

1 = performance calculated by short miethod 

2 = rotor map input, corrections applied 

3 = rotor map input, no corrections applied 

= user "specifies "poTnt"" propeller 
_:-_^_efficiencies for climb, cruise and 
^"^"^^desceht 

T = user inputs propeller performance map 

2 = propeller performance automatically 
calculated within program 



Aerodynamics Indicators 



DRGIND 



OSWIND 



1 = drag build up by component, Reynolds 
, "number scaling 

2 = drag trend by input GW/Fe versus GW 
6 == user ifiputt^BlwIld's efficiency (e) 

1 = program calculates Oswald's efficiency 

5-79 



Sizing Indicators 
APHIND 1 

2 
AUXIND 1 

2 
3 
4 



b^IND 



CNFIND 



FDMIND 



HTIND 



MRPIND 



1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 
3 


1 
2 


1 

2 



RDMIND 



input aft pylon height 

input gap/stagger ratio 

pure helicopter 

including wings (only) 

including auxiliary propulsion (only) 

compound (wings and auxiliary 
propulsion) 

input span/diameter ratio 

input wing aspect ratio 

determined for propeller clearance 

single rotor 

tandem rotor 

input overlap and rotor positions 

input overlap and cabin length 

input cabin length and rotor 
positions 

no horizontal tail 

input fixed size tail 

input tail volvime coefficient 

user inputs main rotor placement 
(single rotor) 

program calculates main rotor positions 
based on simple mass balance 

same as 1, except that in the case of a 
compound helicopter, the auxiliary 
drive system, propeller and auxiliary 
independent engines (if any) are assumed 
to be located on the wing. 

input main rotor diameter, o 



5-80 




S^IND 



TRDIND 




TRSIMD 



VTFIND 



XMSNIND 





2 = input W/A, a 
3 

1 
2 

3 = size for maneuver 

1 



input' diameter, C,^/a 
input W/A, Cq,/a 
input wing area 
input wing loading 



use li-eridoi' diameter main/diameter 
: .. tai;L^ = f n jW/A) j^^lN^^ 

2 -input diameter 

3 ■ input T/A 

1 "input a 

2 » input Crp/o 

1 = input aspect ratio and tail fin overlap 

2 » input directional stability required 

and tail fin overlap 

3 » input directional stability required 
.,. I rSftd, aspect .ratio 

1 = main, tail and auxilia^ry drive system 

- i^atings specified as fraction of primary 
"^engine instaTled power (in the case of a 
; compound helicopter with auxiliary inde- 
' pendent propulsion, the auxiliary 
independent drive system rating is 
specified as a fraction of the auxiliary 
independent engine installed power) 

2 = main, tail, and auxiliary drive system 

ratings specified at fraction of power 
required to hover or cruise at design 
conditions (more critical of the two 
conditions is selected) 

3 = same as 2_, excepl the most critical of 

the_two design conditions is compared to 
the drive system' rating required at an 
alternate payload/gross weight hover at 
the design^ point conditions, the most 
critical of these three conditions is 
selected 

5-81 



Fliciht Path Control Indicators 
hoPTiND 



cruise segments performed at specified 
altitude 



1 ■ cruise segments preceded by climb or 
transfer altitude are performed at 
optimum altitude, constrained by an 
input maximum altitude 



Mission Performance Indicators 



CLMIND 



CRSIND 



DESIND 



RMAXND 



1 » climb at maximum R/C 

2 « climb at constant EAS 

3 « climb at constant Mach No. 

4 » climb at constant TAS 

1 ■ cruise at cruise power 

2 = cruise at constant true airspeed 

3 ■ cruise at speed for best specific range 

4 - cruise at speed for 99% of best specific 

range 

5 -cruise - climb (constant W/6) at speed 

for best specific range 

6 = cruise - climb (constant W/6) at speed 

for 99% of best specific range 

1 « descend at constant TAS 

2 « descend at constant EAS 

3 = descend at constant Mach No. 

= descent flight path ends at specified 

terminal range (cruise segment must be 
input previous to descent) 

1 = checks specified terminal range, if pre- 

dicted flight path will end beyond 
specified terminal range value, spiral 
descent path assumed at that point, if 
predicted flight path ends before reach- 
ing specified terminal range point, pro- 
gram prints SHALLOWER DESCENT REQUIRED 



5-82 



SGTIND 




NOTE 1 



TOLIND 



WGTIND 



2 = descent ends at specified minimum 
altitude, terminal range requirement 
noC considered 

- -- 3 '^ jfiiel used and time required for descent 
calculated but no range credit given 
(i.e., spiral descent path) 

= end of mission 

1 = taxi 

2 « takeoff, hover and landing 

3 = climb 

4 =» cruise 

5 = descent 

6 ^ loiter 

7 == change of fuel weight 

8 = change of pay load weight 

9 « transfer altitude 
100 - end of case 

Segments 1 through 6 can be used for reserve 
fuel calculations (gross weight reset following 
segment) by inputing lOX SGTIND; i.e., SGTIND = 
10, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60 

1 = user inputs required thrust-to-weight 

ratio and Vj^/q 

2 = user inputs required fractions of 

maximum power and Vj^^^^ 

3 = same as 1 but analysis includes hover- 

in-ground effect 

4 = same as 2 but analysis includes hover- 

in-ground effect 

= restriction on maximum aircraft weight, 

weight cannot exceed gross weight. 

1 = no restriction on aircraft weight (will 

only apply when running performance) 



5-83 



Atmosphere Indicator 

ATMIND » standard atmosphere 



1 ' non-standard atmosphere, user inputs 

single point value for increment in 
ambient temperature above standard day 
value 

2 = non-standard atmosphere, user inputs 

table of temperature ratio as a function 
of altitude 



5-84 



aO PROGRAM OUTPyT___ 

A reproduction of the program output for two sample cases is 
included in Section 7.0. The following discussion descrxbes 
the program printout in general and lists the diagnostic error 
printouts which are possible. 

6.1 DESCRIPTION OF PRINTOUT 

The printout for HESCOMP consists of four types of 
information : 

a . General 

b. Input Data 

c. Sizing Data (program output) .„ ^ , ■ ^ \ 

d. Mission Performance Data (for the "sized" helicopter) 

The general information (item a) is printed "ouf at the begin- 
ning of each new case. Each of the other groupings (input, 
sizing data, and performance data) starts on a new page. For 
cases with OPTIND = 2 or 3 (performance only) , the sizing data 
is not printed out. The printout is described in detail 
below. 

6.1.1 General Printout 
6.1.1.1 Fixed Heading ! 

HESCOMP 
HELICOPTER SIZING AND PERFORMANCE COMPUTER PROGRAM 

Depending on the configuration options (cStlND,^AUXlND, 
AIPIND, ENGIND) chosen, one of the following statements will 
be printed out. 

SINGLE ROTOR PURE HELICOPTER 

SINGLE ROTOR WINGED HELICOPTER 

SINGLE ROTOR COMPOUND HELICOPTER 

SINGLE ROTOR COMPOUND HELICOPTER AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT 
T/SHAFT CRUISE PROPULSION 

SINGLE ROTOR COMPOUND HELICOPTER AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT T/FAN 
OR T/JET CRUISE 1'ROPULS ION 

SINGLE ROTOR AUXILIARY PROPULSION HELICOPTER 

6-1 



SINGLE ROTOR AUXILIARY PROPULSION HELICOPTER AUXILIARY 
INDEPENDENT T/SHAFT CRUISE PROPULSION 

SINGLE ROTOR AUXILIARY PROPULSION HELICOPTER AUXILIARY 
INDEPENDENT T/FAN OR T/JET CRUISE PROPULSION 

The printout for the tandem rotor configurations will be 
identical except for the substitution of TANDEM ROTOR for 
SINGLE ROTOR 

6.1.1.2 Arbitrary Heading 

An arbitary heading may be input by the user on a title card 
(see Section 5.2, input sheet for general information). 

6.1.2 Input Data 

All program input data is printed out as it appears on the 
data cards. Seven columns are printed. These correspond to 
the first location on the card, the number of variables on the 
card (from 1 to 5) , and the values of these variables. With 
this information and a copy of the input sheets it is possible 
to determine the input value for any variable. 

6.1.3 Sizing Data 

This group is printed out only if OPTIND = 1. The data is 
represented by a symbol, followed by a written description, 
followed by the value with the units. For example: 

WG/A DISC LOADING 10.0 LB/SQFT 

The data is printed out in groups, each group having a 
heading. The specific variables which are printed out will 
depend upon certain options chosen. Notations are made in the 
following list to show where this occurs. 

6.1.3.1 Dimensional Data 

Single Rotor Helicopter 

Fuselage: 

^F' ^C ^B' ^TB' ^M' ^F' ^F 
Wing: 

If AUXIND = 2 or 4 print AR, S^, b^, C^, ^^/^^ ^/ (t/c)^. 

If AUXIND = 1 or 3 print NO WING USED 

6-2 



Horizontal Tail: 

If HTIND = 1 or 2 print AR^^, S^^, bjj^, C^.^,, Xjj^, L^^ 
If HTIND = print NO HORIZONTAL TAIL USED 

Vertical Tail: 

A^vT' ^VT' ^VT' St' -^VT' ^TR' ^VT' ^"^/^^VT 
Main Rotor Pylon: 

AR, Spp, FApp, Hp^, Cpp, Xj,p,"(T/Clj^, (T/C)^ 

Primary Engine Nacelle: 

^N' °N' ^N 
Auxiliary Independent Engine Nacelle: 
If AIPIND = 2 print L^ J, D^^, S^^ 

Auxiliary Independent Engine Nacelle Strut: 
If AIPIND = 2 prihi Sg^, ^nS' Ss 

Auxiliary Independent Prbpulsion: 

If AIPIND = 2 a^llNGlND = T/'print'^MlJOLrARY INDEPENtENT 
PROPULSION - TURBOFAN (OR TURBOJET) ENGINE 

If AIPIND = 1 print NO AUXILIARY TNDEpWdWnT IMlNE "USED ^ 

Propeller (Auxiliary Propulsion) : 

If AUXIND = 3 or 4 and ENGIND = print D^j^, AF, a^, N^^^, 
NO. BLADES, V^^p 

If AUXIND = 1 or 2 print NO PROPELLER USED 

Main Rotor: 

°MR' ''mR' V^' V^' ^R' ^° BLADES, 9^^^^, X^,, V^^p 
Tail Rotor: 

°TR' ''tR' (^/A^NET' V^' ^° BLADES, 6^j^, X^^j^, G, V^^p 

6-3 



Tandem Rotor Helicopter 
Fuselage: 

^F' ^C ^^1' ^^2' ^F' ^/^' (0/L/D)r Sp 
Wing: 

Same printout as single rotor helicopter 

Forward Rotor Pylon: 

AR, Spp, FApp, Hp^, Cpp, Xj,p, (T/C)j^, (T/C)^ 

Aft Rotor Pylon: 

AR, S^p, Hp^. C^p. X^, (T/C)j^, (T/C)^ 

Primary Engine Nacelle: 

S' °N' ^N 
Auxiliary Independent Engine Nacelle: 

Same printout as single rotor helicopter 

Auxiliary Independent Engine Nacelle Strut: 
Same printout as single rotor helicopter 

Axixiliary Independent Propulsion: 

Same printout as single rotor helicopter 

Propeller (Auxiliary Propulsion) : 

Same printout as single rotor helicopter 

Main Rotor: 

Same printout as single rotor helicopter 

6.1.3.2 Weights Data 
Single and Tandem Rotor Helicopters 
First print M^p, G^^, U^^, then print, 

6-4 



Propulsion Group: 

WpRG' ^12WpRB' ^13"PH' ^BF' ^IS^AR' ^DS^ *^1 6^PDS ' 
^20"tRDS' ^IT^ADS' ^IS^EP' ^19^EA' ^PEI' ^AEI' ^FS' ^"p' 



W^ 



Structures Group: 



^PES' ^AES' ^^ST' ^ST 
Flight Controls Group: 

WpFC ^CC VrC ^2 SC ^3"fW' "tM' ^SAS' "aFC ^4^RCA' 

^S^SCA' ^MC' ^FC J^FC 
Weight of Fixed Equipment: 

Weight Empty 

WE 
Fixed Useful Load .^. -^^ ^ ... 

^FUL 
Operating Weight Empty 
OWE 

Payload 
W. 



PL 



Fuel 



Gross Weight 
WG 



6-5 



6.1.3.3 Rotor Data 



Single Rotor Helicopter 



ROTOR CYCLE NO. 



(printed if ROTIND = 1) 

ROTOR MAP NO. 

(printed if ROTIND = 2) 

FIXED MAIN ROTOR SOLIDITY INPUT 
(printed if RDMIND = 1 or 2) 

If RDMIND = 3 or 4, and depending on which solidity sizing 
requirement is most critical, one of the following statements 
will be printed out: 

MAIN ROTOR SOLIDITY SIZED BY MANEUVER CONDITIONS 

H - FT . , TEMP . =;« DEG . , V = KT . 

ROTOR MANEUVER G'S = , C,j,/a = _^ 

MAIN ROTOR SOLIDITY SIZED BY HOVER CONDITIONS 

H = FT . , TEMP . = DEG . , T/W = 

Cqi/a = 

MAIN ROTOR SOLIDITY SIZED BY CRUISE CONDITIONS 

H = FT . , TEMP . = DEG . , V = KT . 

ROTOR LIFT/GW FRACTION = ' Cp/a = 

Which is followed by: 

FIXED TAIL ROTOR SOLIDITY 
(printed if TRSIND = 1) 

TAIL ROTOR SIZED AT TIMES THE SOLIDITY REQUIRED TO 

SATISFY HOVER ANTI-TORQUE REQUIREMENTS AT 

H = FT., TEMP. = DEG. P., ^Tg/^TheT! = 

(printed if TRSIND = 2 and Ij; = 0, {|J - 0) 

TAIL ROTOR SIZED AT TIMES THE SOLIDITY REQUIRED TO 

SATISFY HOVERING TURN REQUIREMENTS AT 

H = FT. 

TEMP = F. 

■••G ■'•NET 

YAW RATE = RAD/SEC 

YAW ACCELERATION = RAD/SEC^ 

TAIL ROTOR POLAR 

MOM. OF INERTIA = SLUG/FT ^ 

HELICOPTER YAW 

MOM. OF INERTIA = SLUG/FT^ 

(printed if TRSIND = 2 and ijj or $ ?^ 0.) 

6-6 



Tandem Rotor Helicopter 

Main rotor data printout same as for single rotor helicopter. 

6.1.3.4 Propulsion Data 

Single Rotor Helicopter 



PRIMARY PROPULSION CYCLE NO 
TURBOSHAFT ENGINE 

ENGINES 



BHP*P MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC H.P. = H .P. 

ENGINE SIZE WAS FIXED BY INPUT 
(printed if FIXIND = 0) 

IF ESCIND - 1 print; 

ENGINE SIZED FOR TAKEOFF AT T/W = 



H = FT., TEMP. = DEG.F. 

AND ""^ ENGINES INOPERATIVE - ,,-.- 

If ESCIND = 2 either of the following statements are printed 
depending on which engine sizing requirement (hover or cruise) 
is critical. 

ENGINE SIZED FOR TAKEOFF AT T/W 



H » FT . , TEMP . = DEG .F . 

AND ENGINES INOPERATIVE 

ENGINE SIZED FOR CRUISE AT Vq = _____ KNOTS 

H = FT., TEMP. = DEG.F. 

AND ENGINES INOPERATIVE 

Which is followed by: 

NO AUX. INDEPENDENT ENGINE CYCLE SELECTED 
(printed if AUXIND = 3 or 4 and AIPIND = 1) 

AUX. INDEPENDENT PROPULSION CYCLE NO. 

(printed if AUXIND = 3 or 4 and AIPIND = 2) 

IF ENGIND =0.0, TURBOSHAFT ENGINE is printed 

IF ENGIND =1.0, either TURBOFAN or TURBOJET ENGINE is printed 

ENGINES 



BHP*P MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC H.P. H.P. 

(printed if ENGIND =0.0) 



6-7 

I 



T*P MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC THRUST LBS. 

(printed if ENGIND = 1.0) 

ENGINE SIZE WAS FIXED BY INPUT 
(printed if FIXINDI =0.0) 

ENGINE SIZED FOR CRUISE AT Vc KNOTS 

H = _^ FT . , TEMP . = _^____ DEG . F . 

(printed if FIXINDI = iTO) 

MAIN DRIVE SYSTEM RATING ^H.P. 

MAIN ROTOR DRIVE SYSTEM RATING ^H.P. 

Depending on the transmission sizing option chosen (XMSNIND) , 
and the results of the sizing, one of the following four 
statements will be printed: 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF TOTAL PRIMARY 

ENGINE INSTALLED POWER 
MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC H.P. 
(printed if XMSNIND = 1.0) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF MAIN ROTOR HOVER 

POWER REQUIRED AT 

H = FT . , TEMP . = DEG . F . 

(printed if XMSNIND = 2 or if XMSNIND = 3 and the 

alternate pay load hover is not critical) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF MAIN ROTOR HOVER 

POWER REQUIRED AT ALTERNATE 

PAYLOAD = LBS . , ALTERNATE GROSS WEIGHT = ^LBS . 

H = FT . , TEMP . = DEG . F . 

(printed if XMSNIND = 3 and the alternate payload hover 

is critical) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF MAIN ROTOR CRUISE 

POWER REQUIRED AT V^ = KT . , 

H = FT., TEMP. = DEG.F. 

(printed if XMSNIND = 2 or if XMSNIND = 3 and the 

alternate payload hover is not critical) 

Which is followed by: 

TAIL ROTOR DRIVE SYSTEM RATING ^H.P. 

(printed if CNFIND = 1) 

Depending on the transmission sizing option chosen (XMSNIND) 
and the results of the sizing, one of the following four 
statements will be printed: 



6-8 



XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF TOTAL PRIMARY ENGINE 
INSTALLED POWER 

MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC H.P. 
(printed if XMSNIND =1.0) 

XMSN SIZED AT ^_^ PERCENT OF TAIL ROTOR HOVER 

POWER REQUIRED 

AT H = FT., TEMP. = DEG.F. 

(printed if XMSNIND = 2 or if XMSNIND = 3 and the 

alternate pay load hover is not critical) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF TAIL ROTOR HOVER 
POWER REQUIRED AT ALTERNATE 

PAYLOAD = LBS., ALTERNATE GROSS WEIGHT = LBS, 

H = FT. , TEMP . = DEG . F . 

(printed if XMSNIND = 3 and the alternate payload 

hover is critical) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF TAIL ROTOR CRUISE 

POWER REQUIRED AT Vq = KT . 

H = ^ FT. , TEMP. = ______ DEG.F. 

(printed if XMSNIND = 2 or if XMSNIND = 3 and the 

alternate payload hover is not critical) 

Which is followed by : 

AUXILIARY PROPULSION DRIVE SYSTEM RATING H .P. 
(printed if AUXIND = 3 or 4 and AIPTND =" 1) 

Depending on the transmission sizing option chosen (XMSNIND) 
and the results of the sizing one of the following three 
statements will be printed: 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF TOTAL CONFIGURATION 

POWER REQUIRED TO HOVER 

AT H = FT., TEMP. = DEG.F. 

(printed i£ ESCIND =1.0 and XMSNIND = 2 or 3) 



XI4SN SIZED AT PERCENT OF TOTAL PRIMARY ENGINE 

INSTALLED POWER 

MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC H.P. 
(printed if XMSNIND = 1.0) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF AUX. PROPULSION. 

CRUISE POWER REQUIRED AT Vc = ^KT . 

He = FT., TEMP., = DEG.F. 

(printed if ESCIND =2.0 and XMSNIND = 2 or 3) 

AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT PROPULSION DRIVE SYSTEM RATING 
(printed if AUXIND = 3 or 4, AIPIND = 2 ENGIND = 0) 



6-9 



Depending on the transmission sizing option chosen (XMSNIND) 
and the results of the sizing one of the following four 
statements will be printed: 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF TOTAL AUXILIARY 

INDEPENDENT ENGINE INSTALLED POWER 
MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC H.P. 

(printed if AIPIND = 2, ENGIND = 0, and XMSNIND = 1.0) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF MAX. AUXILIARY 

INDEPENDENT ENGINE POWER AVAILABLE 

^"^ ^ = _______ FT . , TEMP . = DEG . F . 

(printed if AIPIND = 2, ENGIND = 0, ESCIND = 1 and 

XMSNIND = 2 or 3) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF MAX. AUXILIARY 

INDEPENDENT ENGINE POWER AVAILABLE IN CRUISE 

AT Vc = ^KT., He = ^FT., TEMP. » DEG.F. 

(printed if AIPIND = 2, ENGIND = 0, XMSNIND = 2 or 3 

and FIXIND =0.0) 

XMSN SIZED AT PERCENT OF AUXILIARY PROPULSION 

CRUISE PO\mR REQUIRED AT Vc = KT. 

He = ^___^ FT., TEMP. = DEG.F. 

(printed if AIPIND = 2, ENGIND = 0, XMSNIND = 2 or 3 

and FIXIND =1.0) 

6.1.3.5 Aerodynamics Data 

Single and Tandem Rotor Helicopter 

TOTAL EFFECTIVE FLAT PLATE AREA 

TOTAL WETTED AREA 

MEAN SKIN FRICTION COEFF . 

DRAG BREAKDOWN 

WING FE 

FUSELAGE FE 

FORWARD (MAIN) ROTOR PYLON FE 

AFT ROTOR PYLON FE 

MAIN ROTOR HUB(s) FE 

TAIL ROTOR HUB FE 

VERTICAL TAIL FE 

HORIZONTAL TAIL FE 

PRIMARY ENGINE NACELLE FE 

AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT CRUISE ENGINE NACELLE FE 

AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT CRUISE ENGINE NACELLE~^TRUT FE 

INCREMENTAL FE 



6-10 



AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS 

A5 
A6 

A7 

A8 

A9 

WING LIFT EFFICIENCY FACTOR 

VERTICAL TAIL LIFT EFFICIENCY 

6. 1,4 Mission Performance Data 

Two types of output are possible. If the OPTIONAL PRINT 
INDICATOR = 0, a standard printout will occur. If the indi- 
cator is input as 1, a detailed printout will occur. This 
will include all data printed in the standard printout plus 
additional information. 

6.1.4.1 Standard Printout 

The mission performance data is printed out by segment in 
chronological sequence. Up to 15 columns of data are printed 
out depending upon the segment. For all segit^nts , the follow- 
ing information is printed: 

t: time in hours 

R: range in nautical miles 

Wf : weight of fuel used in pounds 

W: aircraft weight in pounds 

h: altitude in feet 

TAS : the true airspeed in knots 

Primary Turb. Temp: the primary engine turbine temperature 

PRIMARY ENGINE CODE: a code letter which designates the 

condition governing the engine 
performance : 

P = power (or thrust) required 

T = turbine temperature 
(engine rating) 

W = fuel flow limit 

Nl = gas generator shaft rmp limit 

6-11 



PRIMARY ENG. PEHF : 



C = compressor (Nj/Sj^) limit 

N2 = output shaft rmp limit 

Q = torque limit 

The primary engine horsepower fraction. 
This is the ratio of power being used 
at any altitude, lAach number condition 
to the maximum power available at that 
condition . 



In addition, the following data is printed out in different 
segments : 



AUX. TURB. TEMP; 



AUX. ENG. CODE: 



AUX, ENG. PEHF: 



AUX. ENG. FUEL FLOW; 



TOTAL FUEL FLOW: 



T/W: 

FM: 



BHP: 



The auxiliary independent engine turbine 
temperature . 

A code letter which designates the 
condition governing the auxiliary 
independent engine performance: (code 
is same as for primary engines) . 

The auxiliary independent engine thrust 
or horsepower fraction. This is the 
ratio of thrust or power being used at 
any altitude, Mach number condition to 
the maximum thrust, or power available 
at that condition. 

Auxiliary independent engine time rate 
of fuel consumption in pounds per hour. 

Total time rate of fuel consumption 
(primary plus auxiliary independent 
engines) in pounds per hour. 

The thrust-to-weight ratio (printed out 
in takeoff, hover, and landing) . 

Main rotor overall hover figure of merit 
(for a tandem rotor configuration, this 
includes rotor/rotor interference) 
(printed out in takeoff, hover and 
landing) , 

Total power required (printed out in 
takeoff, hover, and landing, climb, 
cruise, descent, and loiter) . 



6-12 



CT: 



CT/SIGMA: 



EAS: 



MU: 



CT PRIME/SIGMA: 



ALPHA D/L: 



NMPP: 



GAMMA: 



R/C: 
R/S: 



Main rotor thrust coefficient (printed 
out in takeoff, hover, and landing, 
climbV cruise, descent, and loiter) . 

CT/main rotor solidity (printed out in 
takeoff, hover, and landing) . 

The equivalent airspeed in knots 
(printed out in climb, cruise, descent, 
and loiter) , 

Main rotor advance ratio (printed out 
in climb, cruise, descent, and loiter). 

Main rotor cruise lift coefficient/main 
rotor solidity (printed out in climb, 
cruise, descent, and loiter). 

Angle of total rotor thrust (lift plus 
propulsive force) vector with respect 
to a line perpendicular to the A/C 
flight path (printed out in climb, 
cruise, descent and loiter) . 

The specific range in nautical miles 
per pound (printed out in cruise) . 

The flight path angle in degrees 
(printed out in climb and descent) • 

Rate of climb in feet per minute 
(printed out in climb). 

Rate of descent in feet per minute 
(printed out in descent) . 



6.1. 4. 2 Detailed Printout 

In addition to the data printed above, the following data 
(unless noted otherwise) will be printed in takeoff, hover, 
and landing, climb, cruise, descent, and loiter segments if 
the OPTIONAL PRINT INDICATOR = 1: 



VRC RHP 



FMI: 



Vertical rate of climb rotor horsepower 
(printed out only in takeoff, hover and 
landing) . 

Isolated main rotor hover figure of 
merit (printed out only in takeoff, 
hover, and landing) . 



6-13 



TOTAL FUEL FLOW: 

M. ROTOR VTIP: 

M. ROTOR RHP: 

T, ROTOR VTIP: 

T. ROTOR RHP: 

PRIM. ENG. FUEL FLOW: 

AUX. ENG. FUEL FLOW: 

ROTLIM CODE: 



DELCDM: 



CPPRO : 

CPIND: 

CDO: 

PROP VTIP: 
BHP AUX: 

ETAP PROP: 



Total fuel consumption (primary + 
auxiliary independent engines) - Ib/hr 
(printed out only in loiter) . 

Main rotor tip speed - feet per second 

Main rotor horsepower (no losses) 

Tail rotor tip speed - feet per second 

Tail rotor horsepower (no losses) 

Primary engine fuel consumption - Ib/hr 

Auxiliary independent engine fuel 
consumption - Ib/hr 

A code letter which designates whether 
main rotor has exceeded the rotor limits 
input to the program. 

A = Within input rotor limits 

E = Rotor limits exceeded 

Compressibility drag coefficient incre- 
ment to rotor profile power. In hover, 
it is a function of rotor Or/a and 
Vtip. In cruise it is a function of 
rotor C^/a and advancing blade tip Mach 
number (only printed out when a rotor 
"cycle" is input) . 

Rotor profile power coefficient (only 
printed out when a rotor "cycle" is 
input) . 

Rotor induced power coefficient (only 
printed out when a rotor "cycle" is 
input) . 

Rotor profile drag (total) coefficient 
(only printed out when a rotor "cycle" 
is input) • 

Propeller tip speed - ft/sec. 

Auxiliary propulsion power required (not 
printed out in takeoff, hover, and 
landing) . 

Propeller cruise efficiency 
6-14 



Ratio of auxiliary propulsion thrust to 
total configuration thrust required. 



> Same as noted earlier 



TAUX/T : 

AUX. ENG. FUEL FLOW: 
AUX. TURB. TEMP: 
AUX. ENG. CODE: 
AUX. ENG. PEHF: 

AUX. ENG. BHP OR THRUST: Auxiliar^Tjadepe^ 

(if ENGIND = 0, horsepower required 
- printed out. If ENGIND = 1, thrust 
required printed out) . 



CPPAR: 



CPNUD : 



DELCDS 



CXR: 

J 

CP 

CT 

CLW 

CDW 

RN 

6.1.4.3 Headings 



Rotor parasite power coefficient (only 
printed out when a rotor "cycle" is 
input) . 

Rotor nonuniform downwasH power coeFfi- 
cient (only printed out when a rotor 
"cycle" is input) . 

Retreating blade stall coefficient 
increment to ro to r_ profile power (only 
printed out when a" rotor "cycle" is 
input) . 

Rotor propulsive force coefficient 

Propeller advance ratio . 

Propeller power coefficient 

Propeller thrust coefficient 

Wing lift coefficient 

Wing profile drag coefficient 

Fraction of total lift carried by rotor 



At the beginning of each segmentT a printout will identify the 
segment data which follows. The following messages can be 
printed: 



a. TAXI FOR 



HRS. AT GROUND IDLE ENGINE RATING 



6-15 



b. TAKEOFF, HOVER, OR LAND AT T/W = 



FOR HRS. 

, FOR HRS, 



or: TAKEOFF, HOVER, OR LAND AT PEHF = 

CLIMB TO FT. WITH MAX R/C AT ENGINE RATING 

CLIMB TO 



CLIMB TO 
RATING 

CLIMB TO 
RATING 



FT. WITH CONSTANT EAS AT 



FT. WITH CONST. MACH NO. AT 



FT. WITH CONSTANT TAS AT 



ENGINE RATING 
ENGINE 



ENGINE 



CLIMB TO OPT. ALT. FOR NEXT CRUISE WITH MAX. R/C AT 
ENGINE RATING, MAXIMUM ALT. FT. 

CLIMB TO OPT. ALT. FOR NEXT CRUISE WITH CONSTANT EAS 
AT ENGINE RATING, MAXIMUM ALT. FT. 

CLIMB TO OPT. ALT. FOR NEXT CRUISE WITH CONST. MACH NO. 
AT ENGINE RATING, MAXIMUM ALT. FT. 

CLII4B TO OPT. ALT. FOR NEXT CRUISE WITH CONSTANT TAS 
AT ENGINE RATING, MAXIMUM ALT. FT. 



d. 



CRUISE AT 
CRUISE AT 



ENGINE RATING 

KNOTS TAS LIMITED BY 



ENGINE RATING 

CRUISE AT BEST RANGE SPEED WITH HEADWIND OF KNOTS 

CRUISE AT SPEED FOR 99 PERCENT BEST RANGE WITH HEADWIND 
OF KNOTS 



CRUISE AT BEST RANGE SPEED WITH HEADWIND OF 
CONSTANT W/DELTA = 



KNOTS , 



DESCEND TO H » 

DESCEND TO H = 

DESCEND TO H = 
PATH) 

DESCEND TO H = 
PATH) 

DESCEND TO H 



FT AT CONSTANT EAS 
FT AT CONSTANT TAS 
FT AT CONSTANT TAS (SPIRAL DESCENT 

FT AT CONSTANT EAS (SPIRAL DESCENT 



DESCEND TO H = 
DESCENT PATH) 



FT AT CONSTANT MACH NO. 

FT AT CONSTANT MACH NO. (SPIRAL 



6-16 



f. 



DESCEND TO H = 
DESCEND TO H = 
DESCEND TO H = 
LOITER FOR 



HRS 



FT . , R = 
FT . , R = 
FT . , R = 



NM AT CONSTANT EAS 

NM AT CONSTANT MACH NO. 

NM AT CONSTANT TAS 



CHANGE FUEL, ADD 



LB 



CHANGE FUEL, REMOVE 
h. CHANGE PAYLOAD, ADD 



LB 
LB 



CHANGE PAYLOAD, REMOVE 
i. TRANSFER ALTITUDE TO 



LB 



FT 



After the complete mission history has been printed, the fol- 
lowing fuel summary will be printed: 

MISSION FUEL REQUIRED = 

RESERVE FUEL REQUIRED = 

TOTAL FUEL REQUIRED = 

NOTE: If segments 1 through 6 are used for reserve fuel 

calculations, headings a. through f . will be followed 
by the statement FOR RESERVE FUEL. 



6-17 






6.2 LIST OF DIAGNOSTIC ERROR PRINTOUTS 
6.2.1 Errors Affecting Main Control Loop 

6.2.1.1 *** ERROR THE USER REQUESTED PRIMARY ENGINE CYCLE 
NO. XXX BUT THE INPUT DECK WAS SET UP TO USE NO. YYY 

The operator used an engine cycle whose identifi- 
cation niamber differed from that requested by the 
user (LOC 0217) 

REMEDY: Use correct engine cycle 

6.2.1.2 *** ERROR THE USER REQUESTED ROTOR MAP NO. XXX BUT 
THE INPUT DECK WAS SET UP TO USE NO. YYY 



6.2.1.3 



6.2.1.4 



6.2.1.5 



6.2.1.6 



The operator used a rotor map whose identifica- 
tion number differed from that requested by the 
user (LOC. 0170) 

REMEDY: Use correct rotor map 

*** ERROR THE USER REQUESTED ROTOR CYCLE NO. XXX BUT 
THE INPUT DECK WAS SET UP TO USE NO. YYY 

The operator used a rotor cycle whose identifi- 
cation number differed from that requested by 
the user (LOC. 0171) 

REMEDY: Use correct rotor cycle 

*** ERROR THE USER REQUESTED AUXILIARY ENGINE NO. 
XXX BUT THE INPUT DECK WAS SET UP TO USE NO. YYY 

The operator used a auxiliary engine, whose iden- 
tification number differed from that requested by 
the user (LOC. 0242) 

REMEDY: Use correct auxiliary engine 

*** ERROR THE USER REQUESTED PROP TABLE NO. XXX BUT 
THE INPUT DECK WAS SET UP TO USE NO. YYY 

The operator used a propeller table whose identi- 
fication number differed from that requested by 
the user (LOC. 0260) 

REMEDY: Use correct propeller table 

ERROR *** THE FIRST SEGMENT INDICATOR OF A MISSION 
CANNOT BE 0., 100., or 5. (RMAXND = 0) SEE USERS 
MANUAL 



6-18 



a. Segment inJlcaSbrsd., TOO. /represent the end 
'" of a mission calcul ati on an d th e end of a par- 
ticular case respectively. Either of these 
indicators at the beginning of a set would be 
meaningless. 

b. Descent (RMAXND = 0) must be preceded by a 
cruise segment. 

REI4EDY: Rewrite segment indicator list (Starts at 
(LOG 00315) 




6.2.1.7 ERROR *** DESCENT (RMAXND = 0) MUST BE PTOICEDED BY 
A CRUISE _^_^/'''T\r^7.^ 

See 6.2.1.6 (b) ,,,,^7^7 

rffilffiDY: Redefine the mission with a different se- 
t'^ "^^^ J*^"^ehce^ of segment indicators 

6 2 1.8 *** ERROR FUEL AVAILABLE AND FUEL REQUIRED DO NOT 
■' CONVERGE'ia A POSITIVE GROSS WEIGHT y^^ 

Tfii¥^indicates that the perfdrmM^ce requirements 
are too stringent* or that the weight is excessive. 
This may be due to pessimistic weight input con- 
^ stantsbiTHrag characteristics, or it may be that 
the^ mission' required cannot be flown by any heli- 
coper sized by HESCOMP. It may require some 
noyal design considerations. ^ 

6.2.1.9 *** ERROR WPR WEIGHT OF FUEL REOUIRED IS LESS THAN 
OR EQUAL TO ZERO _ 

THX^""^^s sage can occur 6niy Xi" "hega t i ve" val ue s o f 
reserve fuel factors are input (LOG 00 32, 33, 34) 



REMEDY 1 



Correct reserve fuel factors 



6.2.1.10 



******** THIS AIRCRAFT HAS tJdT CONVERGED AFTER 25 
ATTEMPTS . THE WEIGHT "OP PULL AVAILABLE (WFA) = XXX 
THE WEIGHT OF FUEL REQUIRED (WFR) = YYY. (WFA) MUST 
BE WITHIN ZZZ OF (WFR) FOR THE AIRCRAFT TO CONVERGE. 
THIS TOLERANCE IS SET IN THE MAIN PROGRAM UNDER THE 
NAME TOL. 

If this message occurs it is probable that the 
mission required cannot be flown by an aircraft 
or the type specified by the input data. A pos- 
sible cause may be unrealistic input values of 
the reserve fuel factors or weights constants. 



6-10 



6.2.1.11 *** ERROR - NO TITLE CARD AFTER SEVEN CARD, COLUMNS 
1 THROUGH 6 ON TITLE CARD MUST BE BLANK OR THERE 
WAS A 6 IN COLUMN 5 OF AN INPUT CARD 

This message is printed if the input card deck 
is improperly set up. No output is generated. 

REMEDY: Examine input deck for errors indicated in 
message and correct them. 

6.2.1.12 J DOES NOT CONVERGE IN 25 ITERATIONS - SUBROUTINE 
POWER 

This message is printed if a match cannot be 
found between propeller thrust and available 
power. The message is printed in forward flight 
calculations • 

REMEDY: Increase engine power, reduce drag or 
modify propeller related inputs. 

6.2.1.13 WARNING: THIS CASE HAS BEEN TERMINATED BECAUSE THE 
CALCULATED FUSELAGE CONSTANT DIAMETER SECTION 

(CABIN LENGTH) IS LESS THAN ZERO. CHECK ALL FUSE- 
LAGE AND ROTOR SIZING INPUTS . 

This message will be printed if in the process 
of sizing a tandem rotor helicopter (FDMIND = 1) 
fuselage, Jl^^ is calculated as a negative number. 

REMEDY: Review input data that specifies tandem 

rotor helicopter fuselage size requirements- 

6.2.1.14 WARNING: THIS CASE HAS BEEN TERIilNATED BECAUSE THE 

CALCULATED TANDEM ROTOR OVERLAP RATIO EXCEEDS 

CHECK ALL FUSELAGE AND ROTOR SIZING INPUTS 

This message will be printed if in the process 
of sizing a tandem rotor helicopter (FDMIND = 3) 
fuselage, the overlap/diameter ratio exceeds the 
value printed in the error message. 

REMEDY: Review input data that specifies tandem 

rotor helicopter fuselage size requirements 

6.2.1.15 AFTER 20 ITERATIONS, DTR DID NOT CONVERGE 

(SUBROUTINE SIZTR) 

This message will be printed if the tail rotor 
diameter sizing iteration option (TRDIND = 3) 
does not converge. 

6-20 



REMEDY: Check all tail rotor sizing input data 
( (T/A)jj£»ji, farpR' ^TTR' ^CTR' ®*^^'^ 

6, 2.1*16 AFTER 20 ITERATIONS, Xj^/J^g DOES NOT CONVERGE 

This message will be printed if X^/^b ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
by the main rotor position sizing option 
(MRPIND == 1 or 2) does not converge. 

REMEDY: Check all input values required for this 
option {LOC 2678 - LOG 2696) 

6.2.1.17 GAMMA FAILED TO CONVERGE IN 20 ITERATIONS - 
SUBROUTINE THRUST 

This message will be printed if the propeller 
thrust calculation routine cannot converge on a 
thrust and efficiency that will match the re- 
quired thrust. Such an error is unlikely and 
would occur only in cases involving extreme 
thrust requirements. 

REMEDY: Review input data that specifies propeller 
requirements. 

6.2.2 Errors Related to Tabulated Inputs 

6,2.2.1 Two Dimensional Tables 

*** ERROR***THE FOLLOWING VALUES TIAY NOT BE ACCURATE. 
THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE WAS OUT OF RANGE OF THE 
TABLE. THESE VALUES WERE CALCULATED USING THE YYYYY 
VALUE. GIVEN IN THE TABLE. THIS ERROR IS IN THE XXXXX 
TABLE. 

This message occurs whenever the computer is 
required to look up a value in a table of input 
quantities at a calculated value of the indepen- 
dent variable which lies outside the range of 
the input values of the independent variable. _ 

If the calculated independent variable is below 
the lowest value of the input table r the computer 
uses the first value in the table and YYYYY in the 
message reads FIRST. If it lies above the high- 
est value, the last value in the table is used 
and YYYYY becomes LAST . 

XXXXX in the last line of. this message identifies 
the table in which the error occurs. The tables 
in which this could occur are shewn below. The 
third column indicates the part of the message 
which is shown above as XXXXX. 

6-21 



INDEPENDENT 
VARIABLE 

M 

Cl 

h 

Cm 

EPSILON 



(0/L)/D 

Nll/NiioPT 
(Ni/Nj*) (D/Vi) 

Q/Q* 
(SHP/6/eSHP*)REQ 



DEPENDENT 
VARIABLE 



^p4 



^HOVa 

^INTO 

KnuD 



Ki 



HOV; 



Atr 



K 



2W 



K 



PN 



KPR 
T/9 

T/e 

Y 



'Ti 



XXXXX 

M, ETAP4 

CL, CDWI 

H-THETA 

CT, KHOVA TABLE 
(SUBR. ROTPOW) t 

EPSILON-KINTO TABLE 
(SUBR. ROTPOW) tt 

MU-KNUD TABLE 
(SUBR. ROTPOW) tt 

CT, KHOVATR TABLE 
(SUBR. R0TP0V7)tt 

siztr subr. 

nsub2 correction factor 
reynolds number 
torque limit look up 
power required look up 
Propeller equivalent 

LIFT DRAG POLARt 
CTI- CP 



t Strictily speaking, this table is not an input. The table 
is calculated in the main control loop using BLOCK DATA and 
the input value of INTEGRATED LIFT COEFFICIENT (LOC. 0259) . 
The error message indicates that the value of Cl used was 
above the maximum value in the table. This will occur only 
if an unusual combination of high power coefficient and low 
propeller activity factor exists. In such a case the user 
should change the propeller input parameters to obtain a 
propeller that more closely matches the performance 
requirements . 

ttThis table is not input. It is stored as BLOCK DATA 



6-22 



6.2.2.2 Three Dimensional Tables 

***ERROR*** THE FOLLOWING VALUES MAY NOT BE ACCURATE, 
THE AAA INDEPENDENT VARIABLE IS OUT OF RANGE OF THE 
■ TABLE. THE PROGRAM USED THE BBB VALUE IN TABLE TO 
CALCULATE. THIS ERROR IS IN THE XXXX PART OF THE 
YYYYY TABLE. 

; :;. . This message is printed whenever one of the 
^ ' ""calculated independent variables lies outside 

the range o£ the independent variables defining 

the table input by the user. 

The XXXX and YYYYY parts of the message respec- 
tively name the independent variable and the 
table in which the error occurred, AAA stands 
for FIRST or SECOND, BBB stands for First or 
LAST. 

The tables in which this error could arise are 
shown below. The items in parentheses show the 
variables as they appear in the error message. 



DEPENDENT 
VARIABLE 


INDEPENDENT 
VARIABLES (XXXX) 


NAME OF 
TABLE (YYYYY) 


ACdm 


ClCCL), M 


COMPRESSIBILITY 
- DRAG 


Fn/6 Fn* 


T/e 
T/e 
T/e 


(T) , M 
(T) , M 
(T) , II 


REFERRED THRUST 


SHP/5/eSHP* 


REFERRED POWER 


w/fi/esHP* 


REFERRED FUEL FLO^ 


or 








W/6/eF* 
N 








Nj/ZON* 


T/e 
T/e 


(T) , M 
(T) , M 


REFERRED NSUBl 


Nij//eNj^ 


REFERRED NSUB2 



Ct'/o 



CpCcp) ,"n 

VI, Cx/o 



PROPllLLER POWER 
COEFFICIENT 



CT' /SIGMA TABLE 
(SUBR. ROTLIM) 



6-23 



DEPENDENT 
VARIABLE 



INDEPENDENT 
VARIABLES (XXXX) 



NAME OF 
TABLE (YYYYY) 



AKhov 



e. 



Cip, e 



Tmr 



or 



'IF 



Cp/a 



■H 



/o 





^T' 


^Ttr 
of 




Cm / 


®Tref 




s. 


Zw 


Ct 


•A, 


Cx/a 




Ciji, 


Mtip 



DELTA KHOVER - 
THETA T TABLE 
(SUBR ROTPOW) t 



PRANDTL DRAG INTER- 
FERENCE TABLE (AERO 
SUBR) t 

CTP/SIGMA ROTOR MAP 

HOVER PORTION ROTOR 

MAP 



REMEDY: Rewrite the input table so that the inde- 
pendent variable that was previously out of 
range will fall into the range of the new 
table. 



tThis table is not input. It is stored as BLOCK DATA, 



6.2.3 Errors Occuring in Performance Calculations 

6.2.3.1 WARNING: ROTOR LIMIT HAS BEEN EXCEEDED. FORWARD 
FLIGHT SPEED HAS BEEN REDUCED ACCORDINGLY. CHECK ALL 
VALUES OF TAS, MU, CT' /SIGMA AND CXR IN THIS PERFORM- 
ANCE LEG. 

This message will be printed in segments climb, 
cruise, descent and loiter if a rotor limit has 
been exceeded. 

REMEDY: Check rotor limits tabular input values 

(LOC 347 - 0395) and segment input values. 

6.2.3.2 WARNING: ROTOR LIMIT HAS BEEN EXCEEDED. EITHER 
REDUCE I4AIN ROTOR THRUST REQUIREMENTS AT THESE OPER- 
ATING CONDITIONS OR INCREASE MAIN ROTOR TIP SPEED, 
CHECK ALL VALUES OF CT/SIGMA IN THIS PERFORMANCE LEG. 



6-24 




This message will be printed in the takeoff 
hpjrer, and landing^ segment if a rotor limit has 
been exceeded. 

REMEDY: Check rotor limits tabular input values 

(LOG -347 - 0395) and segment input values. 

6.2.3.3 CAUTION: TAIL ROTO R A NTI-TORQUE THRUST REQUIRED AT 
THIS OPERATING CC5NKTI0N IS NEG^ CHECK ALL 
VALUES OF CLFIN. 

This message is printed in forward flight (climb, 
cruise, descent, and loiter segments) when single 
rotor helicopter vertical tail fin lift exceeds 
the total anti-torque thrust required at a given 
operating condition (resulting in a negative 
anti-torque thrust required for this tail rotor) . 
This condition can be the result of: 

a) too mucTi vertical tail fin area 

b) tail fin operating at too large a fin C-^ 

REMgOY: Check size requirements for vertical tail 
arid input value fnr fin operating Cl 
(LOC 0216) 

6.2.3.4 CAUTION: TAIL ROTOR CT EXCEEDS .0 30^. TAIL ROTOR TIP 
Sfl6& "RESET - CHECK ALL VALUES IN PERFp|MANCE LEG. 

This message is printed when the tail rotor Cj 
exceeds .03. This condition can be the result of 

a) too small a tail rotor diameter 

b) operating the tail rotor at too low a tip 
speed 

RE^DEDy: Check the sizing requirements for the tail 
rotor diameter, or increase the tail rotor 
tip speed. 

6.2.3.5 INSUFFICIENT POWER AVAILABLE TO HOVER. TT/W) AVAIL- 
ABLE LESS THAN (T/W) REQUIRED AT DESIGN DOWNLOAD. 

: This message will be printed out during the take- 
off, hover and landing segment if the value of 
T/W calculated from the input PEHF (TOLIND = 2 or 
4) is less than that required to provide suffi- 
cient thrust to overcome hover download (based on 
the design (T/W)d LOC 0228)-. NOTE: (T/W)]^ is 
always input. 

REMEDY: Increase the input value of PEHF 

6-25 



6.2.3.6 CAUTION ** PEHF IS GREATER THAN 1 

This message indicates a condition for which 
greater than 100 percent of maximum power or 
thrust was required during takeoff, hover or 
landing . 

REMEDY: Increase engine power available or decrease 
required thrust-weight for hover 

6.2.3.7 WARNING: THIS CASE HAS BEEN TERMINATED BECAUSE OF 
INSUFFICIENT POWER AVAILABLE FOR CLIMB AT THIS FLIGHT 
CONDITION. CHECK ALL INPUTS 

This message is printed if the engine thrust or 
power input by the user is insufficient to allow 
the aircraft to climb. 

REMEDY: a) Increase the engine power or thrust, 
whichever is appropriate, or 

b) Inspect the inputs which determine drag 
and adjust them if they appear to give a 
grossly over-rated value of drag. 

6.2.3.8 WARNING: THIS CASE HAS BEEN TERMINATED BECAUSE THE 
CLIMB ANGLE IS TOO LARGE DUE TO EXCESSIVE POWER 
AVAILABLE AT THIS FLIGHT CONDITION. CHECK ALL INPUTS 

This message is printed if the engine thrust or 

power input by the user is excessive (resulting 

in climb angles greater than 45^) for the flight 
condition desired. 

REMEDY: a) Decrease the engine power or thrust or 

b) Increase the value of the drag input to 
this segment 

6.2.3.9 INSUFFICIENT POWER AVAILABLE FOR CRUISE AT INPUT 
TAUXTT 

This message will be printed during cruise, if in 
the case of a compound or auxiliary propulsion 
helicopter, the input value of T^^ux/'^TOT does not 
permit a power or thrust available-required match 
at a given cruise speed. 

REMEDY: Check Tj^ux/'^TOT inputs' in the cruise segment, 



6-26 



6.2.3.10 ERROR ***** INSUFFICIENT POWER AVAILABLE FOR CRUISE 
AT DESIRED SPEED 

This message will be printed during cruise if 
CRSIND = 2 (cruise at specified true airspeed) 
and insufficient power is available to maintain 
steady level flight at the desired speed. The 
remaining cruise calculations will be at constant 
power setting. 

REfiEDY:, Increase engine power, decrease drag level, 
or decrease required cruise speed. 

6.2.3.11 CAUTION ^PEED LIMITED BY POWER/THRUST AVAILABLE AT 
SPECIFiiHD PC^R SETTIW ^ V __ _ 

This message will be printed when power or thrust 
available is insufficient to allow the aircraft 
to cruise at speed for 99% best range as speci- 
fied:"l ^sel ecting CRSIND ='4: or 6. (LOG 0721 
throiigh FTTOy ^ 



6.2.3.12 INSUFFICIE|IfJ POWER W STEADY IIlVEL FLIGHT 

^^ ^iThis message appears during the loiter segment 
-"^^^ ^^ ^"'ISiiculations. 

REMEDY: Check power available and drag level. 

6.2.3.13 CLQS IS TOO LARGE FOR DESCENT AT REQUIRED SPEED 

This message is printed out when, in the case of 
a winged helicopter, the wing contribution to 
the total aircraft lift is too high to permit 
this aircraft to descend. 

REMEDY: Reduce wing operating Cl 

6.2.3.14 INSUFFICIENT POWER TO DESCEND AT THE REQUIRED SPEED 

This message is printed out when the aircraft 
has insufficient power to descend at the re- 
quired speed. 

REMEDY: Reduce value of drag input in this segment. 

6.2.3.15 TERMINAL RANGE EXCEEDED, SPIRAL DESCENT REQUIRED 

This message is printed when the predicted 
flight path ends beyond the specified terminal 
range (RMAXND = 1) . 



6-27 



REMEDY: Reevaluate terminal range requirement or 
increase value of drag input in this 
segment . 

6. 2. 3.16 TERMINAL RANGE NOT ATTAINED, USE MORE CRUISE OR A 
SHALLOWER DESCENT 

This message is printed out when the predicted 
flight path ends before the specified terminal 
range (RMAXND = 1) . 

REMEDY: Reevaluate the terminal range requirement 
or reduce the drag input to this segment. 

6.2.3.17 **ERROR*** THE RANGE NECESSARY TO DESCEND IS GREATER 
THAN THE RANGE OF THE TABLE CALCULATED IN CRUISE. 
THIS MAY BE DUE TO A DELTA R IN CRUISE WHICH IS TOO 
SMALL. 

The computer saves the last ten points of the 
cruise from Rjnax backward so that an iteration 
can be carried out to find the correct point to 
start the descent when RMAXND = 0. This error 
message is printed if the stored values do not 
cover a sufficient range back from Rmax- Either 
AR is too small or the angle of descent is very 
small. 

REMEDY: Check AR (LOG. 0771 through 0780). 



6-28 



7.0 PROGRAM USAGE 



7.1 COMMENTS ON PROGRAM USAGE 

Following are a list of rules and suggestions for using the 
program: 

7.1.1 Rules 

1. Do not use descent option RMAXND = unless preceded by a 
cruise. 

2. Do not input a turbofan or turbojet engine cycle for the 
primary engines. 

3. (T/W)j3 (LOG 0228) must always be input. This" is the basic 
configuration design thrust-to-weight ratio. It is used 
to establish the basic configurations download for calcula- 
tion of both hover and low forward speed performance. 



4. If FIXIND = and FIXINDI = 1.0/ locations 0234 -^ 0241 

must be input to allow sizing of the auxiliary independent 
engines. 



5. If FIXIND = 1 and ESCIND = 1 only fixed size auxiliary 
independent engines (FIXINDI = 0.0) may be input. 

6. If OPTIND = 2, the helicopter parasite drag should be input 
as two terms. The wing (if there is one)^profile drag co- 
efficient is input to the table of Cppji versus Cl/ and all 
other component contributions are inp ut by mea ns of the 
term AF^ (LOG 0316). The terms G^^^pP CDpp7 Co^gj^j^, C 

^DcSTR' ^^SHTR' ^%' ^^ni , ^Dns' CoyrpV arid Cq^^. Khpim. 
KjipiTf %' Kni/ KNSf Kf, KvT/ and K{|t are not used in OPTIND 
= 2. If the option indicator is 1, all terms and factors^ 
may be used. 

7. If cruise is followed by descent with RMAXND = 0, the 
cruise step size (LOG. 0771 - 0780) should not be less than 
10 to 15 nautical miles. This is necessitated by the fact 
that a table of cruise conditions is compiled during cruise 
to use in the determination of the starting point for 
descent. This table consists of 10 points. The cruise step 
size therefore must be sufficiently large to ensure that the 
total of nine steps in range is greater than the range 
required for the following descent. A cruise step size 
which is too small will lead to termination of the case 
with the printout: 



7-1 



*** ERROR *** THE RANGE NECESSARY TO DESCEND IS 
GREATER THAN THE RANGE OF THE TABLE CALCULATED IN 
CRUISE. THIS MAY BE DUE TO A DELTA R IN CRUISE 
WHICH IS TOO SMALL. 

8. At present do not use SGTIND = 7 with OPTIND = 1 unless 
a sufficiently large AWf is input to completely refuel 
the aircraft. This rule will be eliminated by future 
modifications to the program. For the present, missions 
employing change of fuel can be analyzed by running 
separate cases, a new case each time the fuel is changed. 
The aircraft can be separately sized for each case and 
compared manually - 

9. The value for pay load which is input (LOC. 2604) should 
be the payload at initial takeoff. 

7.1.2 Suggestions 

1. Input locations 0005 ^ 0022 are arranged in a sequential 
order (1st and 2nd order size trend and propulsion indica- 
tors) which allows configuration types to be input in a 
logical "building block" manner. Use of this arrangement 
facilitates the input of data. For example if the user 
wishes to input a single rotor auxiliary independent 
engine compound helicopter, the following input sequence 
follows: 

a) Input CNFIND = 1 (single rotor helicopter) 

b) Input AUXIND = 4 (compound helicopter) 

c) Since a compound helicopter has wings, input desired 
wing sizing options (S^IND and b^IND) . 

d) Input AIPIND = 2 (auxiliary independent engines) 

e) Input desired type of auxiliary independent engine 
(ENGIND) 

f) Input those options pertaining only to single rotor 
helicopters (TRDIND, TRSIND, VTFIND, HTIND, and 
MRPIND) 

2. If nonstandard atmosphere is required only for constant 
altitude segments, such as loiter, cruise, and takeoff, 
the table of temperature ratio versus altitude need not 
be filled in. The nonstandard atmosphere may be obtained 
by use of ATMIND =1. 

3. If it is desired to run OPTIND = 2 for a helicopter which 
has previously been sized in a separate case, the drag 

7-2 



will be represented correctly if the output values of 
a.5 and ae from the sizing case are input for the OPTIND 
=2 case to AFe (LOG 0316) and Kw (LOG 0327) respectively, 
and if the Gcwi table is filled in identically to the 
sizing case. 

4 To represent engines which are buried in the fuselage, 
input Km (LOG 0323) or K^t (LOG 0324), or both as zero 
and Zi, Z2, Z3 (LOGS 014^^ 0143, and 0144) or Z4, Z5, Zg 
"T£dCS 0146, 0147, 0148) or both as zero. The component . 
drag will then be zero and the calculation of engine/ 
nacelle dimensions will be bypassed. 

5. The order in which segments 7 and 8 are^used is important 
due to the fact that the program will not permit the air- 
craft weight, during a change of weight segment, to 
exceed gross weight. As an example, to f^^^^l^te^J^^^f^^^ 
200 pounds of pay load, followed by refueling back to gross 
weight limits, the eighth performance segment (change of 
payload weight) should be entered first with an input of 
AWpL (LOG 1161 through 1170) of 200. Then, the change of 
fuel weight segment can t>e entered with a large number 
input for the AWf quantity. 

6 . The weights factors Ki through W !LOCri2654-2673) have a 
nominal value of 1.0 assigned to them by the program. 
These factors need not be input unless a nonunity value 
is desired. Similarly, the incremental ^^oup weights, 
AWfc (LOG 2605), AWp (LOG 2606), and AWst (LOG 2607), are 
nominally zero and need not be input unless a ^o^^^ero 
value is desired. The reserve fuel factors Ki (LOG 0032) 
and 6Wf (LOG 0033) are nominally unity and zero respec- 
tively. The fuel flow multiplier KpF (LOG 0034) is 
nominally 1.0. 

7. A cruise may be run with a headwind for cruise options 
3 through 6 by input of the headwind in Icnots in loca- 
tions 0731 through 0740. For cruise option 2 (specified 
constant true airspeed), the user can simulate cruise with 
a headwind by inputting an "equivalent" value for Rmax 

(LOG 0791 - 0800), obtained by adjusting the true ground 
range desired by the ratio airspeed v ground speed. The 
program output values for range must then be readjusted 
by the inverse of this ratio to obtain the correct ground 
range. 
7 .2 DISGUSSION OF ROTOR PERFORMA NCE CALCULATIONS 

As noted in section 4.5, three options for computing _roto^ 
performance are available to the program user. The ^^st of 
Sese (ROTIND - 1) utilizes the "short form aero" rotor per- 
formance method which can be described as follows: 



7-3 



The short form aero rotor performance methodology is a 
combination of momentum theory and empirically derived factors , 
The four elements of the rotor power required are: 

a) induced power (power required to generate lift) 

b) profile power (power required to turn the rotor) 

c) parasite power (power required to supply propulsive 
thrust in forward flight) . 

d) nonuniform downwash power (power correction due to 
nonuniform inflow and downwash effects in forward 
flight) . 

Figure 7-1 is a summary of the major equations used in this 
methodology. A brief description of their applications 
follows: 

In hover, the rotor power required is composed of only two 
parts, induced and profile power. The induced power as repre- 
sented by the equations in Figure 7-1 is a function of the 
variables Kjjqv^ ^GL' ^^^ ^T* ^HOV ^^ ^^e adjustment for non- 
uniform inflow and wake contraction effects and is a function 
of Ct/ blade number, and blade twist. Kql is the correction 
for overlapping rotors (as in the case of a tandem rotor heli- 
copter) . 

The profile power is simply a function of the integrated blade 
drag coefficient (including compressibility effects) at a 
specified operating Cp/^ and blade solidity. 

In cruise, the rotor power is composed of all four of the 
components listed initially. The induced power, as represented 
by the equations in Figure 7-1, is a function of the quantities 
KiND' KiNT/ C^'f and y'. Kji^q is the induced power adjustment 
factor which accounts for blade tip and other losses- Kjnt is 
the induced power adjustment for interference between tandem 
rotors. Thus, for single rotor helicopters, KjfjT i^ equal to 
1. For tandem rotors, the value of KjfjT is calculated based 
on tandem rotor overlap and an empirically derived wake sepa- 
ration angle, e'. Profile power is simply a function of the 
integrated blade drag coefficient (corrected for retreating 
blade stall and advancing blade compressibility effects) at 
specified operating conditions (Crp '/a, y, Cx) r blade solidity, 
and advance ratio (y) . The parasite power is a function of 
the propulsive thrust required and the efficiency of the rotor 
in converting power into that propulsive thrust (in addition 
to providing lift) . The nonuniform downwash (NUD) power is a 
correction which has been empirically derived from a compari- 
son of uniform and nonuniform downwash rotor analyses. The 
term K^uD^ which is a function of the advancing rotor, is 
stored as BLOCK DATA in this program. 

7-4 



o 








04 

o 

en 

Q. 



O 

in 
in 



O 

Ci4 



i 

03 




Eh 
O 

u 

Q. 



O 

in 
in 



11 






3 <N 



04 

u 



H 

04 

u 



04 

04 



CM 

in 







Eh 


iH 


52 


^ta«<r 


H 




1^ 


o 




Q 


O 




S 


Q 
U 


00 


H 



Q 
H 

04 

u 



04 
04 

o 

M 

o 

&H 
04 



0) 



§ 

04 
04 



&H 


u 


O 




H 




04 




u 






pq^ 




y^ « 


0) 


&4 § 


u 


QO 


0) 


o; 04 


x: 


04 



^ -- 



-EH 



CM 



II 

a 

H 

04 

u 



« 05 

U pq 

P S 

O O 

2: 04 

H 



04 



X 

3. 



04 
04 



&H o; 

H g 

CO ^ 

S 04 
04 



CM 



:z; 





•H 


0) 


OJ 


D 


tfl 


CM 


P ^ 






c 


t= 


-H 


« 


•H 




U 


^q 


CO 


II 


Q 


• 






P 


P 


« 


< 


2: 


+ 


• 




CM 


H 


P 





J- 




^ 




00 




• 




CM 




rH 




+ 




iH 




II 




H 
05 


S 


:i 


04 


04 


"- ' 


;a. 


a 


M-l 


II 


II 


05 


P 


w 


JD 


04 


53 


J4 


t4 



Csl rH 

05 ^ 



II 

p 

04 

u 





CM 




&H 


&H 


EH 


o 


> 


o 


05 


< 


tH 


h) 


Q. 


X 






-EH 






05 



O 

P 04 

D 

2; 



00 
H 
> 



> 



4J 



0) 



CM 



CM 



CM 

EH 

U 

+ 

J- 

3. 



II 
> 



CM 

> 

+ 

<M 
> 

as 

00 



Eh 
> 



II 



CM 






d|oo 



O 

P 

a 

n 

o 



99 

05 04 

04 



EH 


a 










s 








O 










t^ 


Eh 








> 


cn 


CM 






o 


D 


B^ 




P 


ffi 


Pi 


> 




\ 


^ 


ffi 


< 


^ 


+^ 


r- 


EH 


Q. 


o 


:3 


o 






05 


o 


r- 


05 




2: 


+5 


• 


^ 




<N 






II 


o 




P 


^ 


u 




K 




t= 




CN 



p 

H 

04 

u 



p 

pLt 

B 

P 
H 



EH 
O 



U 
X 



2 



7-5 



I 

P4 




In order to obtain a reasonable estimation of power required 
at very low advance ratios (u < 0.1) where neither normal 
cruise nor hover rotor characteristics totally describe the 
operating environment of the rotor, an empirical fairing 
technique is used. The method is based on the contracted 
induced wake angle e : 



•^0 



The relationship: 



c = tan -^ [ 2v^/ (1.689V) 



2 2 

sin e + cos e = 1 



is used to provide a smooth transition between hover and cruise 
characteristics for the affected coefficients while insuring 
that the resulting values will lie within the boundaries set 
by hover and cruise limiting conditions. 

A detailed description of the equations used in this method- 
ology is provided by inspection of Figure 4-14 (subroutine 
ROTPOW flow chart) and the input variable list included in 
paragraph 5.3.1 of Section 5.0. The empirical factors used 
in this methodology are input as noted earlier, in "rotor 
cycle" format. The input sheet used for this purpose is in- 
cluded in the specimen input sheets of Section 5.2. It should 
be noted that since the factors specified in a **rotor cycle" 
represent integrated blade characteristics, then a given "rotor 
cycle" implicity represents a given spanwise chord and airfoil 
distribution. Thus, it would ultimately be possible to build 
up an extensive library of "rotor cycles" with varying combi- 
nations of planform and airfoil distributions. 

In the case of ROTIND = 2 (as noted in Section 4.5) input 
rotor maps, corrected by the program for the specific rotor and 
and helicopter configuration characteristics under study, are 
employed. When ROTIND = 3, input rotor maps with no correc- 
tions applied are utilized. A detailed description of the 
equations and variables used for ROTIND = 2 or 3 is available 
by inspection of Figure 4-14 and paragraph 5.3.1. Figures 
7-2 and 7-3 show the corrections (KdlD' TIGE/TOGE) for hover- 
in-ground effect applied to the equations: 

T/W = 1 + D.L. (Kdld) 
4W(T/W) 



C„ = 



T 2' 2 

P^^MR ^R^TIP (TIGE/TOGE) 



used in calculating hover power, 



7-6 



D"^CORR.FACT=l-°28-l-25e 



-(2hBp/DIA.) 



°^C0RR.FACT=l-2^^^^-^-"^"^ 



-hs /DIA. 



SINGLE 
ROTOR 

TANDEM 
ROTOR 




(hg /DIA.) FUSELAGE BOTTOM/GROUND HT. RATIO 
— - F 

Figure 7-2. Download Sensitivity to Ground Proximity. 



7-7 



THRUSTjgj./THRUSTQgg=. 06907 (1/X) + . 03364 (X) + . 90186 



1.20 






Eh 






E-i 
CO 

Eh 



1.16 



1.12 



1.08 



1.04 



1.00 




.4 .8 1.2 1.6 
X = ROTOR HEIGHT/DIAMETER 



2.0 



Figure 7-3. Thrust Augmentation in Ground Effect. 



7-8 



7.3 DISCUSSION OF ROTOR LIMITS 

The function of the rotor limits table input described in 
Section 4.6 is to provide realistic (Ig) level flight bound- 
ciries for helicopter rotor operation. This is important 
because, although the rotor performance calculation (whether 
using rotor "cycles" orimaps) reflects operation near stall 
through rapidly increasing power required levels, it would 
still be possible, using a greatly oversized engine, to oper- 
ate in this region, even though in actual fact the rotor could 
ise over stressed or subject to structural failure. A typical 
rotor limits plot is illustrated by the sketch below: 



Ct ' /a 



MANEUVER FLIGHT 




1 g LEVEL FLIGHT 



For'purpbses of defining tEe tabular rotor limits input, the 
level flight conditions" are of interest only, although single 
point values {CT/a)H/ (CT/a)CR ^^^^ ^he maneuver flight curve 
are necessary for determining (sizing) main rotor solidity. 
Rotor limits, then can be based on: 

a) incipient rotor blade stall limits (Ig level flight) , or 

b) incipient rotor blade stall and/or rotor blade struc- . 
tural limits for maneuver flight. 

Figure 7-4 shows a summary of miscellaneous rotor limits data 
(theoretical and flight test) , for both the Ig level flight 
and maneuver conditions. The rotor limit value (Ct/o)h en- 
countered in hover is typically due to stall flutter. This is 
primarily an aeroelastic/control system stiffness problem. 
Level flight rotor limit values, as noted earlier, are a func- 
tion of incipient stall and/or stall flutter. Rotor limits in 
maneuver flight are more complex to understand because of the 
interaction of various rotor configurations and rotor para- 
meters on the result. For example, a rotor system with 



7-9 



C^'/a 



0.12 




1 g LEVEL FLIGHT 




0.10 


- 






0.08 


- 


\ 1 1 


1 1 1 





0.16 r 



0.14 



C^Va 



0.12 



0.10 



0.08 



0.1 0.2 0.3 

ADVANCE RATIO - y 



MANEUVERING FLIGHT 



0.4 



0.5 




ANALYTICALLY 



% \ 

\ DETERMINED 
C^t^r--^^ \(BELL A.H.S. PAPER, 

^v^7c^--^^^\ 1565) 



0.1 0.2 0.3 

ADVANCE RATIO - y 



0.4 



0.5 



Figure 7-4. Summary of Typical Rotor Limits. 



7-10 



relatively high rotor blade inertia in the flapwise directxon, 
should potentially (in a maneuver) exhibit a higher maneuver 
g capability (due to gyroscopic precessional effects) than a 
rotor with less inertia in the flapwise direction. Other 
factors influencing rotor limits include the torsional natural 
frequency of the blade as it interacts with stall flutter, 
chordwise bending stresses of the blade, the type of maneuver 
performed, etc. For a more detailed discussion of this matter 
see References 12 to 15. 

Provision has been made in the rotor limits table for inclusion 
of rotor limits which are a function of tyjo (based on rotor 
propulsive thrust) as well as y (see the sketch below). 



C^'/c^ 




Cx/a = 
Cx/a INCREASING 



In those instances where C-^/o is not a variable, the user 
simply inputs Ct'/o versus y at dummy values of Cx/a (0 and 
1 0) .' ' If "the user wishes to operate the program without using 
rotor Timrts, large "dummy" values of CtVo (say 1.0) are 
input at Cx/cJ = and" 1.0. 

7.4 "DISCUSSION OF PROPELLER EFFICIENCY 

The final selection of a propeller blade design to best suit 
a given compound helicopter mission is a rather arduous^ task 
because the suboptimiza t ion of many considerations, such as 
pfotTeller efficiency, propeller weight, power transmission 
system weight, powerplant performance, and others, is required 
for each mission segment followed by an overall mission optimi- 
zitionr" 7^ single propeller design does not satisfy the re- 
quirement. 

The basic problem faced in evolving a single propeller design 
to satisfy all flight conditions is that of achieving the 
optimum blade loading for each of the flight conditions. This 



7-11 



is virtually impossible due to the degree and manner in which 
thrust required and power available vary with engine and 
vehicle speeds. From an aerodynamic viewpoint, this basic 
problem manifests itself in terms of problems associated with 
blade chord, twist and design C^ distributions, engine- 
propeller performance matching, and compressibility. 

Propeller blade loading is a function of the spanwise distri- 
bution of blade twist, blade chord, and blade section design 
lift coefficient. These three parameters must be employed so 
as to yield the optimum propeller performance at a given 
flight condition. This will occur when each section of the 
blade is adjusted to operate at or near its maximum lift-drag 
ratio while maintaining an optimum spanwise load distribution. 
As the operating conditions vary, the degree to which near 
optimum conditions can be maintained changes for a fixed blade 
geometry. Therefore, some compromise must take place, and 
best efficiency cannot be achieved at each and every operating 
condition. 

As one can appreciate, with fixed blade geometry the attain- 
ment of overall propeller optimization is somewhat limited 
with regard to what can be aerodynamically achieved with twist, 
solidity, and design lift coefficient. Furthermore, changing 
these variables results in variations in blade centrifugal 
twisting moment, hub centrifugal loads, blade pitch control 
loads, and numerous other items which result in either opera- 
tional envelope limitations or weight constraints. Variable 
blade geometry can result in aerodynamic iinprovements, but 
these may well be offset by increased weight and cost. Vari- 
able geometry propeller blade development and application, 
furthermore, have been quite limited. 

The ability to alter propeller speed in cruise will help the . 
designer cope with blade loading problems and result in better 
mission efficiency. This can be done whether by using a mul- 
tiple speed power transmission system between the engine and 
propeller or by exercising the variable output shaft speed 
capability of free turbine powerplants. The former method is 
generally not used due to weight penalties, while the latter 
method is extensively employed. Engine-propeller matching, :- 
though, is not as simple as it may sound. Engine power does 
fall off at nonoptimum turbine speed, and transmission torque 
requirements and weight increase with reduced turbine speed. 

The combination of vehicle speed, propeller speed, diameter 
and altitude produce a constraint in the form of Mach number. 
Exceeding a helical tip Mach number of about 0.95 appears to 
significantly reduce propeller efficiency. 



7-12 




Current state of the art regarding propeller aerodynamics 
appears to permit very accurate appraisal of a given propeller 
design performance over most of the flight envelope. Per- • 
formance prediction capability is generally inadequate m the 
following areas: 1) static thrust, 2) at moderate to high 
propeller shaft angles of attack (say 30 to 90 degrees) , and 
3) under the "mixed" flow conditions where the blade sections 
are in neither wholly subsonic nor wholly supersonic flows. 
For purposes of preliminary design, however, the short methods 
for predicting propeller performance available from propeller 
manufacturers (e.g., Curtiss-Wright and Hamilton Standard) 
generally produce acceptable results, and should certainly 
be given consideration. 

Whenever possible, the aircraft designer should consult the 
propeller manufactures' and his own propeller staffs early xn 
the preliminary design phase. Lacking this, he should freely 
exercise the methodology published by propeller manufacturers. 
These methods require only several minutes to manually com- 
pute a propeller performance point and are well worth the 
effort. Too many preliminary aircraft designs have proceeded 
too far assuming propeller efficiencies in excess of the ideal 
induced (i.e., zero drag) value. 

7.5 DISCUSSION OF PROGRAM TOLERANCES 

The tolerances tabulated in Table 7-1 represent the accuracy 
required of iterated values calculated at certain Po^^ts in 
the programs Whenever the values of the quantities named xn 
Table 7-1 become less than the value quoted, the iterating 
calculation is terminated. 



7-13 



TABLE 7-1. PROGRAM TOLERANCES 



TOL 



Ay 



ABHP 
BHP, 



VARIABLE BEING 
SYMBOL VALUE CALCULATED 



SITUATION 
IN PROGRAM 



0.01 Wq, Gross Weight 



0.1' Yf Flight Path 
Angle 



0.01 BHP,-BHP„ 
A R 

BHP. 



Main Control 
Loop 



Climb & De- 
scent Sub 
routines 

Cruise 



FUNCTION OF TOLERANCE 



When the quantity 
|l-(Wf)A/(Wf)R|< TOL, the 
fuel required and available 
are considered to be suf- 
ficiently close and the 
sizing calculation is 
terminated. 

Determines flight path 
angle to within 0.1" 



The cruise speed is set 
when BHPj^ is within 
0.01 BHPa 



^B 



A (Xm/^b 

(Xm/^b)c 



ADtr 
^TRi 

AcTTRj 
^TR 



\ 



OL 



0.01 Bj^ - B2 
B^ 



CRSIND = 1 



0.01 (Xn/ 1^) - {Xt/[/ i^) c Main control 
(XM/i^B)c ^°°P 



0.01 Dtr - I^TRt 
DtRj 

0.01 ^TRi "" ^TR 
^TR 



5 niu R, Range 



Size trends 
subroutine 



Main control 
loop 



Descent Sub 
routine 



Bl " B2 is used to adjust 
— g- AV to expedite 

computation. If Bi - Bo 



B2 
becomes less than AB, 
BHPj^ always exceeds BHP^ 

The main rotor position 
is determined when 
Wh/^B is within 0.01 

The tail rotor diameter 
is determined when Drp 
is within 0-01 Drpj^ . 

The tail rotor solidity 
is determined when arpp, 
is within 0.01 a^j^. 



If the range at the end of 
descent is within Rtol ^^™ 
of %ax ^^^ calculation 
terminates. 



7-14 



7.6 SAMPLE CASES 

TO illustrate the use of the program, two sample cases have 
been run and the output included here. 

The first case is for a single-rotor compound helicopter with 
auxiliary independent cruise propulsion (T/Shaft - Propeller) . 
This case illustrates main rotor (diameter and solidity) 
sizing, wing sizing for maneuver conditions, auxiliary inde- 
pendent engine sizing, tail rotor solidity sizing to meet 
hovering turn requirements, vertical tail area sizing based 
on tail rotor loss (in cruise) criteria, and the use of a 
drag trend. The primary engines and drive system are sized 
to meet specified takeoff and cruise requirements. 

The second case is for a tandem rotor winged helicopter. It 
illustrates the use of the component drag buildup option, fuse- 
lage sizing based on specified rotor overlap and cabin dimen- 
sions, aft rotor pylon sizing based on an input gap/stagger 
ratio, wing sizing for maneuver conditions, and main rotor (diam- 
eter and solidity) sizing. The primary engines and drive systems 
are sized to meet specified takeoff and cruise requirements. 



7.6.1 Single Rotor Compound Helicopter (Auxiliary independent 
Engines) 

The design mission profile is illustrated in Figure 7-5. The 
more interesting and unusual inputs are discussed for this 
case while the more routine information is only listed. A 
complete copy of the program printout follows the description 
of the input. 

CRUISE AT SPEED 
FOR 99% BEST RANGE 



TAKEOFF AT 

T/wd.oe 

(6 MIN) 



TAXI OUT 
(2 MIN) 

\ 




CRUISE AT SPEED FOR 

99% BEST RANGE 

TRANSFER ALTITUDE 
TO lUOO FEET 



A. 



HOVER AT T/W*1.06 
(12 MIN) 







SUFFICIENT RESERVE 
FUEL TO LOITER FOR 
20 MINUTES 



CLIMB AT MAX R/C 

TO 3000 FEET ALTITUDE 



LOITER FOR 
ONE-HALF HOUR 

UNLOAD 1000 LB 
OF PAY LOAD 



^ CLIMB AT MAX R/C 
TO 5000 FEET ALTITUDE 



— 300 NAUTICAL MILES- 



Figure 7-5. Design MSN - Sample Case Number 1. 

7-15 



SAMPLE CASE NO, 



GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET 

VARIABLE LO CATION VALUE ASSIGNED 

1.0 
1.0 

2.0 



OPTIND 


0001 


OPTIONAL 


0002 


PRINT 




DRGIND 


0003 


OSWIND 


0004 


CNFIND 


0005 


AUXIND 


0006 


RDMIND 


0007 



FIXIND 
ROTIND 
Sv^IND 
tViND 

AIPIND 
ENGIND 
FIXINDI 



0008 



0009 



0010 



0011 



0012 



0013 



0014 



1.0 
4.0 
4.0 



1.0 
1.0 
3.0 
1.0 

2.0 



1,0 



REMARKS 

Sizing run 

Detailed printout de- 
s ired 

GW/Pe Drag trend uti- 
lized 

User inputs Oswald 
efficiency factor 

Single- rotor helicopter 

Compound he 1 icopter 

Main rotor diameter 
sized based on input 
disc loading; solidity 
sized based on input 
Cip/a 

Program sizes primary 
engines 

Short form rotor per- 
formance method used 

Wing area sized by ma- 
neuver conditions 

Wing span sized based on 
input wing span/rotor 
diameter ratio 

Independent auxiliary 
engines 

Turbos ha ft auxiliary in- 
dependent engines 

Program sizes auxiliary 
independent engines 



7-16 



VARIABLE 
TRDIND 



TRSIND 



VTFIND 



HTIND 



MRPIND 



ESCIND 



LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 
0015 1.0 



0016 



0017 



0018 
0019 
0022 



2.0 



2.0 



2.0 



2.0 



REMARKS 

Tail rotor diameter 
sized based on tail 
rotor/main rotor diam- 
eter trend 

Tail rotor solidity 
sized based on input 

Crp/a 

Vertical Fin area sized 
to meet configuration 
anti-torque require- 
ments upon loss of tail 
rotor 

Horizontal tail volume 
coefficient input 

Main rotor position (on 
fuselage) input by user 

primary engines sized 
for either takeoff or 

cruise 



VfGr 



hQpipIND 



M, 



•MO 



V 



MO 



V 



DIVE 



0023 


25000 


First guess at desxgn 
;, gross weight 




0024 
0025 
0026 







Start alti-"^ 
tude 

Starting 
range 

Starting 

time J 


Normally 
, except 
^ for 

partial 
mission 
analysis 




0027 





Cruise at specified 
altitudes 




0028 


0.33 


Maximum operating Mach 
number 




0029 


220 


Maximum operating EAS 
knots 




0030 


220 


Design dive 
knots EAS 


speed. 





7-17 



VARIABLE 


LOCATION 


VALUE ASSIGNED 


Mlf 


0031 


3.5 


Kl 


0032 


1.0 



6Wf 
SGTIND 



0033 

0034 

0035 
0036 
0037 
0038 
0039 
0040 

0041 
0042 

0043 
0044 
0045 
0046 

0047 



1.05 

1.0 
2.0 
4.0 
3.0 
4.0 
9.0 

2.0 
8.0 

6.0 
3.0 
4.0 
60.0 

100.0 



REMARKS 

Maneuver load factor 

Factor on mission fuel 
burned to give reserve 
fuel, i.e., 1.1 would 
give 10 percent re- 
serves 

Fixed fuel increment for 
reserves or other use 

Increase basic engine 
SFC by 5 percent 



"^ 



Taxi 

Takeoff 
Cruise 

Climb 

Cruise 

Transfer 
altitude 

Takeoff 

Change pay- 
load 

Loiter 

Climb 

Cruise 

Loiter (re- 
serve fuel) 



End of casey 




7-18 





HELICOPTER 


d: 


rMENSIONi 


UL INFORMA' 




VARIABLE 


LOCATIUJN 


VALUE AS: 




bw/D 




0103 


0.5 




(t/c)R 




0105 


0,20 


: 


(t/c)^ 




0106 


0.12 




--_:: : - 






: ::■-■;: :_ : 


._::■- 


Ac/4 




0107 





^^^ 


X 




0108 


0.5 


__^^=^ 


Cp/C 




0109 


1.0 






_.._.. 











h'/h, 



0110 



0.20 



CLd 


0111 


0.8 


ARht 


0112 


4.0 


9 ' 


0113 


1.15 


(t/c)jjT 


0114 


0.12 


^H 


0115 


0.0162 


^H 


0116 


0.5 


AS^et/Sp 


0120 






REMARKS 

Wing span/main rotor 
diameter ratio 

Wing root thickness/ 
chord ratio 

Wing tip thickness/ 
chord ratio 

Quarter-chord mean 
sweep angle, degrees 

Wing taper ratio (tip 
chord/root chord) 

Ratio of download al- 
leviating flap chord to 
wing chord (1.0 signi- 
fies a fully tilting 
wing) 

Ratio of vertical wing 
position on fuselage as 
a fraction of fuselage 
height 

Wing d^esign lift coef- 
ficient 

Horizontal tail aspect 
ratio 

Ratio of horizontal tail 
moment arm to main rotor 
radius 

Horizontal tail thick- 
ness/chord ratio 

Horizontal tail volume 
coefficient 

Horizontal tail taper 
ratio 

Fuselage wetted area 
ratio 



7-19 



VARIABLE 


LOCATION 


VALUE ASSIGNED 


^^et 


0121 





hp 


0122 


7.0 


Wp 


0123 


6.5 


(il/d)p 


0124 


1.3 


(^/d)T 


0125 


1.0 


c 


0126 


12. 


^RW 


0127 





%Ab 


0128 


0.55 



Sb/%B °129 



*^ttb/^tb °i^° 



^. 



STING 



(t/c)^ 



0131 



0136 
0137 

0138 

0139 



5.0 
0.3 



1.1 



0.45 
0.15 
0,80 
0.85 



REMARKS 

Incremental fuselage 
wetted area 

Fuselage height 

Fuselage width 

Fineness ratio of nose 

Fineness ratio of tail 

Constant diameter sec- 
tion length 

Length of ramp well 

Main rotor position aft 
of the nose as a frac- 
tion of main fuselage 
length 

Fineness ratio of tail 
boom 

Ratio of average tail 
boom tip diameter to 
average tail boom 
diameter 

Tail boom extends aft of 
the tail rotor disc by 
10 percent of the tail 
rotor radius 

Vertical tail taper 
ratio 

Vertical tail thick- 
ness/chord ratio 

Vertical tail fin/tail 
rotor overlap ratio 

Vertical position of the 
tail rotor center (rela- 
tive to the vertical 
fin root chord) as a 
fraction of tail rotor 
radius 



7-20 



VARIABLE LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 



^DES 



0141 



180 



REMARKS 

Vertical tail fin de- 
sign lift coefficient 

Vertical tail fin sized 
to provide aircraft 
directional stability 
at 180 kts in event of 
tail rotor loss 



Zl 


0142 


0.035 


Z2 


0143 


2.0 


Z3 


0144 


0.078 


Z4 


0146 


0.035 


Z5 


0147 


2.0 


Z6 


0148 


0.078 


ft/c)„ 


0152 


0.40 



Rp 



(t/c) 



Tp 



AR 



FP 



^FP 



Pi 



0153 



0154 



0155 



0156 



0.20 



0.5 



0.4 



3.0 



MAIN ROTOR DIMENSIONAL DATA SHEET 



ROTOR 


CYCLE 


0171 


3 


NO. 








% 




0172 


1.0 


w/a 




0173 


11.0 


^R 




0176 


4.0 



Primary engine 
nacelle constants 



Auxiliary inde- 
pendent engine 
nacelle constants 



Forward rotor pylon 
root thickness/chord 
ratio 

Foirward rotor pylon tip 
thickness/chord ratio 

Forward rotor pylon 
aspect ratio 

Forward rotor pylon 
taper ratio 

Forward rotor pylon 
height 



Rotor blade section 
aerodynamic charac- 
teristics selection 

Number of rotors 

Disc loading 

Number of blades/main 
rotor 



7-21 



VARIABLE LOCATION 



■•MR 



-MR 



%R 



V. 



TIP 
(Cqi/a) 



T/W 



H 



0177 
0178 

0179 



(t/c).25R 0180 



0181 
0182 

0183 



VALUE ASSIGNED 
-9.0 
0.25 

0,075 

0.10 

725 
0.12 

1.06 



Vkt(c) 


0184 


165 


h^,(c) 


0185 


3000 


^TiNc 


0186 


43.2 J 


(CT/a)cR 


0187 


0.110 


^REQM'T 


0188 


1.75 


g (ROTOR) 


0189 


1.35 


N (ROTOR 
LOADING) 


0190 


1.00 


VcEHl 


0191 


1.53 ' 

> 


VCEH2 


0192 


J 


^PCLIMB 


0193 


0.85 



REMARKS 

Main rotor twist (deg) 

Main rotor blade cutout 
as a fraction of radius 

Main rotor blade attach- 
ment point as a fraction 
of radius 

Rotor blade thickness/ 
chord at 25 percent 
radius 

Main rotor tip speed 

Rotor "lift coefficient" 
for hover sizing 
solidity 

Rotor design thrust/ 
weight ratio 



Cruise flight con- 
ditions for sizing 
rotor solidity- 



Rotor "lift coefficient' 
for sizing rotor solid- 
ity in cruise flight 

Total g requirement, 
helicopter must satisfy 

Maneuver g's carried by 
main rotor 

Rotor lift/GW for Ig 
cruise flight rotor 
solidity sizing 

Main rotor vertical 
rate-of-climb effi- 
ciency factors 

Helicopter forward 
flight climb efficiency 



7-22 



TAIL ROTOR DIMENSIONAL DATA SHEET 
VARIABLE LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 



^TR 


0203 


5.0 


9ttr 


0204 


-4.0 


Xcmxj 


0205 


0,3 



XrpR 



0206 



0212 



Kzzz 



%R/TR 



0213 



0.075 



Vttr 0207 


690 


(Ct/o)dEs(H) 0208 


0.17 


i 0209 


0.30 


4) 0210 


0.75 


Pm /Cm 0211 


1.00 



0.72 



1.00 



0214 



1.0 



REMARKS 

NO. of blades/tail rotor 

Tail rotor twist (deg) 

Tail rotor blade cutout 
as a fraction of radius 

Tail rotor blade attach- 
ment point as a fraction 
of radius 

Tail rotor tip speed 

Tail rotor limiting 
design rotor "lift 
coefficient" 

Helicopter yaw accel- 
eration, rad/sec2 

Helicopter yaw rate, 
r ad/sec 

Vertical tail fin/tail 
rotor sideload ratio 
(when input as 1.00, 
program calculates a 
value of Ctq/Ctjs^^^ based 
on tail fin/rotor 
geometry) 

Tail rotor induced 
velocity ratio for a 
pusher type tail rotor 
(see fig. 4-21, sect. 
4.8) 

Single rotor helicopter 
yaw moment of inertia 
trend adjustment factor 
(nominally = 1.00) 

Gap between main and 
tail rotor disc (ft) 



7-23 



VARIABLE 
%RS 



LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 
0215 1.05 



Cl 



FIN 



0216 



REMARKS 

Tail rotor solidity in- 
creased 5 percent over 
that dictated by hover- 
ing turn requirements 

Vertical tail fin op- 
erating cruise lift 
coefficient 



PRIMARY ENGINE SIZING 
VARIABLE LOCATION 



INFORMATION SHEET 
VALUE ASSIGNED 



REMARKS 



PRIMARY 






ENGINE 






CYCLE NO. 


0217 


1.761 


Np 


0219 


2.0 


XMSNIND 


0220 


2.0 



SHPmrx/SHP*j^ 0221 



rim 0223 

0224 



'T 

A SHPacc 



SHP,pjy^/TRP* 0225 



S«^ARX/SHP*^X °226 



h^^(H) 0227 

TO 



1.0 



0.97 
100 

1.0 



1.0 



4000 



Primary engine selection 

No. of primary engines 

Drive system rated at 
power required to hover 
or cruise (more critical 
of the two conditions 
selected by program) 

Main rotor drive system 
is rated at 100 percent 
of main rotor design 
power 

Transmission efficiency 

Accessory power losses 

Tail rotor drive system 
is rated at 100 percent 
of tail rotor design 
power 

Aux propulsion drive 
system is rated at 100 
percent of aux propul- 
sion des ign power 

Design point hover al- 
titude (engine sizing) 



7-24 



VARIABLE LOCATION 
(T/W)d 0228 

(Nii/Niimax)tO 023 



VALUE ASSIGNED 



REMARKS 



^SD 



SHPe/SHP* 



V. 



CLt 



0231 



0232 



0235 
0236 



(TaUx/TtOt)<= 0239 



0240 



(N^^^)^ 0241 
^ PSD' C 



1.06 



1.105 







0.95 



3000 

170 
0.75 



0.3 



Configuration design 
point hover thrust/ 
weight ratio 

Main rotor operating at 
100 percent of hover 
tip speed (725 fps) ; 

i.e. 

/ Nil \ /^IIMAXV 



= (1.105) (.905) (725) 
« 725 

NO. of engines inopera- 
tive at hover design 
point conditions 

Engines sized to permit 
operation in hover (OGE) 
at 95 percent of the 
maximum rated power 

Design point (cruise) 
altitude (engine sizing) 

Design point cruise 
speed (engine sizing) 

75 percent of propulsive 
thrust provided by aux. 
propulsion at cruise 
conditions for engine 
sizing 

Wing operating lift co- 
efficient at cruise 
conditions for engine 
sizing 

NO. of primary engines 
shut down during cruise 
(for engine sizing) 



7-25 



AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT ENGINE SIZING INFORMATION SHEET 
VARIABLE LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED REMARKS 



AUX PROPUL- 0242 
SION ENGINE 
CYCLE NO. 

N„ 0245 



POWIND 0246 



1.761 



1.0 



Auxiliary independent 
engine selection 



Helicopter has one aux. 
independent engine 

Aux. independent engine 
sized to provide 75 per- 
cent of configuration 
propulsive thrust at 
NRP 



PROPELLER DATA REQUIRED FOR COMPOUND HELICOPTER AUX 
PROPULSION INFORMATION SHEET 



VARIABLE 

^Tar 
DIA 



X 



AR 



It 



AUX 



HpIND 



^P3 

AF/Blade 

NO. of 
Blades 



LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 



0249 
0250 
0251 

0252 
0253 

0254 
0257 
0258 



900 

10 

0.075 

0.97 




REMARKS 

Propeller tip speed 

Propeller diameter 

Propeller blade attach- 
ment point as fraction 
of radius 

Auxiliary drive system 
transmission efficiency 

"Point" propeller effi- 
ciencies specified for 
climb and cruise 

Propeller efficiency in 

climb 



3 -way propeller, 14 
activity factor/blade 



7-26 



HELICOPTER 
VARIABLE 
(GW/Fe) 

^ED 

e 

TFEF 
(Re/H) i 



Cl 



a 



AERODYNAMICS INFORMATION SHEET 
LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 



0312 

0313 
0314 

0315 
0328 



Cl-Cd 
TABLE 



0329 



0330 
-0345 



1130 



555 



0.75 



1.0 



1.46 
10 



6.28 



REMARKS 



Drag trend constants de- 
rived from data such as 
illustrated by fig. 
4-26, section 4-9 

Wing "span loading" 
efficiency factor 

Tail fin aspect ratio 
effectiveness factor 
(nominally = 1.0) 

X Mean Reynolds No. /ft 

based on primary engine 
cruise sizing flight 
conditions 

Wing 2-D lift curve 
slope 



See input values on sample 
output sheets 



ROTOR LIMITS INFORMATION SHEET 

0347 
-0377 



This case has been run using 
"dummy" rotor limit values (as 
explained in Sec. 7.3). For 
actual "dummy" values used, re- 
fer to the appropriate locations 
on the output sheets 



HELICOPTER WEIGHT INFORMATION 

2601 
-2673 



TAXI INFORMATION 
t^ 0411 



K 



FI 



0431 



This is fully explained in Sec- 
tion 4.11. Refer to the output 
sheets for the actual values 
used. 



0.0333 
1.0 



Taxi for 2 minutes 

Auxiliary engine fuel 
flow multiplicative 
factor 



7-27 



TAKEOFF, HOVER, AND 


LANDING INFORMATION 


VARIABLE 


LOCATION 


VALUE ASSIGNED 


TOLIND 


0461 


1.0 ^ 




0462 


1.0 

J 


tR 


0551 


0.1 




0552 


0.2 


CLIMB INFORMATION 




CLMIND 


0571 


1.0"!^ 




0572 


1.0 


'^aux/'^'tot 


0691 
0692 


] 


^LwiNG 


0601 
0602 


0.3-? 
0.4) 


^PSDcL 


0681 
0682 


1.0"? 
1.0 


NpSDicL 


0701 


LO"! 




0702 


i.oj 



CRUISE INFORMATION 



CRSIND 

Taux/'^tot 

^^^ING 
%AX 



0721 

0722 
0723 

0841 
0842 
0843 

0751 
0752 
0753 

0791 
0792 
0793 



2,0 




REMARKS 

Specify required t/W for 
hover out-of-ground ef 
effect 

Hover for 6 minutes 

Hover for 12 minutes 



Climb at maximum rate 
of climb, limited by 
NRP available 

All propulsive thrust 
provided by main rotor 

Wing operating c^ in 
climb 

One primary engine shut 
down during climb 

Auxiliary independent 
engine shut down during 
climb 



Cruise at specified TAS 

Cruise at 99 percent 
best range speed 

P rope ller/ma in rotor 
propulsive thrust split 
during cruise segments 

Wing operating Cl in 
cruise 



values of range at end 
of each cruise 



7-28 



LOITER INFORMATION 

VARIABLE LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED REMARKS 

T,iTTv/T„„„ 1111 0.357 propeller/main rotor 
AUX' TOT C propulsive thrust split 

1112 0.35 ) in loiter 

Ct 1041 0.4 ") Wing operating Cl in 

^ 1042 0.4 J loiter 

t 1081 0.5 Loiter for 30 minutes 

Lf 

1082 0.25 Loiter for 15 minutes 

for reserve fuel pur- 
poses J 

TRANSFER ALTITUDE SHEET 

^ ^W 1161 -1000 Unload 1000 pounds of 

^^ .__ payload after 12 min- 

^--r - - utes" of hovering 

PRIMARY Eff^lUE CYCLE DATA; NON-STANDARD PERFORMANCE 

N2IND 1204 2.0 A non-optimum Nji vari- 

L^; ^^; ation will be used 

Ntt /Ntt 1223 0.905 Maximum power turbine 
J-XMAX II speed is 90.5 percent 

of rated value (static, 
max power, sea level 
^;^::: standard) 

AUX. INDEPENDENT ENGINE CYCLE DATA; NON-STANDARD PERFORMANCE 

N2INDI 2204 2.0 A non-optimum Nji vari- 

ations will be used 

Nttw.^/Ntt 2223 0.905 Maximum power turbine 
xxMAX J.X speed is 90.5 percent 

of rated value (static 
max power, sea level 
standard) 

The sample case output follows: 



7-29 



SAMPLE C4SE MP. I 



PAGE 1 



H E S C H P 
HELlCOPTfft SUING C PERF0^H*^4CE COMPUTER PROGRAH B-91 

THE FDtLJKiNG IS A CARO BY CARD REPRODUCTION OF THE INPUT DECK FOR THIS CASE 

LUC. CORRESPONDS TO LOCATION NUHBER GIVEN ON INPUT SHEET 

KlIH STANDS fOk THE NUMBER 3F SEQUENTIAL INPUT VALUES STARTING WITH LOC. (MAX, 'b) 
VAL EQUALS VALUE FOR VARIABLE CORRESPONDING TO LOC. 
VALl VALUE CORRESPONDING TO LOC. ♦0001 

VA12 VALUE CORRESPONDING TO LOC. #0002 

ETC. 



LOC- 



NUM 



VAL 



VALl 



VAL2 



VAL3 



VAL<r 



KOTE : IN USING AUXILIARY ENGINES : AUXILIARY ENGINE CYCLE INPUT LOCATIONS CAN BE CREATED 
RY PLACING A 66666 CARD IN FRONT AND BEHIND A STANDARD ENGINE CYCLE 



1601 


2 


3.0000 




-9.0030 










l^U 




O.995O0e- 


-02 


-U.28O0OE-O1 


0.26200 


0,27600 




2.4500 


1606 




0.86500 














160<> 




0. 10500E' 


-01 


2.8200 


0.9OO0OE-31 


1.1700 




0. 124O0E-U2 


I6l<r 




0.75800 




0.7*350 










I6l6 




10.000 




0*Q 


0.4OOO0E-02 


0.70000E' 


-02 


0.90000E-02 


1621 




0. lOUOO€- 


■01 


0,U050E-Ol 


0. ii5ooe-oi 


0.12000E-01 


0. 155(>a€-01 


1626 




0.22000E• 


■01 


1.0180 


1.0850 


U1540 




1.2330 


1631 




l.2790 




1.3140 


1.3270 


X.3370 




1.3640 


16J6 




1.39 70 














I 




i.nooo 




1.0030 


2.0000 


0.0 




l.OUOl 


b 




<r.oono 




4.0030 


1.0 30 


1.0000 




3.0000 


11 




1. woo 




2.0030 


0.0 


uoooo 




i.uono 


16 




2.0(100 




2.3030 


2.00UO 


0.0 






22 




2.0000 




25000. 


0.0 


0.0 






26 




0.0 




0.0 


0.33000 


22U.00 




220.00 


31 




3. 5'iOU 




1.0030 


0.0 


1.0500 




I. 0000 


^b 




2.0000 




4.0O0O 


3.0UOU 


4.0000 




9.0000 


*.! 




2, 1«>00 




8.0000 


6.0000 * 


3.0000 




^.0,110 


^b 




60«0i><1 




100.30 










1^3 




il.30<)'UI 














lr»< 




0.2)000 




0.1200U 


0.0 


0. 50000 




i.ootin 


ll'» 




0.2 WOO 




0.80000 










112 




4.0(MU> 




1.1530 


0.12000 


U.16200E 


-01 


0.500^10 


120 




o«u 




0.0 










12? 




T.OuOO 




6.5000 


1.300 


i.OOOO 




12.01.) 


127 




.u*i 




n,550JO 


5.0000 


U. 30000 




I.l0r)n 


n6 




U.^bOJO 




a. 15030 


0.80000 


0.85000 




(>,5f)0 10 


Kl 




180. flQ 














1^2 




u, 5b00i>E 


-ul 


2.aooo 


0. 780O0E-0 1 








\^t 




0. 350nOE 


-01 


2.3030 


0. 78*)(inE-Dl 








l^o 




O.t) 




1,0 










152 




u.^onn) 




0.2)000 


0.50000 


0.40000 




3.00 ILJ 


171 




3.0OO.I 














172 




1.(H100 




11.030 










I7fc 




A.OOOO 




-9.0000 


0. 250(tO 


0. 75oooe 


-01 


0.10000? DO 


IP.X 




?25.00 














182 




0.12000 




1.063U 











7-30 



IP4 




105. "» 


3000. 


43. 2on 


0. liono 


I. 7500 


IH^ 




U35on 


l.oooo 








l<^l 




1.53Urt 


0.0 








l'?3 




i*.8 5<)uO 










2»t3 




5.0in>«l 


-4.0O0O 


o.iooon 


0.750008-01 


690, '»0 


2U'l 




u. I7nu(i 


0. 30 000 


0. 7500 


1,0000 


O.72ft)0 


zi-^ 




l.t)Oi#U 


I .0000 


1.0500 






216 




ti,n 










217 




U761.3 










2l<» 




2«v>ua(j 










2?t» 




2.*K)<V) 


l.ttOOO 








223 




n.vTooii 


lOO.O'> 








225 




I. 0010 


l.oooo 








227 




Aogn.fl 


uotoo 


b0.300 


1.1050 


0.0 


232 




0,9Si>M0 


0.0 








23<. 




2.0<)10 


3.»g.0 


170.00 


4 3.2i>*l 


1.105O 


23** 




U.75ii'»0 


0.3tMUO 


*u^ 






24? 




U76l() 










245 




i.ot.in 










24o 




2»<H)ttO 


1.1050 








24P 




U^P'^0 


900.30 


io»ooo 


0. 75000E-O1 


0.97000 


2b3 




.^.v 








"""" 


254 




U,fl2<>>Ml 


o.soouo 








?57 




l4U.*1<i 


3.0000 








261 




4.t1U*lO 










262 




tU*i 


O.2000O 


i>«4(l<}00 


0. 80000 




272 




0,85000 


0.83030 


O.dOOOO 


0. 78000 




J12 




1130.0 


0.55500 


0, 75000 


l.oooo 




32? 




0,0 










i27 




1.U2U0 




" , 






328 




0.1464OE 07 










^2^ 




6.2300 










330 




7.t)<iao 










331 




0.0 


(1. ZOO^i) 


0.400UU 


0.60(100 


0.90000 


3'*6 




l.ilUOO 


1.4I0O 








3 30 




U.6U0UUC-U2 


O«62O0OF-o2 


0.7OOOOE-3 2 


0, 800 00€ -02 


0,95000? -02 


344 




ii.i2ooor-oi 


0.20000P-01 








34 7 




3.0000 


J.OOOtJ 








349 




0.0 


0.5JOOO 


Ut»000 






354 




0.0 


0.50000 


l.OOftu 






361 




l.OUOO 


l.oooo 


l.oooo 






36 R 




I.t1i»-t0 


I .0000 


i.oooo 






37S 




1.00r)0 


1.0000 


l.oooo 






26<!: 




2200.0 


45U.0Q 


2000.0 






2605 




loo. 00 


0.0 


0.0 






26i»9 




u.o 


0.t» 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


2613 




25.0JO, 


2 5.U30 


25.uitn 


0.0 


O.t] 


261ft 




30.000 


(t.l8O0O 


25.000 


0.0 




2622 




12 5.00 


2.O80O 


0.4000 0E-01 


o.aoono 


O.n 


2627 




l.OOOU 


0.0 


2,0600 


2.00<>1 


24, 100 


2632 




1 . onoo 


4iXt.C»0 


0,0 


175.00 


0.0 


2637 




44.0itO 


2.2O0f> 


6 1.000 


0.2960t) 


1.1500 


2642 




14.200 


14.200 


l.oooo 


I. on 0*1 


250.00 


?to47 




3.00O0 


250.00 


2 50.00 


l.oooo 


O.I 1 000 


2652 




o,l7(»oo 


O.17O0O 








^65t 




l.oooo 


1.0030 


l.ooou 


1 . OOtV* 


1.0000 


265^ 




1.000 


I .0000 


l.oooo 


I ,0000 


1,0000 


26^4 




l.oooo 










2665 




l.oooo 


l.oooo 


l.oooo 


l^OQQO 


l.oooo 


267.1 




l.oooo 


l.joao 


1.0000 


I .000(1 





7-31 



4>)l I 


0«0 








411 I 


l>, 3 3300; - 


01 






^Z\ I 


0,t) 








^M I 


1.0000 








<t4l 1 


U105O 








A61 Z 


l.uooo 




1.U03J 




4RI ^ 


0*\} 




t).0 




5»U 2 


n.o 




0.0 




511 2 


0.0 




0,0 




521 ? 


1.0600 




1.D630 




531 2 


U.2 )<H)UE- 


oi 


(U20000£-t)l 




541 2 


U1050 




U1050 




551 2 


0.100005 


00 


0.20000 




571 2 


1.0000 




1.0000 




5*>l 2 


tl.O 




0.0 




601 2 


u. 3th)oo 




0. 4l»000 




blL ^ 


(i.ti 




.»,'! 




b2l 2 


5*0.00 




500.00 




631 2 


2. 1000 




2.0000 




641 2 


5O0J.0 




3000.0 




651 2 


1.1050 




1.1050 




661 2 


6.i>0l»0 




6.0O0O 




671 2 


1.1050 




1.1050 




6^1 2 


1.0000 




1.0000 . 




6*»l 2 


o.u 




0.0 




^^n i 


l.iKiOO 




l.ouoo 




12\ 


1 2.0000 




4.1000 


4,0000 


731 1 


170.00 








741 I 


0,0 




0,0 


0.0 


751 :! 


0.^0000 




0.500JO 


0.5000 n 


7M : 


\ O.i) 




0.0 


0.0 


771 : 


\ 15.000 




15.000 


15.000 


781 : 


i 2. Wou 




2.0000 


2.0000 


7«»l 


J 60.01*0 




150.00 


300.00 


901 : 


i 1.1050 




1.1050 


1.1050 


Sll 


i 0.0 




0.0 


0.0 


S2l 


J I.UI50 




1.1050 


1.1050 


e ii 


} O.il 




0.0 


0,0 


d4i 


? 4>. 55000 




o.tooou 


0,7000 


fl5l 


3 0.«l 




0.0 


0,0 


l'»31 


? tl.il 




0.0 




1U4L 


; *U4t>0oo 




o,4jnfio 




1)51 


I 0.0 




0.0 




lt)6 1 


2 0.5 KIOOC- 


-01 


0,500006-01 




lit71 


2 1.1050 




I.U150 




lORl 


2 0.50000 




0. 25000 




1001 


? 1.1050 




U1050 




ll'U 


I 0.0 




M.O 




nil 


2 0.35000 




0.35000 




1121 


Z 0.0 




o.n 




1131 


2 0.0 




0.0 




1161 


I -lOOO.O 








1171 


I 0. lOODOE 


-01 






1181 


1 liHW.O 








11*51 


1 1,000 








1201 


i 0.(1 




0.0 


0,0 


1206 


I 0.0 








1223 


1 0,90500 








^201 


5 t^.'f 




0,0 


0.0 


22^6 


1 f'.U 









2 , oooo 



2.0000 



0.0 



0.0 



7-32 



2223 




0.90500 


12UI 




n.o ( 


1206 




a;o 


1223 




0.90500 


13A1 




1.7610 


13D6 




IIOO.O 


1311 




950.00 


1316 




2000.0 


1321 




0.2^^ 


1326 




0.25O00E-OI 


1332 




0.T6300 


1338 




0.33500 


13*4 




0*54400 


1390 




0.77000 


1356 




r.oooo 


1362 




1.2000 


1360 ' 




1.5500 


137* 




8.00U0 


1379 




lioo.o 


i3d4 




0*0 


1396 


^5."65OO0E-0l 


1396 




O.tl500 


1402 




O.TWOO 


uoa 




0.26000 


uu 




0.34200 


U20 




0.42500 


1426 




0.50000 


U32 




0.62600 


1438 




^3.0000 


1447' 




3.0000 


1454 




0.26000 


146rt 




O.82000 


1466 




1.0900 


1502 




S.-WOO 


1507 




IBOO.O 


1512 




^ u.o 


1518 




~ (V.I6000 


1524 




0.52000 


1530 




a. 6 3000 


1536 




0.8 2000 


1542 




tW92000 


1548 




UOOOO 


1554 




1.0520 


1560 




1.0900 


2201 




n.o 


22t»6 




0.0 


2223 




n.905uo 


2301 




1.7610 


2 3rt6 




1100.0 


2311 




950.00 


2316 




2000.0 


2321 




0.2)000 


2 326 




O.250O0E-OI 


233;> 




0.16300 


2338 




u. 33500 


2 344 




0.54400 


2 3 5f» 




0.77000 


2356 




i.oooa 


2362 




U2000 


2368 




1.5500 



0.0 



0.15990 

1&56.0 

1200.0 

2200.0 
0.40090 
0.25700€-01 
0.16 760 
0.34440 
0.55920 
0.79160 

1.0280 

1.2336 

1.5934 

950.00 

2000.0 
0.20000 
O«65100£-Ol 
0,11630 
O.IBIOO 
0.26110 
0.34700 
0.43500 
0.51100 
0,63130 

950.00 
0,0 

0.27100 
0,84000 

i.iiao 

950.00 
2000.0 

0.20000 
0.26 500 
0.52700 
0.6'5O0O 
0.82400 
0.930 JO 

1.0020 

1.0550 

1,1000 
0,0 



O. 15900 

1856.0 

1200.0 

ZZOkUQ 
0.400JO 
U,25 700E-*>t 
11,16761) 
0,34440 
f1. 55920 
I). 79160 

1,0230 

U2336 

1,5934 



0.0 



0.0 

2000.0 

1400.0 

2600.0 
0.60000 
0.278O0E-01 
0.18130 
0.37250 
0.60490 
0.89620 

U1120 

1.3344 

1.7236 

1200.0 

2200.0 
0.40000 
-0.653005-01 
0.11800 
O. 19000 
0.27300 
0. 36200 
0.45100 
0.53000 
0.66000 

1600.D 
0.40000 
0.29000 
0.90000 

1.1650 

1200.0 

2 200.0 

0, 40«>oO 

0,27100 

q. 54000 

0,70500 

0.84000 

it, 95000 

1.0200 

1,0700 

1,1180 

0.0 



0.0 

2000.0 

14O0.0 

2600.0 
0,60000 
0,278006-01 
0.18130 
0.37250 
0.60490 
0.95620 

UUZO 

1.3^4 

l.723t 



2.0000 



0.32000E-01 

2000.0 

1600.0 

9.0000 
0.80000 
0.31300E-01 
0.20410 
0.41940 
0.68110 
0.96400 

1.2520 

1.5024 

1.9406 

1400.0 

2600.0 
0.60000 
0.67000E-01 
0.12800 
0.20800 
0.29500 
0.38900 
0.48600 
0. 56000 
0.71800 

2600.0 
0.80000 



1400.0 

2600,0 

0,60000 

0,28000 

0,56000 

0.73000 

0,36800 

0.98000 

1.0500 

1.1000 

1.1350 

2,0000 



0, 3200OE-01 

2000.0 

1600,0 

5,0000 
0.80000 
0. 31300E-OI 
U. 20410 
0,41940 
0,68110 
0,96400 

I . 2 5 2U 

1,5024 

1 ,9406 



0.0 



950.00 

8.0000 
1800.0 
0.0 

O,362O0E-01 

0.23600 

0,^8510 

0. 78770 

1.1150 

1.4480 

1.7376 

2,2444 

1600.0 

5.0000 
0.80000 
O.710OOE-01 
0. 14000 
0.22700 
0.32500 
0,42500 
0.51700 
0,61000 
0,78000 



1600,0 

5,0000 

0,80000 

0.29000 

0. 59000 

0.76000 

i>. 90000 

1.0200 

1,0900 

1,1310 

1.1650 

0.0 



950,00 
8.0000 
1800.0 
0.0 

0, 36200= -(.il 
0.236)0 
0.48510 
0.70770 

1.1150 

1.4430 

1.7376 

2,2444 



7-33 



>37<» 


b 






A, 0000 




950. JO 






1200.0 


1400,0 


1600.0 


2379 


b 






IBOO.O 




2^00.0 






2200.0 


2600.0 


5.00OO 


238^ 








u*il 




0.20000 






0.40000 


0.60000 


0.80000 


239f» 








0,o5aOO£-Ol 




0,65lf>OF 


-01 




0.65 300':-ai 


U.6700OE-01 


0. 7100UF-J1 


239a 








o,il5oo 




0.U600 






0,11800 


0,1280.* 


U. 14000 


l'*i\2 








(1,18000 




0, 18100 






0. 1900 


O.208i)O 


0.227O0 


2<^^»•^ 








U. 26000 




o.2tino 






0,27300 


0. 2950«l 


0.32500 


?4l* 








0,34200 




o.347r»a 






0, 362U0 


0.3 890O 


0.42500 


2420 








0,425OU 




n,435t>0 






0.4510 


0. 4860O 


0.517'jo 


^426 








iy^'iOOiM} 




o.siiao 






11.53000 


0, 5600O 


0.61000 


2<»32 








U.626()0 




0.63130 






0.66000 


0, 7l80tl 


0. 7B0OO 


243rt 








j.aooo 




950.no 






1600.0 


260U.O 




24^7 








3 • 0000 




0.0 






0.40000 


0. 80000 




2^54 








U.260O0 




U. 27130 






0^29000 






246»> 








0,8 2000 




U.S^OJO 






0.90000 






2tfa6 








l.09on 




1.1 lAO 






1.1650 






25n2 








S.IWOO 




9 50,*iO 






1200,0 


1400.0 


1600.4 


2 507 








lAOO.O 




2000*0 






2 200. n 


260U.0 


5.0000 


2512 








^•0 




0.20000 






0.40000 


0.60000 


0.80000 


25lft 








0,26000 




0.26500 






0.27100 


0.2 8000 


0,29000 


2524 








0.52000 




0.527;iO 






0,5400 


0. 560O0 


0.59000 


2530 








n. 6 8000 




0. 69000 






o. 70500 


0.7 3000 


0. 760^10 


253o 








0.8 2000 




a.824CJ0 






0.840OO 


0.86BO0 


0. 9000O 


2S42 








0.92001) 




0,93030 






n,950il«t 


0.9 8000 


1.0200 


254fl 








I. ^000 




1.0020 






1.0200 


1.0500 


1.0900 


2554 








U0520 




1.U550 






1.0700 


UIOOO 


U13U-* 


256.t 








UU900 




1.1 ooo 






l.llBO 


1.1350 


1.165U 


W^ ' )• 


2bOorjt)t o-i 


Hf A 


« o.2^lW84E 


00 


WFft - 0, 25 1 1 90b- 


52 








WO - o. 


250)0(1= ( 


\b 


wFi 


' 0.7L2l2flF 


04 


WFR = 0.49I322F 


Oh 








Wfi » (^. 


2l8H56fc < 


\b 


kFA 


» fi.53966'tE 


04 


Wf^P » 0,436166*: 


04 








wr> = n , 


,190626E » 


)5 


wrA 


* t>.402I4;>E 


04 


WFR - 0.387086*^ 


4 









7-34 



SAMPLE CASE NCI. 1 



PAGE 



H E S C »4 P 
HELICOPTER SIZING C PEhFOAMANCE COMPUTER PROGRAM B-91 

SINGLE ROTOR COMPOUND HELICOPTER AUX. INDEPENDENT T/SHAFT CRUISE PROPUtSlON 



SIZE DATA THIS RUN CONVERGED IN 4 ITERATIDNS 

GROSS HEIGHT - 18589. LB 

FUSFLAGE 

LF tENGTH|60DY*TAILftOOM> 51.0 FT, 

l: LENGTH(CA8IN» ^2.0 FT. 

LP LENCTHCeOOYI ^7.5 FT, 

LFB LENGTHCTAILBOOMI 23,5 FT. 

FWO. ROTOR LOCATION 1' • I ^^ * 



XM 

WF WIDTH 



SF 



WlNff 



ko ASPECT RATIO 

SN AREA 

B*» SPAN 

CHARM MEAN CHORD 

LAMiOA C/4 OUARTER ChO«D SnEEP 

ItHHDA TAPER RATIJ 

(T/C)ft ROOT THICKNESS/CHOTO 

(T/C»T TIP THICKNESS/CHORD 

W0/5W WING LOADING 

COK ROTOrt/WING GAP 

:f/c FLAP CHOKO/MFAN chor:> patio 



HJP. TtIL 



armt 




ASPECT RATIO 




SHT 




AREA 




RhT 




SPAN 




CbAHHT 




M?AN CHORD 




LAI^SDA 


h 


TAPER ^ATU 




(T/r >ht 




THICKNESS/CHORD 




ITM 




K*. TAIL ARM 




VERT. TAIL 








ABVT 




ASPECT OATIO 




SVT 




AREA 




eVT 




SPAN 




CBA^VT 




MEAN CHORD 




IfiM^DA 


VT 


TAPES' 4ATI0 




^TO 




TAIL RU^lRf VERT.I 


\ lo:atiqn 


iFTAVT 




TAIL ROT IR/VERT. 


TAIL nvFRLAP RATIO 



6,5 FT, 



WETTED AREA ' 755,6 SO, FT. 



*, 51 




119,4 


so, FT, 


23,2 


FT, 


5.1 


FT, 


0,0 


OEG, 


0,500 




()«200 




0,120 




155,7 


LBS/SQ. 


a, 6 


FT, 


i.oon 




i^.OOO 




37.^ 


sg. FT 


I?. 2 


FT. 


3,1 


FT. 


0,500 




0.120 




26,7 


FT. 


1.649 




20.6 


SO, FT 


5.3 


FT. 


J, 5 


FT. 


(U4 5(> 




^,7 


FT. 


o.aoo 





FT, 



7-35 



n/C»VT THICKNESS/CHORD iJ.150 

^^AIN f-DTHP PYLON 

fip ASPECT i^^Tia u,-^.}.) 

5FP W£TT50 AREA 39 . 1 SU. FT. 

P*t-P FPONTAL AREA 6.2 50. FT. 

HHl HEIGHT 3.1 FT. 

CBA^cp HFA^4 CHnaO b.t) FT. 

LAMPOA FP TAPER RATIO 0.40«J 

(t/:jf root ''hickness/choro o.^ruo 

(T/OT TIP THICKNESS/CHORD 0.20-> 

PRlMAPy CNGINt NACELLE 

LN LENGTH 5.8 FT. 

ON MEAN CIAHET6K 2. FT. 

SN NETTED A^EAiTOTAL FOR ALL ENGINES* 62.6 SQ. FT. 

.AUXILIAWV INtEPENCENT ENGINE NACELLE 

LNI LENGTH 

r>M MEAN niAMETER 

5NT WETTEO AREA(TOTAL FOR ALL ENGINES) 

AUXILIABY INDEPENDENT ENGINE NACELLE STRUT 



SST^* 


WETTFO AkEAITOTAl I 


BNS 


SPAN 


CKS 


MEAN CHORO 


PPOPEILFRC AUXILIARY PROPULSICN) 


PAP 


DIAMETER 


AF 


ACTIVITY FACTOR PEP 3LA0E 


SIGAB 


SCLIDITY 


NPA 


NC, OF PROPELLERS 


NC. BLADES 


NC, CIF RLAOES/PROP 


VTIO 


TIP SPE^O 


MAIN RDTJ^ 




rvp 


DIAMdTcR 


SK.MR 


SCL ICITY 


WO/A 


DISC LEADING 


:T/<;ibMA 


ThRuST CUEFF, /SOLIDITY 


NP 


NO. UF ROTOrtS 


NO. BLADES 


NC. OF BLADES/RUTO^ 


THfTA 


BLADE TWIST 


x: 


9LAUE CUTQUT/RACIUS RATIO 


VT IP 


TIP SPEED 


TAIL ROTOR 




DTP 


DIAMETER 


Sir.TR 


SOLIDITY 


(T/a)NeT 


NET DISC LHADING 


:t/SIGHA 


THRUST CjcFF./SQLniTY 


N^. BLADE? 


NC. HF BLAPFS/ROTOR 


THETA 


BLADE TWIST 


XCTR 


BLADE CUTOUT/RADIUS RATIO 


G 


MAIN/TAIL ROTOR CAP 


VTIP 


TIP SPEED 



<^.6 


FT. 




U 


FT. 




16. 


su. 


FT. 


<j« 


SQ. 


FT. 


0«() 


FT. 




2.6 


PT. 




lu.o 


PT. 




1 Wi , iJ 






0.171 






I. 






3. 






9Ju. 


fT.. 


/SPC 


^6 .4 


FT, 




0.123 






11. 


LB/SC. fT. 


'MIO 






U 






4. 






9.;I.I0 


OEG. 


• 


11.2 50 






725. 


FT., 


^SEC. 



U.l FT, 
a. 313 
17,^ LB, /SO. =T. 

5. 
-4.000 DEC. 
0.300 
l.O FT. 
690. FT. /SEC. 



7-36 



SAHPIF CAS= NO. I 



PAGE 



H e s : M p 

hctlCCPTPft 5UIKG L PERFORMAMCE COWPUT?R PPnGPAH 



B-91 



-HEIGHT 



C A T i 



PROPUISI 'iN GPOUP 
WPPG 

K12 WPR9 

Kl3 *^PH 
WBf 

Kl^ WAP 

wcs 

K16 toPDS 
<2U WTRDS 
Hl7 i#ArS 
K18 WFT 



IN LflS 

MSNEUVER LOAD fACTOP 
GUST LGALj factor 
ULTIMATE LQAO fUCTjk 



WPLl 
WAFI 
hFS 

•)EITA WP 
i*P 



tctal main rotor croup 

^ain rotor blade (p^^ rotor) 
'^mh potor hub (P^R potorj 

BLA05 coLOING(PEfc ROTC'<» 

AUXILIARY PROPULSION R3T3R GROUP 

DRIVE SYSTEM 

MAIN ROTOR DRIVE SYSTEM 
TAIL ROTOR ORlvE SVSTEM 
AUXILIARY PPOin>LSION DRIVE SYSTEM 

PRIMARY ENGINES 

ALXlLA^Y ENGINES 

PRIMARY ENGINE INSTALLATION 

AUXILIARY ENGlNe INSTALLATION 

PUEL SYSTEM 

PPOPULSIlJN group *<€IGHT iNCRtrtfcNT 
TOTAL PROP'JLSUN GkOUH HEIGHT 



3.53> 

5.2^0 



IS 76, 

IU96. 
535, 

1725. 

1^22. 
121. 
l$2. 

762. 
171. 
130. 

29. 

^16. 
>. 



52A2. 



STRUCTURES G^-QUP 

K8 Wh WING 

#<TG TAIL GKOUP 

KQ WMT HOR. TAIL 

KH wTR TAIL ROTOR 

Kb WB ruSLLAGE 

K7 WLG lANOING GEAR 
^HC NOSE GEAR 

W^IG M*IN GEAR 

WTES TCTAL ENGINE SECTION 
^pfS PRIMARY ENGINE SICttOK. 

„AES AUXILIARY ENGINE SECTION 

DELTA wST STRUCTURE WEIGHT INCREMENT 
WST TOTAL STRUCTURE WEIGHT 



FLIGHT COfjTRCLS GROUP 



Kl 
<3 



Kit 

<5 



WPFC 

WCC 

WRC 

W5C 

wFW 

WTf* 

WSA5 

WAFC 

WSiCA 



? <>6 . 
228. 

75. 
15<». 
1062. 
7^<>. 

595. 



bl5. 



WSCA 

WHC 
DELTA NFC 

HFC 



WFE 

WE 

WFUL 

Owe 

WPL 

<kfia 

wc 



PfilMAPY f^LiCHT CONTROLS 

COCKPIT CONTROLS 

MAIN ROTOR CONTPILS 

MAIN ROTOR SYSTEMS CCNTPOtS 

F IXEO wing CONTROLS 

TILT MECHANISM 

SAS 
AUXILIARY FLIGHT CONTROLS 

AUX. PROPULSION ROTOR CONTROLS 

4UX. PROPULSION ROTOR SYS. CONTROLS 
MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS 
CONTROL WEIGHT INCREMENT 
TOTAL CONTROL WEIGHT 

WEIGHT OF FIXED EQUIPMENT 

WEIGHT EMPTY 

FIXED USEFUL LOAD 

OPERATING WEIGHT EMPTY 

PAYLOAO 

FUEL 

GROSS WEIGHT 



610. 
205. 



83. 
386, 
261. 

0. 

30, 



56. 



32. 
0. 



100. 



3995, 



915, 

2200. 

12353. 

A. 50. 

12803. 

2000. 

3786. 

18589. 



7-37 



SAMPLE CASE NU. I 



PAGE 



H 5 S C N P 
HELICOPTEP SUING C PCRPORHAtCE COMPUTER PROGRAM 



B-91 



;^ T (■ A 



ROTCR CYCLE NO. 



i*0<h)0 



PAIN S-CTOR SCLICirv SUcD BV MANUEveS CONDITIONS 
M « 3.iOO.t) FT. , TEMP « 91. & DEC. , V - 

RQTGfl MAMUeVEP G'S • 1.350 , CT/S IGMA « J.UO 



165. ) KT. 



TAIL 5CT3R SIZED AT l.JSO TIHES ThS SOLIDITY 

PEOUIOFU TO SATISFY HJVERING TURN REOUfPEMF^TS AT 

H . 

TEMP 

CTG/CTNET . 

YAW RATE > 

VSw ACCELERATION 

TAIL KGTUR POLAR 

HOM. OF INERTIAIPER BLAOE > « 

hFL JCCPTER YAH 

MOM. QF INERTIA 



V}(M.O FT, 

95. '135 DFG.,F, 

1.221 

i|.75i» PA^/SEC. 

0.30n <iAD/SEC2 

9.ft7(> SLUG/FT2 



39312.9 SLJG/FT2 



SAMPLE CASE NC. 



PAGE 



H E S C M P 
HELICOPTER SIZING L PERFORMANCE COMPUTER PROGRAM 



B-91 



PROPULSION DATA 

PRIMARY PROPULSION CYCLE NO. 

TUR60SMAFT ENGINE 



1 .76 1 



2. ENGINES 

BHP*P MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC H.P, 

ENGINE SIZED FOR TAKEOFF AT T/W -U06 
H » 4000. FT, TEMPERATURE « 95.04 DEG.F. 
AND 0.0 ENGINES INOPERATIVE. 



AUX. INDEPENDENT PROPULSION CYCLE NO. 

TUPBOSHAFT ENGINE 



U761 



1. 

BHP»PI 



ENGINES 



MAX. STANDARD S.L. STATIC H^P* 



ENGINE SUED FOR CRUISE AT VC » 170. KNOTS, 
HC ■ 3000. FT, TEMPERATURE - 91.50 DEG.F. 
AND U.O FNCINES INOPERATIVE. 



479*. 



H.P, 



1073. 



H.P. 



MAIN AND TAIL ROTOR DRIVE SYSTEM RATING 



3473. 



H.P. 



MAIN RCTOR DfrlVE SYSTEM RATING 



3039. 



H.P. 



XMSN St^EU AT 1041. PERCFNT OF MAIN ROTOR HOVf'< POwER REQUIRED 
AT H « 40*10, FT, TEMP « 95,14 DEG.F. 



TAIL PCTOP DRIVE SYSTEM RATING 



434. 



H.P, 



XM5N SIZED AT IdO, PERCENT OF TAIL ROTOR HOVER POwER REQUIRED 
AT H • 4'IO0, FT, TEMP - 95,04 OEG-F, 

AUXUIAPY INCEPENDENT PROPULSION DRIVE SYSTEM RATING 



880. 



H.P, 



XMSN SIZED AT 100. PERCFNf OF AUX. PROPULSION CRUISE POwEli REUUlRFC AT VC -170, kT, 
HC * 3J(M. FT, TFMP- ■ 91. 5i) DEG.F. 



7-38 



PAGE 
SAMPLE CASE NO. 1 



H d s : M P 

HfllCOPTEfl SI/INO *. P?RPCRHANCE CCMPUTEB PPOGPAe 8-91 



SNfT TOTAL wETTEO APEA ,\}il% ^^ 

^pUf f^if^H SKIN FRICTION CDEFF. 0.016697 
nT. G t^ ^ f * ^ C «_N IN SOFT 

FTk. WINO F = 

FfF FUSfcLAGE FE ^^ n\i 

PEPP FORWAR'IIHAINI ROTOP PYtON FE "•** 

PBAP AFT RQTOP PrtON FE J*" 

PEMQH MAIN PQTaft MUSISI F£ '»•* 

PET^H TAIL ROTOR HUB Ff ^»»« 



Ff V^ 



VERTICAL TAIL FE ''•^J 



t)«0 



FFHT HORIZONTAL TAIL FE 

FEN PPIMARY^ ENUINE NACELLE Ff ^ •" 

rcM AUX. INDEPENDENT CPUlSE ENc. NAC» FE O.J 

PPNS AUX. INOPENOENT CRUISE ENG. STkuT FE 0.0 

OUTA FE iNCRtMENTAL FE ^• 

A E R a u Y N A •• I c c r E F F . ia.7&tte8 

*^ UQ6804 

*^ .1.09^20 

*^ 0.c2(il7 

r KING IIFT EFFICIENCiT FACTOR . "M^*;*^^ 

IvT VCRTiCAL TAIL LIFT" EFFICIENCY FACTOP 0,87677 



7-39 



z ^a 

ui u. Z 



X o z 
D r uj 

4 ID & 



are 

« UJ u 



K dC z «» tn lA 
3 3 ui tf » ^ 
41^ K ^ 



< ^ S vf OO 

^ tu O (O <# .# 
O 3 ^^ 



%" = 





m m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


*M m 


IM 


m 




r- c^ 


r- 


c^ 


^- » 


f-^ 


^- 


» 


s 


=;§ 


o 

* 


§ 


e 

• 


S 


^§ 


3 O 


u 


o • 


o 


• 


o 


* 


o ♦ 


3 


» 




o 




e 




o 


o 




O 




m <^ 


m 


e 


m 9 


m« 


f^ 


« 


o 


^ h» 


2 


h- 


rr 


p- 


CT- fi^ 


» 


f* 


T 


O O 




O 


s 


c 


3 3 


1^ 


c 


a. 


'Jl 


c 

• 


% 


c 


i 


3 3 
* 3 


* 


3 
3 


o 


c • 




• 




* 


3 • 


3 






3 




e 




o 


-^ 




O 


o 


2^ 


^ 


^ 


• 


- 


• -* 


• 


- 


or 




^ 


^ 


^ 


" 


o) o 


r^ 


<» 


a 


5 6 




c 


<r 


o 


c^ 3 


» 


3 


a 


f*^ r 


m 




IN 


a 


<N T 


IN 


3 


u 


« 








• 


• 








a 




c 




c 


c 




O 




« m 


« 


« 


« 


a 


eo « 


fJ' 


ff 


^ 


^ c 


c 


o 


<^ 


'S 


C 3 


3 




l 


p^ p* 


p* 


K 


N- 


K 


K r* 


f* 


f^ 




oe 


o o 


^ 


3 


C 3 


• 
C 


• 


r 


o 


o 




O 




3 


3 






s 


1 




t 




S 


^ 




UJ 


• o 


• 


O 


• 


3 


• 3 


• 


3 



KOOC 
O I 
4 » h> 



X O I 

3 Z Lu 

< UJ a. 



« ■« • 



of 
Z 



s af UJ 

Q> Ui CL 



o o 

• « 
o e 



r • u. 
"OX 

oe Zuj 
(L UJ a. 



OC U' C 




»<15 C 


a > — 




3Z O 


n*/i 




« UJ o 


>- 






<-> 




«D a 


3 




><« z 

3 3 Ui 


Z 




< ►- *- 




^ 


O 5 « 




i/i 


Z ^ X 


*/» 


K 


u; u "^ 


■< 


1< 


k/i 


u< 




X UJ w 

3 3- 
< a. 








S • u. 






Qt 2 UJ 




X. 




X 


a UJ a. 




3 



Z K 
UI 

a V- 

3 

i/> a 
u 



Z am 
d uju 



• • • 
z « a. 

— K Z - 

oe 3 UJ fl 
a. I" •- o 



03 ■ 

Z 

o 

3 

oe 3 

30 



Z • UJ 
MOO 
OC Z Q 

a UJ o 



z tfi a 
^a Z 

oe 3 u< 4 



— (J o 
a. UJ u 



O — 

UJ V. 

M UJ m 
33 -( 
« u. — 



i25 









Ui U 


r 


• c 


• 


■N. 


o » 


Z ^ 


*rt 


^ 


« UJ tn 


-^ 


-^3 


^ 




a u. 




3 3 


o a 






(£ X 






> QC 







G » 



UJ & 



X (C a 




a. 


K 


^%Z. 




T. 


3 


oc 


X 


< 


Q. 1- ►- 






J 




^ 


^ 


r - 




»/> 


UJ 


u X 


i/l 




• 


'^ 


<T 


^ 


X 


_J t/» 


H* 






UJ CO 






ac 


-5 -J 






a 


u — 


« 








l/l « 




a 


Q. l/l 


UJ >~ 






— ft. 


ac ^ 


u 


a. 


►- U. 


a <f 


— 


a 


> — 



z 
z 



a 
a 
u 



5 


►- — 


»tn 




X . 


« r^ 






o^/» 


JSiJ\ 


t- 


K 


" CO 


OD (9 


< 


< 


UJ -J 


-4 a^ 






X — 




o 


• 






y 








<< 


ec 






^ 


X 




c ^ 








• » 


Of 




_j n */> 


o m 


n 


(*i 


Ui UJ dj 


^ 




rt 


3*rt J 




• 


e 


u. 3 - 




oc 



X • 
O *rt 

UJ -t 

2 <- 



Ui ^ T. 
3 (/» -J 

u. 3 — 



O a 

Qt X 
« a: 






X . 



^ i— ff 
3 t/i ^ 
a 3 — 



^'. 






o a 
« X 



UJ */i f^ 

r or c 3 

- T « • 



«« 


k a 


rn " 


^*^ rt 


r^ * 


m C 


UJ </l 


□ « 


ri • 


*r • 


f- * 


<?• • 


Z a 


or »- 


T i/» 


r l/^ 


3 trv 


3 li^ 


« X 


* > 


* (Si 


• rg 


• r>i 


» r\j 


I- — 


z 


o»- 


<r p- 


3 P- 


O P* 



u. i/y 

*- X 



I- n — 

C — tfl 

* ►- a 

• > u 



7-40 



■ »m ««o »»co ••m •*(«> 

p-«« S«0«D ««p» ff^qor^ 9>Ar- 

irm« *m-o mm* *Mf*\«« -^pi-o 

•#<^« ^<^t ^»« *fo»« !#(>• 



-« c 



-I c ^ 



J\m5 i/^mC in(SiT 

rvjfwj> ^J^-u^ mkiT^ 
I • • » « • r • • 





a vi 




• X 3 


% 


3"% 


o 


< • 1- 




J 




^ a. 




uj 


< — 




X (^ 




X^ u. 




< c. 




■J3 — 




< — 




£ _iO 


• * u. 


a "V a. 


X t5 I 


-.00 


:5 y lu 


< V 


4 u. a. 



o 



N'CO'O «fl6^- OasK Ooo^ *^ 
^ r^ 9" c^mc •*(n(^ -^m(7' -^ 
<A(>« ma»« -^o** >^*« 't 



TJ J^ ^ 


-t ^ 'T^ 


-• .^-S 


-* sf C 


» fviO 


• fvi 


• r> C 


• f-^ 


iM a) m 


<Vi « m 


rj flc f^ 


M flO m 



>om« 4flD« >om« ^K« <org« 

(>•* 9^** 9«» a^*» (^»* 

*nf*# m-o* *^o# mtA» mif»» 

«7ft Jl^* wO** «(^» «o^» 

Cf^* o^-# or-# c^* «N-# 

«-«» •4* ^« -^« -^* 



-i o 

^ a 



o * » 

• m ♦ 
o c^ * 



^ kA < 



o • # » • • 

ff m # F^ m # 



m -^ 



c o 



>* c 



- - - * • « 

3 O 



e o 



-.1 



>0 



* 

-S 



« C aw-* 



^3 












T rf^ < 

o c 



1^ >f\ 
a. <s d a « c 

o - o • 



-f (7- C (/^ 

i; i ;fi S 



3«rg 3»-^ C»0 3tgj C«CD 

ti/t^ •p^-- t«-^ •»/\0 •rgC 

c^-3 o^-c o-ac coo o^oc 

^-rs^i. r^rvjC f^^'? ^-^JC ^-ryC 

--C --H'5 --* --0 -^e 



mm (X 


X 




• 




Ui 






4 




* 


•C 




« 


-0 




• 





* 


S U< 







X 


Ij n 




^ 


3 


>- 


M 





>- 


« 






» 


^ 


»^ » 


a > 






3 2-0 




M 


• 




» 


• 




» 


• 




» 


» 


# 





t/1 




•tf 


LU 


( 1 






e 




• 


*^ 




• 

* 


^ 




« 


^ 


* 








» 


A 0. 






f^ 





• 


<^ 





« 


ff« -5 # 


'SJ 


♦ 








>c 


s 


r 






^. 


a 


« 


J- 


• 


» 


^ 


• 


» 


Ifl 


« * 




_) 




^ 






a 


^ 


* 


« 


<-4 


« 


» 




«o 


• 




« • 




r 




< 


H- 


^ 




u 


* 


*n ♦ 


« 


•/^ 


« 


• 


lA 


* 


• 


in * 




















<o « 





« 


# 


flD 


* 


•3 


»# 




















T-< 


* 






♦ 




.^ 


* 




-« » 










• 


z 


^« 


































J) a 


a 






























iA 




2r 


^ 


X 




M 




» 


f^ 




« 


m 


• 


* 


(D 


• * 




fc/l K 




ui 


u. 


>w 




• 


5 


* 


« 


^ 


« 


• 


c 


« 


• 


3 « 




« 


K 








trt 


•n 


*A 




» 


fVI 




* 


rvi 




« 


f>i 


« 




UJ 






• 


-f Ol 




f- 




• 


* 




« 


^ 




* 


« 


• 










X 


UJ 


-I 








» 






« 






* 




» 










D 


3 


^ 


































< 


u. 










































r 
























3" • 


t 












^- ^ 


/\ 






4- 






ii 






c 




— 








^ 




J £1 


m 






r\ 






m 






•* 




^ X 


iU 








b< 




KO 


asc 


< 


s 


*; 


< 


s 


'Z 


■a 


* 


< 


a, U4 


a. 













U VJ 


a 


« 




« 


« 




• 


• 




• 


f- 












•4 




CI. 


50 




C 







c 


* 







3 












1- 










■* 






-*■ 






0^ 






• 


















•3 






-t 







•* 




T A 


3: • 


Uj 






a 


o. 




ir 




M 


t^ 




(M rM 




M 


<M 




rgry 


i 00 






< 


3 




Mf 


HOC 


H- 


a> 




K 


(C c 


K 


« 3 


a Z C 






h* 


or 




u 




• 


P 




• 


c 











• ^ 


& LU 


U 






Oi 


& 















9 






5 ^ 




^-^ 










- 












• 
5 






'a 






::_* 

^ 


--■ 


5 
















I 


M 


• 


^ 


-3 


• 


^ 


■3 


« 


-? 


(• 


• f- 


• t 


• 












n 


« 


!• 


-J- 


• 


^ 


^ 




T 


ri 


♦ 


rt ^ 


Z Oi 


a 






0. 


X 




t_) 


J5 













* 




C 


-> 




;?5 


UJ * 




I 


4 




-J 

UJ 


CO 




§ 






5 






3 




% 


a »- 


1- 








X 











_• 






^ 






J5 




* 






_ 




S 


-J 


3. 


1/1 




o 


^ 


• 


« 


X 


• 


4 


? 


• 


A I 






i/1 




tu 


u. 


r 


Q 


i/> 


m 


— 


m 


•4 


c 


!^ 


c 


-5 


J- 


o- 




on 






* 




V. 


u 


■ r- 


0- 


A 


^ 


cr 


c 





cr 


•3 


J 


an C 




<i 


«: 




r 


-i 


(rt 


-J 






— 






c 






#e^ 




C 




>- 






i 


UJ 




Uj 
C 






c 






• 






• 

3 




• 


















■ ■ ■• 


♦ 


J^ 


• 


» 


-*■ 


• 


• 


i 


• 


# •-< 


« 












— 






» 


03 


s 


• 


Jy 


* 


# 


n 


jt 


• £ 



-* ^n ♦ w 



, w - w - - 5 

e • "-* tf # -• 3 



-I >? ^ 

>t -• e 



, , N. m ^ 

3^3 J> ^ ^ 






-5 ^ • ^ 



J ^ 'S 



^. 3 



• * f^ 

* tA 3 

A i 3 

a 3 

f 3 

— 3 



i? vn O 

^ o r 

X 3 

f- '3 

-I 3 



C lA C 



f- 5 r- 



-^3</ fN^*^ 33rO J~'*^ 

«>0 aaO aaO ••□ 

5DC<N* iTVC'M fSt^^N acc'^j 

t^JC XTCr r-ij'r ^-<yc 

-<^3 'v.-i/c ^^r t^oc 



D O O 

-t ^ c 



1 ;u n. 



*^ -^ c 



a: C "^ 

cr c 3 



x> C C 

■f .'7- - 

■J C f^ r 

o - 



• 0^ 


c • ^ 


C .r^ 


c • « 


Z • lA 


c f^ >r 


<^ •* 


= J^ >r 


c a J' 


^ '^ ^J- 


• > T 


• r^ 3 


• rg ^ 




^ * i 


^^? 


*A — 3 


^iCl 




-* ^ - 


i r^ C 


^ 


c 


c 




z 






a r 

r 



c • ^ 

3 lA 3 

• ^ iVi 

3 — 3 

O -< 3 



3 0- i 



— i rvt 3 -- (M C 

■C -» - -J - * 



f« — r? 
^ • 
^ »n 3 


(M tr r 


n ^ -^ 
PJ lA T 


^- • 3 


5 

^ 




3»- 


e f- 3 




e 



— r 



J^ ^ -1 
s^ (A 3 


j\ e c 
^- • C 

>f lA C 


>r *A c 


^ tA 3 


• rj * 

OK e 


• fM • 
C I^ 3 


c p- e 


K 3 



7-41 






i#t ^ «« f*^» ^ 



_ , -^ 1*1 ^ 
O -4 O '^ o 



««r» •«f- ^«<o 

.14 rt 9 •* M ^ M (n » 

**• ♦»• '♦p'* 

-- o -^ o -* o 



^ s 



e 4 8 tn 9 

» • • 

o o « 



^e ^f^g MAS -^ff-s 

1Q cnO atnO *fnO 

9i^ fMQf<^ ^4t'*^ fSitt^ 

• ■ i»« It* r»« 

>o e o oO e o 



• >r O 

r\j a (^ 

I « • 

SO 



M fw *? fvi m '^ 

• ^ o « * e 

M <0 ri f\J » <*t 

I « • I • • 



• UJ <L 

uo a. 

UjZ T 

a. « z 

(/I oC « 



X ^ O • • u. 

BL 'v lii ^ O T 

_j o c o y uj 

4 ^ 4 lii a^ 



v«t/\ ♦•(n t*^ ••© 

Ot^f* -^«s*h- *vj -^f* *vi ^ p* 

«<^^> K»p- l4(^^- tn<^^• 

AtA* Vin* tttr^• otf\« 









-•oc —o* -*ir^ -(lAS 

(mo*^ (^J^v;^ rgo^A fNj-ou^ 

!•• !•• )*• !«• 

eO as 33 30 



» » 



e • 

^» ♦ 



M # 

o ^ « 



ac uj<3 



• • UJ 
« lil o 



C a If 9 a. » 



«e» »o* »o* mo« 

iA«t *A*t iA«* «*« 

«4<«« »4«# •«<«* iM^* 

«trv* «tfN* ■)!%• *tA« 

Ott* e«* o«tt o«» 

■4# »4# *4# r4# 






e 



31 

o 



* o * • o« 

3 t s : 



t e* • o • 

I t if^ • 

t ft « • 

ft ft 



4 O • «B9 ft 

« • ft <o « ft 

'S .« « -3^1 

• tA « • t#\ « 

O « ft o« » 

p4 ft ^ ft 



^- • ft ^ • ft 

• o * • o « 

tA • <o « 

« • « ft 



< ^ 






m o < « O 4 






S o 4 
o o 



« Z iU 

a ui & 



e 



8^«o »-«g ^vo »-«o »- 

O O e oe o o O 9 

• « • • • 

o e o 9 o 



oS 

• e 

oe 



8 



0•^- 0*m 0«^ 0«-o 0*-# 9 • t^ 
• om •o* •©> tom •o>o •^^- 
40<«0«040«0«0 



s 






• g ^^^•Q *^«g '>**fl 

rviO «<^0 «-4e •OO 

«g <o«o ''^^S ^*S ''*'° 



IS s:5 




o 

z 



X gc X 

< >- H- 



(i O a 

z •» z 



K UJ -I 

3 3- 
< a 



^% 



a. X 

r D 

A4 



« 3 J 
a u. — 



a. a i/t 
o— a. 
« »- u- 
a. > — 



;^8 



m»*^« (^«* m(*^« r^^.• 

tf\*« tr»» ^v* tA>* 

m(j*« ncD* m«j» m^-w 

• <4-ft •#« t^* «^» 

o«* o>e« o-o* o<o* 

-4« -l» -^» — » 



h- • # f- • » 

* ^r * • sf » 



-^15 «© ^ O >f9 

me M9 wo t\t o 

•* ^ < 't-O* #^< >fO< 

t« •• «» •« 

CC 00 95 90 

m m *Ti rg 






a. «6 9 



a. 90 c a. ea s 
• o « c 



*r 3 



O*'*^ 4*-j 4*0 -0*7 

• <^'M ■tf\'M •fsjR tf^^ 

— 00 —00 — oc -♦(yo 

tAC9 »r»oo ir^oo fcn»o 

.^-^(^ ^^o -^^c -^ e 



*A # O lA # C 



• » 7 

9 # cr 

9 « -* 

>A ♦ o 






J ^O 

^4^0 



= j5 



O f*\ — 
• or 



I S^l 2*1 ?*| ^^1 



-t o ^ 



*< o 

o 



o 

Si 



a 

i 



CO s lA o ^• tf^ 
O e 9 ^99 

- * - o 



rn r- *rv 
-H o 

ri 



o ^-■ tTk 



tf\ e ^ 

^- O O 
sO * 9 
^. < O 



m o «^ 

K * 5 

K >ag 



tftO * 

1^0^ 

« 0* o 



00^ 
• • ^ 

« c o 

» » o 
^-05 






tTk O <^ 

000 

rv* (^ 3 
« >o 9 

o 



9 1/1 -J 
It O - 



O 

K a - 

ac ►- a 

* > u. 



m c "D (*^ "5 <D 

• • J^ • • ^ 

C C -• « 9 - 

OJ ^ <? CT O O 

C 3 



» C " 

« • rv 
in c - 



c J- -3 
fvj O C 

^ 9 



O 

e 



in 3 

tf\4n o 

• (SI • 

0^0 



9 • « 

tf^ f>4 O 



«^ t#% 9 
0f-6 



o .p- 

P- ^J CO 
^ 'MO 

o 

• 

o 

in 

♦ 

^- O O 
m • O 
m w% e 

OK e 



*n f^ e 



::;? 5 



:::c 



m kn e 

• M * 

O K o 



>r • in 
-t « <^ 

P- <\i O 



lAiAO 
• fVI * 

OKO 



o r 


O Q. 


^ * 


« X 


*' 7 


• or 


a — 


T 




Of 




n 




»- a — 


uj \n 


O -^*rt 


X <X 


Of •- a 


— T 


• >«. 



sf » ao 

9 



r3 O C 
« -. C 



^ *N X 

■ Ci r 

j^ ^ 5 

o- ^ 9 



^r»3 ine'' -fo-? 

K«9 K.C P*«9 

tntn9 Oin9 h-*rc 

«rj« crvi* •M* 

e^e OK9 OK9 



^ r^ X 

• ^ i 

^ in O 



en m ^ 
O ^-C 



7-42 



* g^Z 



c tn 



o o o e o 

• o * & • o 

o • o « o • 

o o o 






• o « o 

o « o • 

o e 






9 f^ CD ^ 

CO 30 

« o « e 

e • e • 

o o 



« e ^ "5 

« -5 flD 'S 



c = - o o 05 



CD c « e 
e -5 c "5 






p. o ^- * 

CD f- 40 1 

OS o 



»ee •s* "SS 

f^t,Ot/^ fMiOrf^ f^iiO*A 






• * « * 









c f 



(Mrsi Mfsi f\(f\j fSiM fvirg 



m (M ' 



<*1 i/S • 



mp>«* »n^« m-o* 
♦ ,#» »-#• •4'» 

O>o* 04« o^* 



^.•» N** r-«# 

»fAt •(*^» t-^t 

rst t ^ t\t * 'tlNJ* 

-J * ^ * '-' • 






NO -id 

J- .0 < ■* * * 
-^' » • » 

DC s e 






K Ui O Ol 
O 3 -* -J 
h- u. U. "f 



» Z lii 
(L ui O. 















u% m 


tA (^ 


IT m 




<M C 


a « 5 




^"1 





a ^ O 

0. Ui o 



X T a 
— a X - 

at 3 *JJ IX 

a. ♦- 1 



a. « a. < 



o - 

Hi V. 

• -J wi 

5«S 



^ • f^ 


• -0 


^ . j> 


• — 


f -*^-t 


• IS* -< 


^ o- c 


^ a> c 


7? a 


rf^» C 


rfNO^O 


^ ^ 




^ 


• 


• 


• 











• « ^ 


• • 


• * 4 


3:? 


3:s 


s:sf 




2:s 


^ ♦ 


» a 


m J 


1 • 


c 




c 


• • ^ 


fM ^tA 


• • m 


(T is; 


<? i/^ 


rf^SC 


^e 2 


l-'l 


iv,^ C 




p- 


^ c 


w c^ 


- c 


-- -5 


* 








5 





a^ ^r~ 


>r 3 F- 


c c- 


• • ir> 


• 4 kT 


. , l/^ 


0^ - 


■0 c ^ 


T C - 


(Ma-; 


ri cr c 


1% T 


,^ ^ -^ 


4- ^ C 


*r^ ^ c 






^ e 


m 


• 


• 










-< 




sT « -^ 


* .^ 


c . 3 


^ US X 


^ X 


C r^oo 



tn ♦ ** o c 

ai t- •- C O 
ar _* a. »n 'H 



r _* i^ 

— I UJ « 
Of 3 -J 



h-(/>C <M*nO 5^x 
rvj-tC J--*'^ «/N^O 



,- C — 



rvi^C -♦^■TJ -^--C 

Tsne ^»nO -•»i^'T 

«f\j* ♦ra« ■*>]♦ 

Of»-0 «-*r-C -<tw^ 



1- - > o* 
r • -0 -o 


• 


(/»«—• 




« « 


2 '^ 


■.5 */» c ■= 


-t 


1U ►- ►- 
« -1 u. 


^^ 


c 


^ ^-"-' 


If 


a -« — 


> fT 








H 




X 


# • 


• • 






h- *• 


■Ji 


C^ J> 


- ^ 


c c 




I • 


»- 


!^ 


i *" 


— • * 


•- 


J V* 


3^ 


Z -Ni 


* IN 



-J Q t-n O C 

Ui tb <D <N '^f 

3 t/1 -* ''^ "J*^ 

u. :d — -I ^ 



UJ • t « 
J T = C 

<1 2 ^ ^ 



ty ijrv fg rg 
X at '^ -* 



-i t-^ i/i 

lIj Ikj cC 






3 





a 


? 




c/ 


r 


< 


r 


• 


3L 


i£ 




X 
nf 








1- 


0. 


UJ 


Ln 







X 


at 


O. 


»- 




T 


• 


> 


P 




X 





• c 



• • ■• ■« •• *• 

'50 ^e *'= 'SC '50 

O O T 'S -S 

C O O *? 3 



» • 



• « 



* • 



m t\i -i--^ ^C 'Di J>ff -*« 
»r^ i^f* rsi?- -^f- >C ^ -t ■C 
C^(M ffiNi 5^M ajrvi OSfvi COM 






07 r; -3 



r^. i} 



^^ c-c f^o r--o 



>? ^ 



^e -C --) -"? 

f\i» st* <o* V* 

-.in -lipi -^i/* *-^tf> 

»fM .fVi •*%( .fSi 



• 


• 


3 • 


C • 


• 


• 


5 


; iA 


c -s 


3 >t 


C B 


e ^ 


3 ^- 





% ^ 


• -< 


.0 


«<r 


• t?- 


t 03 




- M 


c ^ 


C "N 


- 








J^TM 


iff ^J 


in rsi 


iT (VJ 


r\ rvj 


in rsi 


iT 



• '^J 



rj ^ ry in 

1 fM • fM 



fM tn 



7-43 



?.i 3.1 



• Z 3 
X a « 

3 .S 



* • p * • o 

op* fMO * 

* 4 » *4 » 

^ O '•* 



0? o 5 

(*\ io <r 



rt 4 ^ 



m o o 

(ft iO V' 



p« * 






O o^ O *-4 O -4 



^. 9 


^• 9 


« sO 


« <4 


30 


9P 


°.8 


*.8 


o • 


p • 


p 


p 


• «4 


• r* 


o ^ 


-4 iM 


-4 c 


-^ P 


4 p 

fSi p 


•O P 


^ip 


• 


• 


e 


p 


fy fM 


N*N* 


•^ -# 




f* f^ 


K f" 


« • 


• « 


P P 


P P 


P 

t 


i 


♦ P 


• P 



»- u </> 

O Ui 4D 

I- 3 -* 



e ^- 
• 9- 

o 



p 
m 

P 



4 • 



IT 

« 
P 



r-i (J 


• • VI. 


0. N^ 


HJ 


KOI 

3 Z uj 


^o o 


< 


■" 


•< uj a. 


ULi 






r < 






255 




• • Ui 




X O o 


a > — 




3 r o 


n iA 




<^ UJ t> 


1- 






o 




• m 


i 




33£ 




< K >- 






P « 




*« 


Z ^ X 


*/»►- 


Ul U. V 


•* 


X 


t/1 


\u 




X Ui ^ 

33 - 
•« u. 



1 trt C 
fvi rs -r 



o o 



e ?- 5 



C K ^ 
• t/\ o 
<M 3 vf 






C f-- c 

M O > r^j e >f 



C tr»T r J^ -5 



oc 2 Uf 



Z SO. 
tf 3iiJ « 

ft. »- K — 






a X 

Z 3 



p *n p *n 



O p 

s 



a. < ^ -4 p4 



» • 

>^ ^ ti\ it\ 
X • «« 
l5 *rt ^- f* 
<"> O « tA 

UJ *J -rf -^ 



J O trt ^ ♦ 
iU lu fi p p 
3 4/> ^«« 
0. 3 '----^ 











9 


fSI 




-4 


-^.I 


a « 


• 
» 


9 • « 


00 <0 • 




a. 






9' « 


■4 


0* 






1^ ♦ 


^ O" 


• 


-cr • 


•^ f^ # 


-•r^ « 


o 




• 


-« » 


« 


•^ 




* 


-4 * 




» 


• ^ * 


• -^ * 


* •^ * 






P 


-4 « 


PiSJ 




p 




P rvj * 

-4 * 


P rvi • 

-4 * 




3'sj» 






m 


• « 


*n 


, 


• 


ir» 


• « 


tA • 


• 


^ • • 


tn • * 


IA » « 






• 


m # 


* 


m » 


• 


rt » 


« m 


» 


• m • 


• m# 


• W » 


-> 




:« 


m • 


^ 


<*\ 


* 


>4 <^ « 


« m 


• 


■o fn « 


lA m* 


lenj 






p* 


^ * 


p- 




• 


r» 


^ • 


po ^ 


# 


^- -^ • 


^- -4* 








• 






• 




« 




# 


* 


» 


* 


X 




m p 


pj ^ 




^ 


« 


^ e 




c c 


O 3 


O* c 




UJ 


^ 


«/\ 


•# 


lA 




-* 


iA 


»r ^ 




•* lA 


<r tA 


*n »/> 


-J 


§ 


fM 


m < 


rsi ^n < 


rvj (** < 


<NJ m 


4 


(VJ (^ < 


rg m « 


M r^ < 


»- 


• 




• 


« 






• 












o 


o 


PP 


p p 




P O 


e o 




OP 


3 C 


c' 3 






^ 






« 




^ 




O 


kA 


f^ 


fN 








« 






s 




« 




SO 


QD 


OD 


IS 








« -4 




« 






« ^ 


« 




» -* 


CD -^ 


Q ^ 


X 




% 


m 9 
« 6 


a. 




3 


a 


**\ P 
« P 


*** 
a. « 


s 


m P 
O. <S Ci 


^S8 


aSS 


u 






* p 




• 






* P 


• 


p 




»P 


• o 








P • 




9 


• 




O t 


p 


• 


p • 


P • 


p • 








o 






o 




3 




3 


p 


O 


3 


z 




P 


• ^ 


>»• 


• 


* 


<D 


• * 


"M • 


•r 


p- • m 


m •-* 


« • ^ 


p 






p ^ 


* 


e 


> 


• 


3 -t 


• -^ 


-* 


• 3 >»- 


• <? ,j. 


• C ^ 


o 




K 


o 


-0 




o 


*r 


3 


iA 


c 


-r o 


•J- O 


m o 


o 






s 


K 
m 




§ 




■3 




^ 


.: ! 


K 8 


m p 






o 






o 




o 




c 


3 


»4 ■ 
P 


'^ ^ 






<o 


» 


« 


• 




4 


* 


« • 




<o • 


^ •> 


<d • 


u1 




• 


4 


• 


^A 




• >y 


• m 




* fM 


• fVi 


■ >■ 


o 




p^ 


^ 


f^ 


* 




r- 


-t 


f- ^ 




P* * 


« sf 


>0 ■4' 


u 




p* 


« 


^- 


00 




r- 


to 


p- e 




P^ (S 


p* ao 


r^ flo 



i* = 


a 


a 4 ^ 
o «. a. 
ec t~ u, 
a. > — 


s 



II e 
3 ■ - 
-♦ p 



?* s 

o ♦ -* 

-- ♦ e 



• * -o 

3 • « 

O » O 

-.1 P 



21S 



g:? 



O • « 3 » or 

3 • o e # o 

C » -• O ♦ -I 

-. » 3 -* ♦ ^ 



^ p -* p 

9 * • » 

«A p ^ D 

N. ^ P (? 

P^ ^ « ^ 



' 3 • 
3 -O 



.S8 



P 
3 

4A 



O 
< 

o 



lu lU A 
Dirt -I 






o 

►- a. — 

o — */i 



UJ irt (M r«\ Ui 

I gr f^ r^ ^ 

» X * t ^ 



o a. 
<x X 
• or 



o 
— *- a — 

lu VI o iH> trt 

z oc cr I- a. 



O tA S 

-I P 



-4 p ,r 

• • m 

* 3C 

-^ 3^ 3 

tD ■« 3 

-4 3 



C t^ 

C P- >0 

• ^ -• 

3 O^ C 



• « 3 

m /\ p 



-4 P 

3 



PP >r 

• « m 

r*>P 3 

tA <r 5 

« ^ 3 



3 • <? 

3 >f lA 

r cr 3 

tA c 

-« c 



^ p 

3 



O c^ 3 
*- C 






CO K ^ 0^ K -» 

m lA 3 « u^ 3 

O 3 (A p 

J^ 3 »A 3 

-. C ^ O 

3 3 

BO O '^ >0 P nT 

• • n • • in 

C C -r C -3 Z 

tA (J" -r (T (?■ C 

cr ^ 3 ? o 3 

« c -, c 



3 * lA 



■ • (^ • • ^ 

3 h- p M P* c 

* tA P 0^ ^ 3 

tA P 4- P 

lA 3 tA 3 

- O -« 3 



(D C 3 

^ O' O 

3 4* 3 

r\j 3 



f- 3 3 
?? a* ^ 



- e - 


w o r; 


-*(•** 


-< — ^ 


;^-:^ 


m .3 


• • 3 


'♦^ • T 


OC • O 


rt tA 3 


**1 lA O 


^ lA ^ 


^f <A O 


*n ,/> o 


• PM • 


• M t 


• AJ • 


t )SJ ■ 


• rj • 


^^. 3 


^ f- 3 


WP^ P 


-• P-:3 


^CJp 



3 •'^ T • ^ 

~ ^\» tA C iT tA 

c cr 2 c o^ T 

J^ 3 tA o 

^ 3 ^ c 



-« r? o -too 

(S • O r<> • O 

tA (A 3 ^ tA ^ 

• f\j » • rtj • 

^ p* P — P- 3 



7-44 



» * ^ a 



^ m * ^K ^ 

M m 9" *Mtf\ ^ 



'^ tft » 






-^ T 3 c ^ 



r^T Ctrtp -*^i "''^S 
fyC-f MO-* MO-T rJO't 



• ID 
< • I- 



I «* O • • U. 

a. V uj K ^ X 

-J O Q 3 7 HI 

< w < UJ (L 



• »<> ••O ••C7* «•!^ ••* 

F*-O0*f rsj«c^ OOD'O ^~9 ■<> 0*op«. 
«iA<r Oif^ff* r\t(/>(^ -^lAO* •-*kn(y 



X 



J) . ^- 


^ 




»w 


•a 




P- 


c r- 


\p f^ 


-: 35 


• 




2 


m 




6 


-J S 


J § 








« 






» ■ 


-* • 




c 






c 






o 


^ 


o 


-^ J c 


-J 


-*i 


^ 


^ 


f^ 


„ 


^ IT Z 


■^ ^ I 


• nC 


• 


<*^ 




* 


(^ 


• 


• rr\ -Z 


• <r C 


f^ m ^ 


fN 


CO 


■* 


f\i 00 


■t 


-g (o *r 


*VJ » •*■ 



a, ^ 



O a. « 



O a. « 

e • 



e a # c a » 



z < 

-« X 

ar uj i^ 
i > — 



X o a 

3 Z C 

4' LU * 1 



-^ a Z 

ac U' O 
a > — 






O f*4 t 



83 *rt • 

3M» O*^** or4» 



tfi,# tn««. tn«* «•# 
t/^r«>« Lfim» sfy*^* '£^'*^f 

^-^« f«--J# N-4* ^-^« 



K gc z 

O 3 uj 



^ d oc 

Z -( X 

kU u. >> 

* ^ cc 

>< U> *J 

D 3 — 

4 WL 



^^ « • -^ <4 * 
* iT « * U\ * 

o as # "»'« • 



(^^» ^^JC• ^C» 

fM*1l m*ft m*# 

-4J« -<-tl« .--fl# 

»tri» •*rt» •tn« 

Oa9» Ceo* 7co« 



a. « 9 

"4 



m o 



a. oo C 
• o 
« J 



a. « O 
f o 






3 ft* C -< O 

§ ^ 3 1*1 O 



Z a^ 
« O I 

& Ui o. 



tf 2 O 

a. oju 



z X a. 

-(* z • 
ii 3 uj < 



^8 



a X 
X 3 



4> 






K flD O 

• o 

C CI 



• o 



O ff * o 

« * « ^ 



9 C < 

■3 e 



0*M 
(M fVJ 

>- « o 

« O 

o c 






a; Z Oi 
a. Lu a. 



Z • uJ 
-^ O tj 
ce 7 u 
a. uj o 



z (£ a. 
- « z 
ac 3 uj 






O ♦ 3 



1U ■ 



• CO 



• * 1^ • « <M 



5»flD o#« 5*2 

5*3 3»3 i»3 




t%f*\ ••n (."^ ••m 

Ti-^T rc3 f^i-rr ^co 

^0.3 U'T'C ^*>r CTT-l 

-^^c -*oC fv^^r "vj^r* 



OitTi "Z • ^ C"'^ 3»^< 

■:^^l/^ 3r>iri CCtTi 3Ki/^ 

«^«« ,ri^ ifi^i^ •fV)<-t 

30"= ~<''S ^'''S 'S'^S 
ir3<^9J>Ci^3 

• • • • 

-3 -3 3 3 



^-5 3 -H C •? w - C r--^^ 

a)»C (*^«C 00*0 m«c 

OtAC f^inC F^ti^c «vri*r 

• n4» ♦rvi» •fvj* •r^* 

^h-C -^ ^- O -*F*0 -- ^• -S 



M 


S 


-J of 


^/* 


w^ 


at 


LL 


X 





i<n (- 


* 




V. 


u 


4 ^ 


r 


-J 


tn 


-1 


1- — ■ 




lU 


CC 


LU 




TC 


3 


-i 







Q. 


U_ 






* 






_ 




o^ • — 


a 


a 


in 




ui t- »- 


n 




a. 


S 


^ -J u. 


flC 


*- 


u. 


a. < -^ 


(X 


■> 




u 


>- — 













1- 


i 




1 



«. n ji 

Lij lU U 

3 ^ -* 

u- 3 — 



I- a. — 
a ^ vo 

Of I- c 



UJ < 


>- 


C; 


Z 


a. 


JJ 


z • 


« X 




«i P- 


- j( 


a 


Of — 


nr 




t-> 




t- CL — 




Ui t/» 


a — «/i 


Of 


Z or 


or »- a 


a 


*- T 


_;>IL 


& 






Sid 

- * ^ 
-» • 3 



r- 00 C 

^ trt e 



^/^ CO 






fM O - 






- CO J 

- o 

3 

^ -? 3 
■n • r 

(T tTi *? 

• ryj « 

-* ^- c 



i 



<M O ^ '-J -C * 



>r (T' -♦ 



■0 c r 
OD in 
^ h- e 



^ 3 © 

1/^ 3 



?:; 



J5 r* (Ni 



00 u^ O 






-» O' o 
ao -Tt e 



-r 3 (^ 

• » 'VJ 

r- C 3 

5 T ^ 

-^0 3 

fsj C 



4 4 r\j 

3 II -< 
'*^ » 3 

• 3 

J^ O^ C 
r- in ^ 

- i 



vt r- '*\ 



00 ^ -3 
-*■ . 3 

B »n ^ 



;:::X 



eo in c 



7-45 






f-*a 



('VO'^ ^^i^ <]^(^«' 
iNfM r* -<f>4f* o•-«^• (^«4^- 
*^- • <* ^- • «K • lft^- • 



-I o -^ 



iO «»^- kvtfX 

t O » m » m ^ {T 

t h- 1^ ^ ^ m ^ 4 

> • in K * irt fh • 

O -4 O ^4 o 



£ 8 



-^•i 



o 



s 

o 



v4 O «4 O iX O «^ 



o * • < 
^ ^ Ui t 



» O "S 


y e- o 


0^ * 5 


e to c 


• « s 


• (^ o 


• o e 


• o o 


w* f^ if\ 


-« ^ j% 


-• sO LA 


fM .0 lA 






e «c 


O < O 


3 in c 


C * C 


• ff-C 


• 0^ o 


* 0^ -3 


• <r o 


M * lA 


r\l ^ lA 


(NJ 4 iTi 


fVJ O tA 



O ^ o c r^ c 
• (TO • » ~ 



X o a 

« lU u 



SIL 



C I 



O a. tt O a. • 



• o a 

33 UJ 



*o • 


* >r • 


<r a « 


* fM » 


,r ^- • 


>f •« 


«^i 


lA • • 


mm* 


fi^: 


t/\ « « 


^ • 


m * • 


m iM ♦ 


**» fSi 


• m • 


• m • 


• m • 


• m • 


• m • 


• m 



-* in * <r ?> « 
tn • # tA » * 



■# ^ • ^ « • 



VA • * tA « * 

me** ^» » * 



3 i' 



K UJ ^ 
3 3- 



lA •• IT • « 

in m • in m • 



*n * • tn • • 

• tn « ■ in • 
tn m # mm* 



in«# in«# in«» 

mm* mm* tnm* 
^pri» >#■(*!# ^m# 



tn** tn»* in** 

t-T* •■*• •f*»* 

in(i^» inK\* inf^* 

'm* -tm* ^m» 



2§ 







-4 # 


-4 * 


^ * 


-4 » 
4- o 








-4 • 

<^ e 


— * 


mo 


in A 


> o 


>* a 


•f* a 


■t o 


'I' o 


-* a 


■* a 


m "S 


m c 


« h. ■< 

* • 


m K < 

• • 




f*» ^. < 

• * 




«•> f» < 


m r^ < 


m K < 

» * 


m r* < 


m f* -* 

* • 


n f*. < 

> * 



d& 



.38 

• O 
O • 

e 



■i 



in nil 

a » e 



in r<t 

a. « o 
«o 



in (M 
a CD o 

O 9 



in fM 

rsj O 

Ql 9 O 



a. oD o 
«o 
o « 

o 



*n IN 

O. IT 1 



> o 



fM2 

. « e 
o • 



a. CD c 
o » 



m fN 

a. OD o 
• o 

'a* 



o 



i? " 3 </» 



M uj a 
ae 3 -J 
a. u. — 



& a- ^ 
O - a. 

« ^ hL 

a > - 



Si 

» of 



• O <B 4 9 

O 4 9 >0 

; 3 :$ 3 






O » tn 



• ^ lA 



7 « 4 

(X) .0 



c ^ c 



o 
1^ p 



(Sitn d Mm 
m ^ p m 91 



• o o 

Mia O 

m <^ o 

-* o 




• mo • -^ O » 



lA (T O 



*v» m ( 



fvi m <! 



• m 8 



lA (^ jj in (T* o 



• mo 
rj m o 

lA » C 




*'0'** 'OO'O ■rtO'O --O'O oo'O '"-a-o 



4-3^ (00<0 CO* 



»- o, — 

Q — i/l 

(i t- Q. 

• > u. 



c a. 



*- a. — 

o " m 

or t- &. 

• > iL 



« • v-l 


# • -^ 

03-. 


• 




n 


« • 


^ 


a 




• • 


'Z 


(St C 


.-4 


«r -• 


m 


^ 


• 
<7 


■ ^ 


• ■ ^ 

^J C -^ 




•f » 

5 « 


>o 





s 


0^ f> 


= 


-g 


^ ^^ 


J- 


(T 


% 


r- 


t^ 


5 


cr 


cr -^ 


rg j> - 


J- 


3^ *r; 


^ cr a 
lA e 


moo 


J^ 


3 





1 


-0 





0* 


C 


C 







^ D 


m 


C 


^ 


^ -3 




rj 


rSi 







<N 







rsi 




c 






c 


m 


•s 


.'•i 




m 





-n ^ 


• 


• 






• 




« 




• 












• 
















3 
m • 




m 


• 


<= 
« 


m ♦ 





m 


c 
• 


r% 


• 


•3 

lA 


m 




a 


*T1 


• rg 


m 


' 


m 


. 3 


r • a- 


^l• >*'m 


* » ^ 


^ 




i 


>r ^ 


§ 


-T 


* ^ 


'T 


rg 


i 


>f 


lA 


^ 


-T 


5? 


>*■ 


T,t 


* 


f- -t 


3 -< m 


(-1 m 5 

2-| 


• <> 


• 





• tA 


• 


<f 


• 


J' 




m 












- -.c 


-o m S 




m 




m 




2g 


^ 




n 




,^ 


S 





2? 




r^ C 


-0 


f^ " 


- n^ C 


-.- 


<D 






(T - 




(^4 






^f 




J^ 


r^ 




X 






- 


-^ 







rd 


*; 


f^J 





rj 




•7 


M 






ryj 





rj 


c 


rj 


C 


^ -^ 


* 


« 






m 














• 






• 




• 








• 


• 


rt 









5 




c 




^ 












c 








5 




C 




^ 









O' 




OD 




P- 


















lA 




^ 




m 


rg 


m 


m 






ry 




M 




fV] 






rg 






rg 




rg 




-g 




rg 


rg 


m 


m 






m 




m 




m 






«! 






m 




m 




m 




/^ 


m 


m <^ a 
m -e 


<f- n 

m * 


m *^ 
m ,0 


S*? 


s 



lA 


=.s 


» 

* 


e 


3 




• 


3 




=.3 


J 


^4 


m 


*- 
• 


rg - 
m • 


««n 


ff" lA 





m 


C 


-^ tn c 


fv tn ^3 


m 


m c 


^ m e 


lA 


lA C 


^ 


■A Z 


K. 


tA C 


oc lA r» 


js;<} 




• 


^ 


4 



.jff 


• 


* rg * 




^ 


• rg 

rg K 


^ 


• 
rg 


rg « 


-JK.^ 


• 
rg 


rvj * 
f*. 


• rg • 
rg ^ 



7-46 







.%s 


& 




xa K 


s 




5.S 

UJ o 


:k 






o 






^ 


a 




^ u. 


£ 




< 


"V. 




i- -J 


«/) 




O UJ 


iQ 




»- Z3 


^ 





• to 

(A -^ * 

m m (^ 

o • o 

-M o -^ 



rj -4 ? 
<n («% ff 



r4 (ft 9 






^ O '^ ^O '* 

<v* tr» (^ M rf\ <r 

o « o • 

o ^ o ^ o 



-4 c 3 o cr 
5 c c = o^ 
9 » 9" * a> 



X ^ 


J 


• • u. 


a V. 


>iJ 


>C J I 


JO 


r 


:3 z u/ 


< 




< oj a 


< 






Ui o 




» « Ui 


> — 




32 


n *rt 




< UJ il 


3 




3SS 


X 




< t- H 






J O OC 




t/i 


Z -J X 


t/) 


^ 


Oi U. "V 


« 


^ 


s/t 


u. 




X U> -* 
^ 3 - 
4 li. 


2 UJ 






at a. 




o 









-> J- T 
• ^ C 



^- « » f- • » 

• O * -a * 

C fVi » CM* 

-4* W « 



• o ♦ 






— INI » 



fi. • • ^- • * 
--0 * -to* 
• 9 • • O # 






Z Q 
UJ o 



& V ^ O. iD O 
O • 3 • 



a. » e 



a. 00 9 



a. a: O 
* 3 



15 n ' 
Z J c 



H tu 33 

ac -D -i 
a. a. -^ 



Of X 



a. »- Q. 



5:? 



f^ fn ; -^ r^ 3 

f\J J^ "^ OD .rt ^ 

Z "^ ^ '^ 

•* 2 '2 ^ 

-^ c '-' ^3 



lA J C O ^ ^ 



C; T 
Z • 

Q. — 



nc I 
• or 






ij -^ o 

m d^ o 



• . m 

^i - ^ 

/> E? T 

o ^ - 



c 00 -f 



^: =• 



^ m c 
(7- j% C 

2 I 



• */\ 


• ^ 






,f ^- 


>r f^ 






F- t- _ 


r- r- 














"^ 




• 




-' 







e in iTi 
- » (^ 


• • 'M 




rj 


« • • 


? # « 




« 


^ <f * 


•5 # 'S 




■3 


*Ni eo 


^ » — » 






4r> ^ 1^ 


-^^ * T 


f^ • 


? 


i*\ fn 


# • 








*? 




c 


M '1 ♦» 


» « <x> 


• • 


X 




f^ -A 5 


rvj t\t 


c 


00c 


^f J\ C 


z -^ 


§ 


Hi UJ U.' 


« e 


a; 


jc a. oc 


m c 


n 






-I c 






^ => i 


• 




• 


ij 3 


-= 




5 


Q. jr a. 


-TO 


j^ r 


^ 


_; -i -J 


• • .*> 


* ■ 


■Tl 


•J U. Lu 


ri '? C 


^ -r 


3 


2)15 :5 


-r ""^ *- 


C J^ 


<^ 


,w ^^ a 


f^ r 


^ c 




fi z 


r-i 


-^ 

J 


^?- 


c 






i/t UJ < 


- , a> 




-i- 


t/l i/5 I- 


1 (*^ -f 


S - 


<f 


— . UJ 


• ^ -* 


• -r 


■« 


i, TT K 



aj 2 x^2 



Ui */i 



as js C IP iTi ^ 



ff j> ^ 
» rg » 

fN* f^ ^ 



M 5 c 

r^ • = 

• fM » 

<^ r- e 



7-47 



1.6.2 Tandem Rotor winged Helicopter 

The design mission profile is illustrated in Figure 7-6. The 
more interesting and unusual inputs are discussed for this 
case, while the more routine information is only listed. A 
complete copy of the program printout follows the description 
of the input. 



CRUISE AT 
NRP POWER 



TAKEOFF e T/W ; 
C6 MIN) 



1.Q8 



TAXI OUT 
(2 MIN) 




/ 



TRANSFER 

ALTITUDE TO 1000 FT 

CRUISE AT SPEED FOR 99% 

BEST RANGE 



CLIMB € MAX 

R/C TO 

5000 FT, ALT 




/ 



SUFFICIENT 
RESERVE 
FUEL TO 
LOITER FOR 
ONE HALF HOUR 



'CLIMB AT 
CONSTANT 
TAS (120 KN) 
TO 3000 FT 
ALTITUDE 



y 



TRANSFER ALTITUDE 
TO SL 



.HOVER @ T/W =1.08 
(6 MIN) 



•180 NAUTICAL MILES' 



Figure 7-6. Design MSN - Sample Case Number 2 



7-48 



SAMPLE CASE NO. 



GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET 
VARIABLE LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 
OPTIND 0001 1.0 
0002 



OPTIONAL 
PRINT 

DRGIND 



OSWIND 

CNFIND 
AUXIND 
RDMIND 



0003 

0004 

0005 
0006 
0007 



1.0 

1.0 



2.0 
2.0 
4.0 



FIXIND 


0008 


1.0 


ROTIND 


0009 


1.0 


S^IND 


0010 


3.0 


b^IND 


0011 


2.0 


AIPIND 


0012 


1.0 


FDMIND 


0020 


2.0 


APHIND 


0021 


2.0 



REMARKS 

Sizing run 

Detailed printout de- 
sired 

Component drag build-up 
desired 

User inputs Oswald ef- 
ficiency factor 

Tandem rotor helicopter 

Winged helicopter 

Main rotor diameter 
sized based on input 
disc loading ; sol idity 
sized based on input 
Cfjt/o 



Program sizes primary 
engines 

Short form rotor per- 
formance method used 

Wing area sized by ma- 
neuver conditions 

Wing span sized by in- 
put aspect ratio 

NO independent aux, 
engines 

Tandem rotor fuselage 
sized by input of ^c 
and ((0/l)/D) 

Aft rotor pylon geom- 
etry calculated based 
on input rotor gap/ 
stagger ratio 



7-49 



VARIABLE 
ESCIND 



Vmo 
Vdive 

Mlf 
K, 



>Wf 



Ki 



LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 
0022 2.0 



0023 



^o 


0024 


Ro 


0025 


to 


0026 


hop^IND 


0027 


Mwn 


0028 



0029 

0030 

0031 
0032 



FF 



0033 



0034 



30000 



0.32 

200 

200 

3.0 
1.0 



0.0 



1.05 



REMARKS 

Primary engines sized 
for either takeoff or 
cruise 

First guess at design 
gross weight 



Start 

altitude 

Starting 
range 



1 



Starting 
time ^ 



Normally 

except 

for 

partial 

mission 

analysis 



Cruise at specified 
altitudes 

Maximum operating Mach 
number 

Maximum operating EAS 
knots 

Design dive speed, 
knots EAS 

Maneuver load factor 

Factor on mission fuel 
burned to give reserve 
fuel; i.e., 1.1 would 
give 10 percent reserves 

Fixed fuel increment for 
reserves or other use 

Increase basic engine 
SFC by 5 percent 



7-50 



VARIABLE 


LOCATION 


VALUE ASSIGNED 


REMAI 


^KS 


SGTIND 


0035 


1.0 


Taxi 






0036 


2.0 


Takeoff 






0037 


3.0 


Climb 






0038 


4.0 


Cruise 






0039 


9.0 


Transfer 
altitude 






0040 


60.0 


Loiter (re- 
serve fuel) 


I Sequence 
'^of 




0041 
0042 
0043 


3.0 
4.0 
9.0 


Climb 

Cruise 

Transfer 
altitude 


Design 
Mission 




0044 


2.0 


Hover and 
land 






0045 


100 


End of case 





HELICOPTER DIMENSIONAL INFORMATION SHEET 
AR 



(t/Oj, 

(t/c)^ 

Ac/4 



Cp/C 



0104 

0105 

0106 

0107 

0108 
0109 



6.0 

0.20 

0.12 



0.5 
1.0 



Wing aspect ratio (in- 
put because b^IND =2.0) 

Wing root thickness/ 
chord ratio 

Wing tip thickness/ 
chord ratio 

Quarter-chord mean sweep 
angle, degrees 

Wing taper ratio 

Ratio of download al- 
leviating flap chord to 
wing chord (1.0 signi- 
fies a fully tilting 
wing) 



7-51 



VARIABLE 
h/hp 

hp 

(Vd)p 
(Vd)^ 

((0/L)/D) 

Zl 
Z2 
Z3 

(t/c)Tp 
ARpp 
FP 

(t/c)T, 



LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 
0110 1.0 



0111 

0122 
0123 
0124 
0125 
0126 

0127 
0132 

0142 
0143 
0144 
0152 

0153 

0154 

0155 

0156 

0157 

0158 



1.2 

7.0 

6.5 

0.70 

1.2 

35.0 

5.0 
0.22 



0.035 ~\ 
2.0 ^ 

0.078 



0.45 

0.25 

0.4 

0.7 

3.0 

0.50 

0.30 



REMARKS 

Wing located at top of 

fuselage 

Wing design lift coef- 
ficient 

Fuselage height 

Fuselage width 

Fineness ratio of nose 

Fineness ratio of tail 

Constant diameter sec- 
tion length 

Length of ramp well 

Tandem rotor overlap/ 
diameter ratio 



Primary engine 
nacelle constants 



Forward rotor pylon root 
thickness/chord ratio 

Forward rotor pylon tip 
thickness/chord ratio 

Forward rotor pylon 
aspect ratio 

Forward rotor pylon 
taper ratio 

Forward rotor pylon 
height 

Aft rotor pylon root 
thickness/chord ratio 

Aft rotor pylon tip 
thickness/chord ratio 



7-52 



VARIABLE 



AR 



AP 

^AP 
g/s 



LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 
0159 0.7 



0160 



0162 



0.75 



0.16 



REMARKS 

Aft rotor pylon aspect 
ratio 

Aft rotor pylon taper 
ratio 

Tandem rotor gap/stagger 
ratio (input because 
APHIND =2.0) 



MAIN ROTOR DIMENSIONAL DATA SHEET 



RUTUK 

CYCLE 
NO. 


UX / X 


J • V 


% 


0172 


2.0 


W/A 


0173 


8.0 


^MR 


'0l76 


4.0 


^Tmr 


0177 


-9.0 


^<=MR 


0178 


0.2 


^R 


0179 


0.07 



(t/c).25R 

^TIP 
(C,p/a)H 

T/W 



0180 

0181 
0182 

0183 



0.12 

700 
0.12 

1.08 



Rotor blade section 
aerodynamic charac- 
teristics selection 

No. of rotors 

Disc loading 

No. of blades/main 
rotor 

Main rotor twist (deg) 

Main rotor blade cutout 
as a fraction of radius 

Main rotor blade attach- 
ment point as a fraction 
of radius 

Rotor blade thickness/ 
chord at 25 percent 
radius 

Main rotor tip speed 

Rotor "lift coefficient'* 
for hover sizing rotor 
solidity 

Rotor design thrust/ 
weight ratio 



7-53 



VARIABLE 


LOCATION 


VALUE ASSIGNED 


Vj^(c) 


0184 


160 "" 


h^Cc) 


0185 


4000 r 


ATiNc 


0186 


J 


^V^^CR 


0187 


0.095 


g REQM'T 


0188 


2.0 


g (ROTOR) 


0189 


1.5 



N (ROTOR 0190 

LOADING) 



VCEHI 



'CEH2 



KP< 



CLIMB 



0191 
0]92 
0193 



1.0 

1.53 

0.0 

0.85 



] 



REMARKS 



Cruise flight con- 
ditions for sizing 
rotor solidity 



Rotor "lift coefficient' 
for sizing rotor solid- 
ity in cruise flight 

Total g requirement 
helicopter must satisfy 
at Vkt(c) 

Maneuver g's carried by 
main rotor at ^vm{c) 

Rotor lift/GW for Ig 
cruise flight rotor 
solidity sizing 

Main rotor vertical 
rate-of-climb 
efficiency factors 

Helicopter forward 
flight climb efficiency 



PRIMARY ENGINE SIZING INFORMATION SHEET 



PRIMARY 






ENGINE 






CYCLE NO. 


0217 


1.761 


Np 


0219 


4.0 


XMSNIND 


0220 


2.0 



SHP 



MRX' 



/SHPj^j^ 0221 



0223 



1.00 



0.97 



Engine selection 

NO. of primary engines 

Drive system rated at 
power required to hover 
or cruise (more critical 
of the two conditions 
selected by program) 

Main rotor drive system 
is rated at 100 percent 
of main rotor design 
power 

Transmission efficiency 



7-54 



VARIABLE 



ASHP 



ACC 



h^o(H) 



(t/w), 



LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 
0224 100 
0227 4000 



0228 



(Nii/Niimax)to 0230 



1.08 



1.105 



REMARKS 

Accessory power losses 

Design point hover al- 
titude (engine sizing) 

Configuration design 
point hover thrust/ 
weight ratio 

Main rotor operating at 
100 percent of hover 
tip speed (700 fps) ; 
i.e. 



^iImaxJtoI ^ii J 



= r 1.105) (.905)^ (700) 
1.00 



= 700 



N. 



PSD 



0231 



SHPg/SHP* 0232 



V, 



CLt 



^^PSD>c 



0241 



1.0 



0.95 



0235 


3000 


0236 


155 


0240 


0.45 



0.0 



One engine inoperative 
at hover design point 
conditions 

Engines sized to permit 
pperation in hover (OGE) 
with one engine out and 
the remaining engines 
operating at 95 percent 
max rated power 

Design point (cruise) 
altitude (engine sizing) 

Design point cruise 
speed (engine sizing) 

Wing operating lift co- 
efficient at cruise 
condition for engine 
sizing 

No, of primary engines 
shut down during cruise 
(for engine sizing) 



7-55 



HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS INFORMATION SHEET 
VARIABLE LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 



REMARKS 



0301 
-0344 



Use of the component drag build- 
up option (DRGIND = 1) is ade- 
quately explained in Section 4.9, 
For actual values used, refer to 
the appropriate locations on 
the output sheets. 



ROTOR LIMITS INFORMATION SHEET 

0347 
-0377 



This case has been run using 
dummy rotor limit values (as 
explained in Section 7.3). For 
actual dummy values used, refer 
to the appropriate locations on 
the output sheets. 



HELICOPTER WEIGHT INFORMATION SHEET 



2601 
-2673 



This is fully explained in Sec- 
tion 4.11. Refer to the output 
sheets for the actual values 
used. 



TAXI INFORMATION 

t,p 0411 0.0333 Taxi for 2 minutes 

TAKEOFF, HOVER, AND LANDING INFORMATION 



TOLIND 


0461 
0462 


1.0 

1.0 

J 


Specify required t/W 
for hover out of ground 
effect 


^H 


0551 
0552 


0.1 ■ 

0.1 


' Hover for 6 minutes 


CLIMB INFORMATION 






CLMIND 


0571 


1.0 


Climb at maximum rate 

of climb 




0572 


4.0 


Climb at constant TAS 


^LwiNG 


0601 
0602 


0.4T 
0.5 f 


Wing operating C^ in 
climb 



7-56 



VARIABLE 



LOCATION VALUE ASSIGNED 



N. 



PSD, 



CL 



0681 
0682 
CRUISE INFORMATION 



CRSIND 



POWIND 
*^LwiNG 

Rmax 



0721 



0722 



0781 



0751 
0752 

0791 
0792 



LOITER INFORMATION 
CLw 1041 

tr 1081 



2.0 
2.0 

1.0 
4.0 
2.0 



} 



0.4 
0.45 



80 
18 



} 



0,4 
0.5 



REMARKS 

Shut down two of the 
primary engines in 
climb 



cruise at specified 

power setting 

Cruise at 99 percent 
best range speed 

Cruise at NRP for first 
c ru is e s egmen t 

Wing operating C^ in 
cruise 

Values of range at end 
of each cruise 



Wing operating C^ in 
loiter 

Loiter 30 minutes for 
reserve fuel purposes 



PRIMARY ENGINE CYCLE DATA; NON-STANDARD PJR FQ RMANCE 
1204 



N2IND 



^iimax^^ii 



1223 



2,0 
0.905 



A nqn-optimum Nji vari- 
ation, will^ be used 

Maximum power turbine 
speed is 90.5 percent 
of rated value (static, 
max power, sea level 
standard) 



The sample case output follows: 



7-57 



SA*'PtE CASE »2 



LOC. 

VAL 

V»tl 

VAL2 



HE S C H P 
HEIICCPTE« SIZING t PERFORMAKCE COHPgTEW PROGRAM 



B-91 



T»-E PCLLOMING tS A CAPO 8V CARC REPRCOUCTION OF THE INPUT DECK FOP THIS CASE 

CCRRESFCNOS TO lOCATION NUMBER GIVEN ON INPUT SHEET 

5TANCS FOR THE NUMBER OF SEOUEKTtAt. INPUT VAtUES STARTING WTTH LOC« {MAX. -5> 

ECUALS VALUE FOP VARIABLE CORRESPONDING TO LOC. 

VALUE CORRESRONOINC TO lOC.^OOOt 

VALUE CORRESPONDING TO L0C»*0002 

ETC, 



LOC- 



^UM 



VAL 



VAL I 



VAL2 



VAL3 



VAL4 



NOTE : IN USING AUXILIARY ENGTKES ; AUXILIARY ENGINE CYCLE I NPU* LCCATIONS CAN BE CREATED 
BV PLACING A 66666 CARO IN FROKT AND BEHIND A STANDARD ENGINE CYCLE 



I t 


1.0000 










2 1 


I. 0000 










3 I 


1.0000 










*t 1 


0.0 










5 1 


2.0000 


2.0000 


4.0000 


1,0000 


1.0000 


10 3 


3.0000 


2.0000 


1.0000 






20 3 


2.0000 


2.0v)00 


2.0000 


30000. 


0.0 


25 5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.32000 


200.00 


30 ! 


200.00 


3.0000 


1,0000 


0.0 


1.0500 


35 ■ 


I. 0000 


2.0000 


3,0000 


4.0000 


9.0000 


40 ! 


60.000 


3.0000 


4,0000 


9,0000 


2.0000 


45 ] 


100.00 










104 ! 


i 6.0000 


0.20000 


0, 12000 


0.0 


0,50000 


109 3 


\ 1.0000 


I. 0000 


i.2000 






120 ; 


> 0.0 


0.0 








122 ! 


i 7.0000 


6.5000 


0. 70000 


1.2000 


35.000 


127 1 


5.0000 










132 ] 


L Q. 22000 










142 * 


i 0.35000E-01 


2.0000 


0.78OOOE-01 


0.0 




152 ! 


> 0.45000 


0.25000 


0. 40000 


0.70000 


3.0000 


157 * 


k 0.50000 


0.30000 


0.70000 


0,75000 




162 


I 0.16000 










171 


i 3,0000 










172 


I 2.0000 


8,0000 








176 


% 4.0000 


-9.0000 


0.20000 


0.75000E-01 


0.12000 


181 


L 700,00 










162 


I 0.12000 


U0800 








184 


S 160.00 


4000.0 


0.0 


0.95000E-01 


2.0000 


189 


I 1.5000 


I .0000 








191 


2 1.5300 


0.0 








193 


I C. 85000 


0.0 








217 


L I. 7610 










219 


L 4.0000 










220 


I 2.0000 


1*0000 








223 


? 0.97000 


100.00 








227 


S 4000.0 


U0800 


50.300 


1.1050 


1.0000 


232 


I 0.95000 


0,0 








234 


5 2.0000 


3000.0 


155.00 


0.0 


1.1050 


240 


? C, 45000 


0.0 









7-58 



303 




0»60000F- 


-02 


0,15000 


0.75000 


1.4000 




30<) 




fl, 320006- 


•02 










31^ 




0,75000 












314 




5.5000 












319 




1.0450 




1.2 500 


U3000 






323 




2.8600 












324 




1.2500 




1.5400 








32 B 




0.15440E 


07 










329 




6,2000 












330 




6,0000 












331 




0.0 




0.20000 


0.40000 


0.60000 _ 


0.80000 


336 




i .0000 












339 




0.59000E- 


-02 


0.60000 £-02 


0,66000E-02 


0,60000E-02 


0,95000E-02 


344 




O.IUOOE- 


-01 










347 




3.0000 




3.0000 








349 




0.0 




0.50000 


1 .0000 






354 




CO 




0.50000 


1.0000 






361 




I. 0000 




I. 0000 


I. 0000 






360 




1.0000 




1,0000 


t .0000 






375 




I. 0000 




uoooo 


I. 0000 






2602 




3000.0 




600,00 


5000.0 






2605 




0.0 




0.0 


0.0 






2606 




CO 




0.0 


0.0 


0,0 


0.0 


2613 




26,000 




10,000 


42,000 


0.0 


0.0 


261B 




100.00 




0.0 


0,0 


0,0 




2622 




125,00 




3.0000 


0.40000E-Ot 


0,60000 


0,0 


262 7 




I. 0000 




0,0 


2.0600 


0.0 


0.0 


2632 




CO 




120.00 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


2637 




44.000 




I. 0000 


61.000 


I . oood 


1.2500 


2642 




CO 




0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


250.00 


2647 




4.0000 




0.0 


0,0 


0.0 


0,19000 


2652 




200.00 




0,0 








2654 




1. 0000 




1.0000 


1 .0000 


t.OJOO 


UOOOO 


2659 




1.0000 




1.0000 


1.0000 


1.0000 


UOOOO 


2664 




1,0000 












2665 




1.0000 




1,0000 


uoooo 


I. 0000 


UOOOO 


2670 




1.0000 




1.0000 


I. 0000 


1.0000 




401 




CO 












411 




C33300E 


-01 










^21 




CO 












431 




CO 












441 




1.1050 












46 1 




I. 0000 




1.0000 








^81 




0.0 




0.0 








501 




CO 




0.0 








511 




CO 




0,0 








521 




1.0600 




1.0600 








531 




ClOOOOE 


-01 


O.lOOOOE-01 








541 




1.1050 




1.1050 








551 




C 1000 Of 


00 


O.IOOOOE 00 








571 




I. 0000 




4.0000 








582 




120.00 












591 




CO 




0.0 








601 




C.-<iOO00 




0.50000 








6LI 




CO 




0.0 








621 




500,00 




500.00 








631 




2.0000 




2.0000 








641 




5O0O.0 




3000.0 








651 




1.1050 




1-1050 








661 




CO 




0,0 








671 




1.1050 




1,1050 









7-59 



681 2 


2*0000 


2.0000 








701 2 


C«0 


0.0 








721 2 


uoooo 


4.1000 








732 1 


25.000 










741 2 


0.0 


0.0 








751 2 


0,40000 


0*45000 








761 2 


CO 


0.0 








771 2 


20.000 


20*000 








781 3 


2.0000 


2.0000 








791 2 


80«000 


180.00 








BOl 2 


1.1050 


1.1050 








811 J 


1 0.0 


0*0 








821 2 


1.1050 


1.1050 








831 J 


0.0 


0.0 








851 i 


0.0 


0.0 








1031 \ 


0.0 










1041 1 


0.40000 










1051 1 


0.0 










1061 \ 


0.50000E-01 










1071 1 


1.1050 










1081 1 


0.50000 










1091 1 


1.1050 










1101 ] 


0.0 










1121 1 


CO 










1131 ] 


0.0 










1181 i 


! 1000. 


0.0 








UOl ! 


I CO 


0.0 


0*0 


2,0000 


0.0 


1206 ] 


CO 










1223 1 


L C. 90500 










1201 ! 


\ 0.0 


0.0 


0*0 


2*0000 


0.0 


1206 1 


CO 










1223 ] 


C90500 










1301 « 


> 1.7610 


0.15900 


0.0 


0.3200OE-O1 


950.00 


1306 ! 


\ 1100*0 


1856.0 


2000.0 


20OO.0 


8.0000 


1311 ! 


S 950.00 


1200.0 


1400*0 


1600.0 


1800.0 


1316 I 


\ 2000. 


2200.0 


2600.0 


5,0000 


0.0 


1321 * 


k 0.20000 


0.40000 


0.60000 


0.80000 




1326 


i C25000e-0l 


C25700E-01 


0.27800F-01 


0.31300E-01 


0.36200E-01 


1332 


S 0.16300 


0.16760 


0.18130 


0.20410 


0.23600 


1338 i 


S C33500 


0.34440 


0.37250 


0*41940 


0.48510 


134* ! 


i C54400 


0.55920 


0*60490 


0.68110 


0.78770 


1350 ! 


i 0.77000 


0*79160 


0.85620 


0.96400 


1,1150 


1356 * 


i UOOOO 


1.0280 


1.1120 


1*2520 


1.4480 


1362 • 


» 1.2000 


1.2336 


1.3344 


1.5024 


1,7376 


1368 < 


( 1.5500 


1.5934 


1.7236 


1.9406 


2.2444 


13T4 


$ 8.0000 


950*00 


1200.0 


1400.0 


1600.0 


1579 


& 1800.0 


2000.0 


2200.0 


2600.0 


5.0000 


1384 


5 0.0 


0*20000 


0,40000 


0.60000 


0.80000 


1390 


$ 0.65000E-01 


0*65l00e-0l 


0,6530OE-Ol 


0.67000E-01 


0.71000E-01 


1396 


5 0.11500 


0.U600 


0.11800 


0.12800 


0,14000 


1402 


5 0.18000 


0.18100 


0.19000 


0.20800 


0.22700 


1408 


5 C26000 


0.26100 


0.27300 


0,29500 


0.32500 


1414 


5 0.34200 


0.34 700 


0*36200 


0.38900 


0.42500 


1420 


5 0.42500 


0,43500 


0,45100 


0.48600 


0.51700 


1426 


5 C 50000 


0.51100 


0,53000 


0.56000 


0.61000 


1432 


5 0.62600 


0,63100 


0.66000 


0.71800 


O.7BOO0 


1438 


k 3.0000 


950.00 


1600,0 


2600*0 




1447 


k 3.0000 


0.0 


0,40000 


0. a 0000 




1454 


3 0. 26000 


0.27100 


0.29000 






1460 


3 0.82000 


0,84000 


0.90000 






1466 


3 1,0900 


1.1180 


1.1650 






1502 


5 8.0000 


950.00 


1200.0 


1400.0 


1600.0 


1507 


S 1800.0 


2000.0 


2200.0 


2600,0 


5.0000 


1512 


5 0.0 


0.20000 


0. 40000 


0.60000 


0.80000 


1518 


» 0.2600O 


0.26500 


0,27100 


0.28000 


0,29000 


1524 


i C52000 


0.52700 


0.54000 


0.56000 


0.59000 


1530 


5 0.68OOO 


0.69000 


0.70500 


. 7 3000 


0.76000 


1536 


S C 82000 


0.82400 


0.84000 


0.86800 


0,90000 


1542 


» 0. 92000 


0.93000 


0.95000 


0.98000 


1.0200 


1548 


5 1. 0000 


1.0020 


1.0200 


1,0500 


1,0900 


1554 


5 K0520 


1.0550 


1.0700 


I. 1000 


1.1310 


1560 


3 1.0900 


I. 1000 


1. 11 80 


1.1350 


1.1650 


1601 


S 3.0000 


-9.0000 


0.99500F-02 


-0.28OOOE-O1 


0.26200 


1606 


S 0.27600 


2,4500 


0.66S00 


0,10500E-01 


2.8200 


1611 


5 C90000F-01 


1.1700 


O.l2400e-02 


0,75800 


0,74300 


1616 


5 10.000 


0.0 


0.40000E-02 


0,rOOOOE-02 


0,90000E-0? 


162 L 


5 ClOOOOE-Ol 


O.llOOOE-Ol 


0.11500E-01 


0.12000E-01 


0, 15500 E-Ol 


1626 


5 0.22000 


1.0180 


1.08 50 


1,154a 


1.2 3 30 


1631 


5 U2790 


1.3140 


1.3270 


1.3370 


1,3640 


1636 


I 1.3970 











7-60 



5A(»PUE CASE tt2 



H E S C Q M P 
HgtICOPTER SIZING C P£RFORM*KCE CC^PUTER PROGRAM d-91 



rANOEM ROTCP HINGED HEtlCOPTER 

SIZE CAT* THIS RUN CONVFRGED IN 3 ITERATIONS 

GROSS ViETGHT » 24*82. IB 



FUSELAGE 




LF 


lENGTH 


LC 


CABIK LENCTh 


CEtTAXl 


F«0. ROTCR LCCATION 


CELTAX2 


AFT ROTOR LCCAtlCN 


^F 


WIDTH 


C/S 


ROTOR GAP/STAGGER PATIC 


IC/L/CI 


ROTOR OVERLAP/OIAHETER RATIO 


SF 


WETTJio AREA 



hING 



AP 


ASPECT RATIC 


S^ 


AREA 


f>h 


SPAN 


CSARW 


NEAN CHORD 


LA^fBOA C/* 


OIIABTER CHCRC S*<EEP 


LAfBOA 


TAPER RATTC 


(T/CIR 


ROOT THICKKESS/CHORO 


(T/CJT 


TIP THICKNESS/CHORD 


kG/SW 


WING LOADING 


GP>k 


ROTOR/WING GAP 


CF/C 


FLAP CHORD/NEAN CHORD RATIO 


*ARC ROTOR PVtON 


AR 


ASPECT RATIC 


SFP 


mettec area 


FJFP 


FRONTAL AREI 


HP I 


HEIGHT 


CEARFP 


MEAN CHORD 


lAMOA FP 


T4PER RATTC 


(T/C)R 


ROOT THICKNESS/CHORD 


(T/C)T 


TIP THICKNESS/CHCRD 


PCTOR PYLON 




AR 


ASPECT RATIC 


S*P 


WETTEC AREA 


hP2 


HEIGHT 


CBARAP 


WEAN CHORD 


L*»^80A AP 


TAPER RATIC 


n/ciR 


ROOT THICKMSS/CHORD 



47.8 FT, 
35.0 FT. 
9.2 FT. 
4.6 FT, 
6.5 FT. 
n,l60 
0.220 
S36.4 SO. 



6.00 






132.3 


SQ. 


FT. 


28.2 


FT. 




4.7 


P'p 




0.0 


DEG. 




0.500 






0.200 






0.120 






185.0 


LBS/SQ. FT 


3.0 


FT. 




uooo 






0.400 






50.0 


SQ. 


FT, 


3,3 


SQ. 


FT. 


3*0 


FT. 




7.5 


FT. 




0.700 






C.450 






C.250 






CTOO 






232-0 


SO. 


FT, 


e.4 


FT, 




12. L 


FT, 




0.750 






0.500 







,T/CIT TIP TMICKNESS/CHORO **'^^" 

PRIMARY ENGINE NACELLE 

Lh LENGTH *J^ PtI 

'SN ;;rTTES'lRrArTOTAL for ah engines* "2.* ^0- ^^ • 

AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT ENGINE KKELLE -NO AUXILIARY INDEPENDENT ENGINE USED 

PR0PELLER<AUXILI*PY PRCPULSIOK) - NO PPCPELIER USEC 

}»k\h fCTOP 

44.1 FT, 

CPP DIAMETER 0,122 

SICMR ^'^^'^'^^-„. a.O LB/SQ. FT, 



hG/A DISC LOADING n 0^5 

CT/SIGMA THRUST COEFF./SOtlOITY O-^^S 

KP NO. OF ROTCRS I' 

NO. BLADES NO. OF BLADES/ROTOR _^^^^'^ ^^^.^ 

BL ADE Twist nann 

BLACE CUTOLT/RAOIUS RATIO O;^^^ fT,/SEC. 



KP NO. OF ROTCRS 

NO. BLADES NO. OF BL'"" 

ThETA BLADE TWi 

XC BLACE CUT 

VTIP TIP SPEED 



7-61 



SAMPLE CASE #2 



t- E S C H P 
MEIICCPTER SUING C PE«^OPMAKCE COMPUTES PROGHAH 8-91 



WEIGHTS CATA IN IBS 

MLF HANEUVEP tCIC FACTOR 

GLP r>UST LOAD FACTQft 

LLP ULTIMATE LCAC FACTOR 

PROPlilSIGN GROUP 

WPRG TOTAL MAIN RCTOR GROUP 

K12 UPRB MAIN RCTCR BLADE (PER ROTOR I 

»(13 WPM MAIN PCTCR HUB (PER ROTOR) 

WflF BLADE fCLOINGIPER RQTOR I 

t<l« WAR AuxItlARV PRCPULSION RHTOR CROUP 

WCS DRIVF SYSTEM 

RU WPOS MAIN ftCTCR DRIVE SYSTEM 

1120 MTRDS TAIL RCTCR DRIVE SVSTEH 

Ki7 WAOS AUXILIARY PROPULSION DRIVE SYSTEM 

KU mEP PPTMARY ENGIKES 

»Cl<; WEA AUXILARY FKGTNES 

MPEl pfiTM4BY ENGUE INSTALLATION 

WAF! AUXILIARY EKGINE INSTALLATION 

wFS FUEL SYSTE** 

CELTA wP PRQPULSTCN CROUP WEIGHT INCREMENT 

WP TCTAL t»R0PUL5ICft GROUP WEIGHT 6993. 

STftUCTLRES GROUP 

tcfl Uto UTNG 

WTG TAIL GROUP 

K9 WHT HOP. T*iL 

%\A WTft TAIL RCTCR 

K« we FUSELAGE 

K7 WLG LANCING GEAR 

WNG NPSE GEAR 

WMG MAIN GEAR 

WTFS TOTAL ENGINE SECTION 

UPf<; PRTHARY ENGINE SECTION 

WAES AUXILIARY ENGINE SECTION 

CELTA W^T STRUCTURE WEIGHT INCREMENT 

WST TOTAL STRUCTURE WEIGHT 4601. 

FLIGt-T CONTPOLS GROUP 

WPFC PRIMARY FLIGHT CCNTRQLS 1036. 

wCr COCKPIT CCNTBOLS 96. 

KI WHC **AIN RCTCR CrNTBOLS 252. 

K2 WSC MAIN RCTCR SYSTEMS CONTROLS 588, 

K3 WFW FIXED WIKG CCNTROLS 0. 

XTM TILT MFCt-ANlSM 0. 

wSAS SAS 100. 

WAFC AUXILlAPr FLIGHT CONTROLS 0. 

K4 WRCA AUX, PROPULSION ROTOR CONTROLS 0, 

K5 WSCA AUX. PPCPULSICN ROTOR SYS. CCNTROLS 0. 



WMC MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS 0. 

CELTA WFC CONTROL WEIGHT INCREMENT 0. 

WFC TOTAL CCNTPOL *iEIGhT 1036. 

WFE wFIGHT CF FIXEC equipment 3000. 

WE weight empty 15630. 

WFUL FIXED USEFUL LC*C 600. 

CWE OPERATING WEIGHT EMPTY 16230. 

WPL PAYLOAO 5000. 

<WF)A FLEL 3252. 

WG GROSS WEIGHT 24*82. 



3 


,000 


I 


.438 


4 


,500 




2893. 




587, 




570, 




289, 




0. 




2230. 




2230. 




0, 




0. 




1053. 




0. 




200. 




0, 




618. 




0, 




273. 




0. 














3229. 




979. 




196 




783 




120. 




120 









0. 



7-62 



5»MPtE CASE «2 '**^^ 



»- E S C H P 
HELKGPTER SIZING t PERfORMAKCE CCMPUTEP PROGRAM 



ROTOR DATA 



SA*>^E CASE 12 



ROTOR CYCLE KO. 3.0000 

HATN ROTOR SCtlOfTV SIZED EY HANUEVER CONDITIONS ,.^ « ^^ 

h . *000.0 ^T, , TEMP « *A.7 OEG. , V - U0,0 kT. 

flCTOR HANUEVER G'S » 1.500 » CT/SIGM4 - 0,095 

PAGE 5 



H E S C N P 
HELICOPTER SIZING C PERFORMANCE COMPUTER PROGRAM 8-91 



propulsion data 

phikary propulsicn Cycle no. U761 
turboshaft engine 

h, ENGINES 
B(-P*P MAX. STANOARC S,i. STATIC H.P. 6621. 

ENGINE SIZED FOR TAKEOFF AT T/W -UOS 
I- • *000. FT, TEMPERATURE • _95.04 DEG.F, 
ANC I. 000 ENGINES INOPERATIVE. 

MAIN ROTOR DRIVE SYSTEM RATING 3997. H.P. 

XMSN SIZED AT IJO. PERCENT OF PAIN ROTOR HOVER POWER REOUIREO 
AT h « 4000. FT, TEMP « 95.0* CEG.F, 

PAGE 
SA^'PIE CASE »2 

H E S C M P 
HELlCOPTFfl SIZING t PEflFGRM*KCe CTMP.JTFB PROGBAH B-91 



A E . C Y N^A . 1 C S C .^W^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

S.ET ^HTAL -ETTEC ARE* ^ I" • '^ 



rpARF 



MEAN SKIN FMCTIGN COF FF . 0,015*34 



PAGBREAKnc*»N TN SQFT 

EEk WING FF ^'^^^ 

FEF FUSFLAr.F FE 

FFFP 



2.479 



FfiP AFT POTno 



FORwAPntMAU) ROTCP PYLHN FE 1.^51 

PVLCN FE „l? 



fF)*PH HAiN RnrnR t-ue(S) fe 'a'a^^ 

FFTRH TAU onTCO KUP FE ^'J 

fEVT VFRTICAL TAIt FE ... °* J 

FFH MORUCNTAL ^ML FF ^* ° 

fp^ PfilMAPV FNGIKF NACFLLE FE ^'2 



pfM AUX. INOEPEKDENT COUlSE ENG. NAC . FE 0.0 

FTNS 4UX, INOPE^CFtHT CRUISE ENG, StPUT FE 0.0 



CFLTA FE 1NCRE»*ENTAL FE 

AERODYNAMIC COEFF. 
A5 
A£ 



4.058 



22,/098e 
1,62279 
._ 0,07074 

ll O.OOOIO 

" 0.0 

E WING LIFT EFFICIENCY FACTOR S'^^"^ 

EVT VERTICAL TAIL LIFT EFFICIENCY FACTOR 0.0 



7-63 






t fM .4 rsj 



*^ ■CO' *2 5* 

do oo oo oo 
• o •& *o ■ o 






OQ oe o o 
• o • o • o 



ss; 



X u « 
•< u. « 



• e 






*ir sTiA ^tfv 'ftA *iA *ir •rl/^ -^t/^ 

^, ^-^fi Ki/N ^ \t\ ^-*A KtA KtA ^rfS ^lA 

86 oe oo oo oo oe oo eo oo 

e oe eo eo oo oe co oe oe 

>e *o *o ' o *o 'O 'O *e •o 

I* o* o* o* o* o« o* o* o* 
oeeoooooo 



EJ4 



• • tu « « 

3 r O « • 

•< UJ U • « 



* • « « 

M ac X — • « 

3 5 tu at « » 

< K »- — * # 



I • • 

, _J O « ♦ * 
O 3 ^ «> 
K U. U. — 



-•j; 



r • u. 

hO X 

ac 3f lu 
& u^ & 



a Z o 
awe 



a (X (^o <NO fyo -^o -*o -^o oo oo oo fro 

X a> <NiO <N0 rsJO rvjO rviO >N(0 NO rviO ^O ^O 

OJ a. mo t*\ o mo mo mo mo mo mO (^O mo 

u •»#••#•**■ 

ooooooooeo 

tnoo trts iA<o if^40 «nv its t/\« \t\ m ia« ir« 

«. h-o ^-o ^o ^e KO f*o h-o ^o ^o ^o 

T X ^ ^ ^C h- ^t ^ -OK ^K ^K *^" <t^ *r- <o^• 

^ eo oo eo oe oo oo oc oo oo oo 
^x ^eoeooooooo 

3QO O V O A tt <B (0 S S) 4D 

f^M ^eooooooooo 

uj uj vo 'O 'O «e 'O 'O *o •o 'O ^o 

*" * ^ ■*© "*o '^ o "^e "^o "" o "^o "^o "*o "* o 

j*»^ 0(^«^-'«^*'^-^0 

^ ^ ^ t/t 1^ m fo m w ^ m ^ m m 

KttlOS) ^ ^* ^- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

K U> tL V 

— ox ^^^^^-'TnT^'T* 

orZiu ••<••»«»#• 

c^tLid ooeeoooooo 

X. 
• »« UJ 

X • lu ^ a 

a z o o u 

a UJ u s 



0. & 

X or 



o — 

e e o ^ 01 

• •• •• ••» ?**-x 

Xdfid- oo • xoia uiv. 

MoeX— tAtA (/^ •"OCX— a^bn 

sSui« (^<^ dc ocSuja vujtf 

a,*.!-- X aK»-- 33-1 



'^ o o 
(/» • « 

4rt k- O O 



*2? 


O • 


o * 


O . 


O i 


o . 


O • 


oi u. X 


• O 


• 9 


• m 


♦ ^ 


• « 


• \r 


« >. 


o ^ 


O m 


O m 


o w 


O m 


O fn 


r -J */» 


r^ 


N 


r» 


f- 


1^ 


^. 


— UJ a> 














a 3 -* 














iL U. — 















O m em o m 



J *,« i » o o 

5 u. K I- 

M a -J u> 

a. * — 



oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo 



^ o ^ 

Ui u« Oj 

3 V» _( 



U. OX 

mm a — 



, , 


^- 




« 




• • 


, I 


• 


« 


■ 


* 


• • 


■ 


• 


• f 


• • 


■ • 


* • 


fvjr- 




►- — 


O 




1- C 


o o 


t^ o 


kA O 


« e 


o o 


m o 


<a 


e o 


— c 


« ^ 




X • 


t- 




« 


4/\ 


m 








» 


« 




« 


>r 


IV) 




T >r 


*- 


UV» 


u a 




-r 


* 


>r 




* 




(*> 














^;5 


< 


— cc 


tf X 




^ 


-t 


* 




^ 




•# 


* 




* 


* 


-r 


-r 




4U ^ 


** 




^l 


ISi 


N 




N 




Al 


rg 




n* 


fM 


fN 


rg 




o 
z 

4 


a -^ 


H 






























o o 


^ 




s 




o # 


^ « 


« 


« 


r>j 


* 


< « 


<r 




m « 


« « 


O « 


m « 


» • 


OC 




K & 




i • 


• • 




• 




« 


• « 


• 




• » 


• • 


• ♦ 


• « 


e «/> 


o 


J o «^ 


O - 


*/i 


>A « 


fVJ* 


^ 


« 


P- 


« 


^ * 


-^ 




^ « 


>0 • 


•r * 


-I « 






Ui Ui IC 


a. t- 


a 


-ri * 


m • 


-r 


« 


* 


• 


a; * 


o 




-• « 


m « 


*i> * 


F^ * 




. 


J O^ -. 


• > 


u. 


• 


w 




• 




* 


» 


— 




-^ • 


-• » 


^ * 


•^ • 




at 


U. J — 


►- 
































> 




































O 




a 




» 


, 




, 




, 


, 




, 


, 


• 


• 


, 


o o 






c. 




O -J- 


a -* 


o 


OB 


o 


(/^ 


o «^ 


o 


» 


o »r 


O <Nf 


o c 


o * 






\U ■ 


t~ 




• m 


■ m 




fSi 




rg 


• rsi 










• o 


. o 


o o 




tJ> X 


o o. 




O ^ 


o o 


o 


o 


o c 


OO 


o 


o 


o c 


o o 


o o 


o o 




u- 


^ « 


a t 




m 


m 




m 




m 


m 




m 


m 


m 


m 


m 



. at a »- 

■ X • > 

■ ^ X 



m © 

m • 

o o 

• o 

O K 



".§ 



m c 


m o 


mo 


m o 


mo 


m o 


«^ . 


« . 




CD ■ 


tT- . 


o . 


«;§ 


*;§ 


«?§ 


=.g 


".8 


-8 


O K 


o ^- 


o »- 


o r- 


OP- 


O f- 



mo mo 



7-64 



u z 



a. v» 



9 « • o ♦ • 

•4# O rsi « O 



• « 


m 


• « 


'T 


« « 


4 


« « 


< 


<r « 


IT 


IT « 


O' 


o « 




O « 




<v* # 


C 


N « 


c 



■* » a* 
o* ■ 



* • * 
o « • 



o » • o « • 



« « *4 

* # 4r 

o # • 



» « 



• * o 

^• » * 

o # • o « 



X _i O • 'U. 



t* o 



• < o 



♦ # o 



• * o 
- ♦ ■# 






* # o 



« « e 






> — 




X e a 

< tuu 


i 




• a a. 

< »- »- 


fan 


ill 



1»l« « ^ « • 

0« « O « « 

• « « * « # 

o # o • 



m « • o « « 

Oft* ^- # # 

f*4 • « "^ « « 

oi * o * « 

« 4 « « 



o « 

• # 



f^ * • 
^ i « 



4 « • 

lA « « 

o » • 

• * • 



P4 « • 



» « « 



^ ♦ # 



^ # * 

e « * 

• « • 

o • 



« ft « 

•^ ft • 

ft • 



» ft ft 

tA « ft 

O « ft 

■ ft ft 

O ft 



<r ft ft 
ft • 



Oft* 

« ft ft 

O ft ft 

• ft ft 

O ft 



1^ ♦ * 
• ft ft 

- ft ft 

* t * 

eft ft 

• ft 



•4 ft ft fM ft 

4 « ft ;0 ft 

O « ft o « 

• ft ft • ft 



« ft ft r ft 

^ ft ft - ft 

* ft ft • ft 

Oft ft Oft 

ft ft ft 



I S! 



X * iV ft. & 

a z V I- K 

a uj u iM ft> 



S 3 Hi K * 4 

ft *- ►- -^ 



OO — 

VI UJ u. Z 

« «; Z •! tn 

-- :«!2 

a. u- — 



u> i- ^' 
ft -< — 



1%". 



SS 





« c < 

■ • 
P P 


1^ 

m Q < 

• • 

o o 


« o ■< 

« * 


e o < 


s o« 
oo 


So- 

oo 


• • 

OO 


K 


-°.g 

oo 


po 


♦- o o 
• o 
P o 


oo 


s 

K oo 

oo 


o e 


s 

oo 

• 




p 


a 
O 


o 


o 


p 


O" 


- o 



• oo 



-4 • O - 



• ft p- • » o 

o « >o O ft ^ 

» C O ft o 

* s "^ ♦ :; 

ft o • o 



, ^ O 'P 

k O • 0>^ - 

O < o -o 2 

SlA O rfS O 

tt S « o 

<J - o - o' 

• * • * • 

» • lA •© 

> o m p^ N 

4 r- (s* f^ f^ 



>«rsj •ii^ ift^ •«cr 

o#in o#tA o#i «♦£ 

OftO o»c o#o 0*o 

o«-< iA»-< Cft— tr»-* 

SSo -•ftO NtftO JNJftO 

o o o o 



'.o| 

'T e^ o 

p^ ^o 



z • 


*- ■ 


o 


wm 


Uft 




— « 


« z 




w u 


•c 


0; 


s — 




U 




Kft - 


« 


*i O «A 


O*- 1/1 


« 


UJ U.> SI 


a »- Q. 


tL 


Jtrt J 


■ ^ U 


a 


*i. 3 - 


^ ^ 


u 



?°8 

? 8 



ff> O O 

e o 

fM o 



POO 

s s 



tA o o 

>f p 

N O 



^^15 


*^,{|Pi 


-,}?; 


^|S 


*« ft p 


^ ft o 


m ♦ o 


t * 2 


^ ft o 


(S ft o 
^ # w 


(T « o 


o « o 


- • o 


-^ * o 


i>4 * o 



O V> S P^ — (T( 

O (S c o « O 



■8 

o 



•8 

O 



f" h- '»' 
-^ O O 



(M « o ^ ft 2 

(M * O t^ ft P 

rw « O '>• # O 

o o 



5* O * m ^ vy 

t\i m o ^ * o 



'8 

o 



•8 

P 






)0< «o* «o< 

} e o o o o 

^ ^ m 

^ «-• (M 

tS4 N h( 

•oo ^OO KOO 

• O #0 • P 

oe e o o o 

» • * 

o o o 

J»rt 0«K ©••• 



o 

C O 

• a 

O o 



o 

8 

a 
O 



8 S S 

o o 



• o o 



* • o ^ • 

a tf\ O ■ ^ 

h- ♦ O mm 




«0 • -rf 

w « C 

*n «i o 
-*o 



^ • IT) 

* h- *) 

« od P 
- O 

o 



-^ flO X "^ o 

« «e o 5^ « 

— O -r 

o 



i$ 



O — *n 
«-*- ft 
• ^ u. 



moo 2f* S 

*400 -*PP 

t U « a P • 

o f-^o o ^ o 



^ e o pj o o 

•T • O tA • O 

— o o — oo 

a o ■ • O a 

O r>* O O ^• O 



* c o 

* » O 

■tS". _ 

Of^ o o f* o 



•o c o 
P* . o 

-.8' 



rsj O P 
a o • 

P K O 



OP- o 



rg O «? • O 

m «o ^ < 

nt o o ^ ^ 

a O * a O 

O P» o O f* 



7-65 



a. *A 

• Z 3 

& X « K 

X 3 1 

O 
z * 



• #<r •»< ««m •#(? •♦• 

w^«^- ^t^^ mttN <n«« (m«'0 

^A*^- i'^»^ tA«p* i/^#^ tn«»*- 

N * • TM « • fM » • fVJ • • <Nt ♦ • 

tA«0 «A#0 tA#0 a%#C kTiflO 



0(J^ 

Ui 2 X 

a. 4 z 
v» «f — 



o 
o 



0-* 



X ^ O • • UL 

a V, ui X o X 

-J O O D Z UJ 

« *■ 4 uj a 



m ♦ c 
• • e 



i/> « o 
• « o 



I * • 



X ^ o * • u. 

a •v uj K (J X 

-'OO 7 Z 1U 

« w < Lu a 



a. > - 3 z o 



0#» »•* <^*# «»♦ «•# 

in«« «•« >r«* "T** ^«« 

o*« o«« o«i o«« e«< 

««» •«• ••» •#• _!** 



OC U) O 

a. > — 



X u o 
3ZO 
< Ut u 



• e & 

X « z 

3 3 3 tu 



• a — 

J T 

lU u. v. 

1/1 

« ^ ffi 

3 3- 



a Z UJ 



s ZO 
a. ui V 



»#* »«* o#* — #• -*#• 

<# « t ^«« tA t • lA « « <A « « 

^#» #«* ^«« <r«« «*« 

•«• •«« •«« •«« ••* 

o«« o«* u«« on* o«« 

«* *« *« «< «« 



N # 
^ # 



-* (J o at 

«/* Z ^ Z 

t/>K UU Ik V. 

« ^ </) 



O W 



4 



%h 



ds c •« 
* o 

9' 

» 

o 
K o o 



a e < 

o 

»- CO 



« o < 



lA 

« o ^ 



« Z UJ 
(L uj & 



^ o o 

tt. Z D 

O- Ui w 



« c 

>~ at 



o 
o 
o 



o 

s 

o 
o 



or 3 4LI or 
a. »- »- - 


II 




u, y. X 

% ^*/» 

— hiu ec 
at 3-J 
a. ¥- - 


, 


,^ 


kA • — 
lu I- ^- 
S -J U. 

a •< •r 


« H U. 

a. > — 



* - o 






^ — e 

m f^ r- 






« 



>o - o 

50 p*l O 
— ^; O 






• • <r O • ^■ 

. — c • -* >0 

^ -. O ^ -i o 

« ^ o ao (*» o 



-tt Z- 

£ K K «« 



-SS 



II 



tzz 



* m ^ 



O • 'O 

e » f^ 

o # M 

<A # c 



5«; 


h^ 


- « 


a. X 


*i 


t at 




s 




♦- a. — 


-1 C s/i 


o — t/l 


UTttj » 


S H 0. 


J»/» -1 


* ^ i 


»*. J — 





; s 



tr o M 



8 





":S8 


'.8 2 


is 2 

« # c 
o • o 

— o 


-* » o 

- o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


• O C 
(T S O 


^ ? o 

«M >f O 

o 


fn 00 ^- 
. (T o 
CT- 0- e 
<f ,t o 

o 


m ^ f^ 
« cr o 
tr i^ c 

O J- o 

o 


i---. 

• a- o 

O (T O 

•"I 



W O trt h- f" 

U< tu S (^ (T 

3 wi J -< -« 

u. 3 — -I -« 



O « 
— O ( 

I * • 



^03 at : 



^ O t/t 

UJ ttJ tb 
J V» -i 



• X - 

-o < 



« c c 
* . o 

r^O O 
• O « 

O r^ O 






*** -r o 
* e o 



'eg*' 
o »*. o 



^. O Ci 






7-66 



^ * 1 

V * 

»> « o 



• • « 


• • « 


• » f^ 


<M • ^ 


^ ♦ 'T 


- ♦ -* 


•->« (V 


O « » 


O « 9" 


9 « • 


w» « • 


(T- * • 


-l# o 


-• • c 


- • o 



«i^ o«^ *«-r o« 

^5^ i^«^ «*ff' «f 
««. ««• »#• •§ 



« •»■« •#'« ••'C 

># tn»* o** tr«-r 

» i*#y ^»(r «*v 

• o«« ««• »«• 

o — »o — «o — #c 



a. VI 
• I P 

X Ol Of 



^ o -4 e 



X nt 

< o 



— • o — ♦ o 

• • o * * o 

fSt • # t^ • * 

( * * r • « 

• o * o 



• « o * • o 



rg»c -*«o (N**? 

♦ • o • ♦ o * * o 

ivjl* rM#* «*#* 

• O #0 # o 



♦ ♦ o 



— # o —to 

• « o • » o 



X _J O * • u- 

a. V. ui M o z 

J o O 3 z- Ui 



o # • o 

• * * ^ 

o « a 



n 



tf\ » • in # • 

o • * o « • 

N # • f^ « # 

* • 



<is: 



IM « « 

• « • 

o « 

« 



m • * 
o # * 



e « « e« f 
• « « • » • 



lA # » £ « f 

o « # o « • 
• • • ^* i 



<M « • 
o « • 



::8 



M O ^ 



<Nj e ^ 

O 6 



m • * '^4 * * 

O * » p • * 

• * m • ♦ • 

o« « o * • 



o 

pg o < 



tn « • 
o * « 



oo 



tn«« irt«« iA«« !C^f 
a«S o5# o»« o#| 

» ♦ » • 



iSI«« »M»« f^i#• »!* • • 

a«« o#* o«* o«* 

il« i»« •»« •«« 

oS: oS; o|; o;; 

«« #♦ •• *• 



« « "^ "*' 

'^*C< ^*0< ^JO^ MC^ 

OO oo oc oo 



— OC X • « (U 

a: u: o K o o 

a. > - D ^P 



N 



*s* 



M 



a. o 9 
o • 



o 
a. o c 



o w ^ ~ 

a.oo o-oo o-oo top 

»a +0 *o •« 

o • o • o • o • 

o o o o 











• na 










X tt^X 






3 




3 ruj 






X 


t/^ 


< H >- 

o o « 

Z -^ T 






un 


K 


lUU. '^ 






< 


^ 


t/> 






lU 




* u- -» 

35- 




« 










X 


• u. 




K 






O X 




X. 




oe 


^ us 




X 


s 


a. uj a 




3 










*- 


1- 










4 










a 


X 


• ly 




a & 






•^Q 




4 o 



uj a. Z O 

Z a. UJ u 



S 



^■m iA»tr ff'»<P rN«^ wt'c u 
"ToS .©JC -Ofsj -Oja '©S • 
f^ O ^o*ro<'^g*g* 



• O r« 
O 

o 



SifVt (N^fN *«IN 

*0 '^ »0 N •ON 

^ O M O -I* O 

— o — o -; o 

Z ^ ^ *^ :i "^ 

o o o 



» O fM 

: § 



• O 


•» 


• r» 


• >o 


• * 


mp^ 


tA « 


tn <o 


* « 


»fi « 


CD N 


« ^ 


e fvi 


OJAi 


OJ CM 


^O 


-O 


— o 


^ o 


'^ 



• ^ .» f^- •-0 ""^^ 

mo ^r^^ ^u^ ■'*A ^if* 

mf^i "C^^ *'^« ""^ft "-r 

^o — o -*o — o —c 



X A & 

"" 5 Ui ar 



i «?!i' 



& X 

13 



3 
Uii U. X 



S 

s 



*s^ ••«^ ••-' ••(T 'W — 

o**^ ©♦'- o#P" o** 2*!: 

= *^ ^Ict aTz-i n^o 0«0 



- « V 

o « « 

O # O 



• * o 

► O 



o*^- ©♦'- o#P" o«« 2*— — 'X XZ 

lis lis lii lis 2ii lis li 



o # -o o ^ 

— # O -• i 



C O * 4 

o o • c 

- ^ * i 

o -* « c 



o « -o 

o « c 

c # - 

-« t o 



,«^ ••>« 'J^ 

tAO-^ — O^ *°i 

« O fM O * O 

?i 8 ?i g i^ g 

ni -^ f^ * f^ O 



\o -* 



3 S 

O fM 

e 



OD O " 

o o 

(T o 



rf> c — 

o o 

* 2 

«>» o 



■ . o 

^ o ^ 

^- o 



-5 o iA o 
r- o « o 



O V 



'".IS 

r- » o 

» • c 

-• * o 
-• o 



I # »n 



r^«o <<]«« (r"*? 

. * </( • * 4* ■ 4 «r 

*»o '^»o o#o 

<N(»o «i»c 4n*o 

r*«a (^v^O 'T*" 

— o — o — o 



-J • « pg ♦ C 

• ♦ ^f • # * 

* » O ^• # O 

-« O "^ # O 



. fS o 
- « Of 



^^ oo 
/V • o 
« oo 



« oo 



O f^ o 



O ^• * o rvi p* 

• ^ - ' * — 

O r- O O f- o 

« ^ O BO — o 

o o 



fh. Q o « O O 

• O • • O • 

o *^ o O P- o 



O P- o 



in 



O 1*^ »*■ 
O r- O 

» ■« e 
o 

o 



O f^ O Of- 



qc 


^ « CD 


9- « e 


^ 


• • -r 


• Tl * 


o 


« * o 


« • o 


o 


^ # o 


"N • o 


o 


P- » o 


<to « o 


o 


- o 


-• O 


o 


o 


o 


^ 


o • « 


o . ^ 


f»* 


O F- "^ 


O '^i f^ 








o 


O r- O 


O i^ O 



_* O v^ 

OJ Ul Oi 

D */i J 



^- O O 
r^ .O 
V O o 

• O * • V - 

O h. O O f- O 



^- o e 
a oc 



^o < 



f- c c 

_ fs« . O 

O O O -CO 
, o • • O • 

— f* a '■* f^ o 



e N- o o 

o - - 
o 

o 



a »- a 

• > u. 

X — 



7-67 



us 


• » ^ 

« 


• « » 

* 


»M ft 
t^ ft 

ft 


e 


« • K 
m « « 

fM # O 

ft 


:• i 


^ 8 


^ 1 


• 


s 




• 


O 


o 




o 


o 




rsi « O 

• o 


• o 


— ft 
• ft 
^ ft 

r ft 

ft 


e 
e 


ft o 


« « « 


« « « 


^ « * 

iil 

• 


e ft ft 


-J ft ft 

O ft 

ft 




Hi 
»ll 


V » • 
« ft • 

Al ft « 


ft 


ft 

ft 
ft 

: 

ft 


Hi 
-II 




ri 


<A • ft 

ri 


^ • ft 
*o ft 

2 S 


« • ft 

• O ft 

<# ft 

-f ft 



• Is 

&, X C tt 

I 3 X 



• uj a. 

uo a. 
lu z X 
4. 4 z 

VI « w 



■ «^ •«»> flftm »ftfM • 

'^#9' fStftV' <«'ft9' -'ftff' m 

--ft^ »fth- h-ftK '^#^• -* 

ITkft. *•• *•• *•• ■# 

<*^«0 <^ftO mfto nfto m 



s s I 



X _J o 
a. <s ui 

-I o o 

■< — 



f ox 

> Z lU 



» ft o 
• ft in 

ft o 


O ft o 

• ft tn 

^- ft -# 

I ft ♦ 

ft o 


- ft o 

• ft tr 

78": 

ft o 


- ft o 

• ft IP 

Tt*. 

ft O 


5:: 

Oft ft 

• ft ft 
e ft 


4 ft ft 

°*i 


in ft ft 

-'1 


tn ft ft 

St 



I 5 (it 



• ¥ - 

O O K 
Z ^ X 



• ^ « 

X U) ^ 

S 3 — 



ti\ftft mftft tn«ft «ft« ^ 

«ft« «ftft Vftft ««ft • 

m«« m«ft <n#ft mftft m 

ojs .;8: -:»» ■■■ 

ft ft ft ft 



eii 

ft " 



<:8 



• Oft 'Oft 

N ft fM ft 

tn ft v^ ft 

^ ft *• ft 



K O 

o u 



« o< 



«04 »o< «o< 
o o o O o o 



d o 



^8 



d 



-# * -r 

O fc- O O K o o 

o • e 'O 

o o o o o 



>- o 6 »- o 

• o • 

oo o 

o o 



O • f*^ o 
»o * 

s s 

art • 

o 



• «4 e«9 e«« 

4 •^ 4 -^ 4 -« 

^ Q ^f^ 9 *'^ 9 

« e « o « o 

•4 « «• • «d • 

o o o 



M — U Q 
a ZO 
& UJ u 



I i??£ 



o • g o *o o * o 

• fsiO •>oo •— o 

O-0O o>ro omo 

^irsfo n<mO N^jO 

^■^o -*-*o "^--O 

• • • 

o o o 



o • - 
• >o o 
o-o 

isj*v* O 

— — o 



O « 9> O ft o 

8« -. O # fVJ 

ft *« <r « — 

— ft O — ft o 



K 8 



• « (T • ft ee 

O » O Oft - 

8» r^J O ft fM 

« -. (Aft - 

fNJ ft O N ft O 



»» O N O O rg 

,f O m O 

fsj O fVf O 

m o m o 

pg *3 ^i 6 

• • 

O O 



»:;« *,s:; i:! 



ft -I 

M ft O 

« « o 



<r ft e 

W ft o 
- O 



d o o 

N N O 



« ft ^• 

O ft ft* 

O » (^4 

O ft ^4 

»" ft o 



Id 



oo - 

z^ « 

W UL Z 
• 'S. 

Z ^ 4/» 

M UJ S 

« ^ u 

a tk --^ 



.- g 



lA O 4 tA e 4 
• ■ • < 

oe oo 



a. o 6 0. o o 

• 5 »o 

o • o * 

e o 

fM • -O V ■ ^ 

• o « • o«) 

- tA • g 

? S 4 o 

o o 

d • ^ 4*0 

• o -^ • m-« 

ff* * O » f*H o 

rf^K e »Af- o 

^-« O '^ ^ o 



tf\ O < lA O < 
• • • • 

o e e d 



a o S a. 



o 6 o 9 
« e « o 



« • » ^ • « 

♦ r- O • w O 

^ «M o tr ^ o 



ij 



'T ft — 

4 ft o s # o 

« 4 O V • O 



'<^ • « 

. ft m 

f^ ft -. 

o ft e 

CT- ft o 



$^ 



-t O un 
U4 I4i Oi 

Own -I 



oc X 



*- a. - 
o — </» 
OL ^ a. 

• > u. 



S 

z 



• ft ^ 

Oft 4- 



• • •* 

OO 1 
•- o 



o ft <r Oft m 

o • <o o ft <« 

O ft -^ O ft -^ 

f•^ ft O ct ft o 

ft • ft • 

O o 

• • -* • • o 

r>JO 4- «Ae # 

tA O - - 



• # rg 
O ft <N 
O * < 
Oft-. 



ff' o m 
-o P ♦ 

04 O rti 



mfO Kft^- Oft^ 

«im aftfn •ftm 



d? 2 
ti^ ft o 



-rf ft m <^ ft m 
* ft o -• ft o 

- ft O 'TWO 



-♦ ft *^ 

• ft *fl 

>A # (n 

f- ft O 

V ft O 



O • 9 
O ftl C7 

d S o 

tf rv> O 

t 
O 

<N 

O 



- OO 

O 



»^ og -oo 

f^ • o -r • O 

4 oo 4 OO 

• o • • u • 

o r^ o e ^- o 



<*1 O O *A o O 

OD r«j o ce «M o 
o o 



<A e o — o o 

*A . O K . O 

•WOO "^ S *^ 

o f* d o K d 



p* o o 

CD <N p 

o 



K o o 
« > o 

4 oo 



O X 

3^ 



- X 






rg • « 
fvj (^ P- 
• O O 

f^ rt o 
• r#\ O 

O 



40 O 



ft* • * rsl , ^ 

<s^ -* Fw rg fvt ^ 

• (? O • r- O 

^ *>i O 1^ r^i O 

O f^O <M m O 

— O -t O 

O O 

9 r- 



S°8 S^J 
^8°. ^8' 



• i*> o • 

^ rvi o ^ 

^ '•^ O * 

— O — 



m o 6 ftl 

f<i • O V 

— go A* 
• o • • 

— •- o — 



7-68 



* • -J 

m « o 



g °.% 



— o o o o 



S e oo e o 

o o e o o e 

» o • o * 6 

o • e • o • 

o o o 



e o o e 

• o « o 

o • o • 

o o 



«o ^ 5 1 

oo o o 

o o o o 

• o * o 

o . o . 

o o 



^ 9- 

oo 



• o 

o • 

o 



IT ff> 

oo 

• o 
o • 

o 



oo 
oo 

♦ o 



<# fN 


* fsi 


« (Si 


^r fs* 


MS <r 


(A O' 


*/\ ^ 


»n 0* 


«;§ 


•^i 


•JS 


«;§ 


o • 


o ■ 


o • 


o • 


o 


o 


o 


o 


-o « 


>0 .0 


« « 


« * 


S£ 


ss 


3S 


ss 


o e 


o o 


•^g 


o o 


»o 


• o 


• o 



• c 

« -r 

• * 

• o 


(n « O 

* o 


« 1 

• • 

• « 

« m 
• 
• 


ill 

• « • 

° J 


# • 

:: 
t: 

• • 


♦ • 


• * 
o m 


• O • 



O O o o ^ o 
* e • O ^• O 

(NO fM O f^ O 



4 9 -9 V- 'O ff- 



Jo » o 
^ o ^- o 

f^ o f^ o 



• * • • 

o o o o 



9^ O 
K O 
M O 



.0 « 



40 O 






89 O 

t^ O 
rsi O 






« O 
P* O 
*Vi O 



4 (^ 4 9' 
4 >0 -4 <0 



p- O 
f- o 

(M O 






oo oc oo oo oo 



o 
• o 



K uj o a> 

O ^ -i -^ 



\/^ o ^ 

• ■ 

oo 



t-i O X 
«c Z uj 
a, u^ a. 



o 



• o 



a e d 



Ifv ^ iT 

o o> o 



M o o 
a zu 

& Ui u 



* * r - 



IN- O 



o - 

O -) « 

Z u. Z 

X lu A 



a < a. 4 



a 4 a- "< 



« O • rg g 

o o 9- o a 

p* O ^ t^ o 

-o - - o 



z ^« 

Ui U. X 



O • 

* « 

O ff- 



• <0 
Off 



• « • • *^ 

« ^ o ♦ -« 

• « O * ^I 

« ^ a n '^ 

• O '^ • o 



K - ** ^ o 

Z • <s* f^ • 

o «/> o o ^ 

— a: ft* M 



^1 

> a 



oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo 



O O -. — fv 

fW f*\ </\ 
^j ^ nj 



8 S S 

O -N* '^ 



• (« • ♦ f« 
mm r^ » i*s 

• e ff « e 

• o w • o 



. o o • o- 

^ h- O fM « 

— o . O O 

rs, o O <N O 

ri a * ^ o 



u. 








-§§ 




UJ 

3 

< 


k. o o 

. m « 

Z '- — 




QC 


— 



— I- a — • • 

i O I/* O •- •« f** # 

) «>^ _# • > u. o • 

. iJ - »- — '^ 



ay o 

S 



• « 

O « 






O M O O 



uf ♦/% ^ p- U 
r or rn fw uj 
^ I . • ^ 



OX o a 
Z • a X 



■ • 
m o 


p- o 


- o 


tn o 


17 O 


« *=^ 


f- o 


-*o 


OO t 


f^ 


*e\ 


* 


(NT 


o 


ff' 


f»- 


^ 


ILF iU U! 


v* 


tr 


V 


V 


a* 


oo 


41 


00 


« a at 




•^ 






-^ 










fVf 


rx 


»M 


z 


fM 


rg 


<M 


(N 


iii 

(U lU UJ 

s: tt or 


o • 


O'* 


O * 


tr * 


W • 


09 « 


P- • 


-O « 


^ ^ _i 


f m 


■ « 


• « 


• « 


« • 


* * 


« • 


• ♦ 


UJ U. UJ 


:^l 


^ c 


1^ • 


« « 


^ • 


O • 


4 • 


f^^ ♦ 


3 3 3 


^ • 


^ » 


w » 


o « 


rst m 


''^ * 


*" » 


u. U. U. 


«■ € 


^ * 


-^ « 


— * 


rg • 


rw « 


fN • 


IN* ♦ 




fn 


m 


m 


m 


tr\ 


ri 


m 


f^ 


(_/ > 
—I at —1 
on u,' < 


O ■ 


o • 


O • 


o • 


o . 


O • 


5 • 


O • 


Lrt •/! I- 


O tf* 


O (M 


O O 


or- 


O <r 


O fVt 


*^S 


O ^- 


« UJ C> 








» o 


. o 


• o 


* o 


• ? 


X a t- 


o <d 


O * 


o o 


o -e 


o -e 


O ^ 


O J 


O ^ 




« f\i 


31 rvj 


S f\i 


or ^ 


«; Aj 


« fM 


ac (N 


« f\( 





".8 

OO 



-^ o 



_ 


*~ & 


P- o 


r- o 


UJ (.D 


c- 


f»- * 




X CK 


a t~ 


f*S o 


f^ O 


— X 


• > 






t- — 


X 


^ ^ 





o • 
^r o 
• o 



^- o ^ o ^ o 
* o >r o -TO 



r- O 
* O 



f- O 
« * 

* o 



^ o 

>f o 



7-69 



REFERENCES 

1. Schoen, A. H., User's Manual for VASCOMP II, THE V/STOL 
AIRCRAFT STZ ING AND PERFbRMANCE COMPUTER PROGRAM , Boeing 
Vertol Company, Report 68-0375, Voliome VI, Rev 2, 
September 1973. 

2. Low, E. M. II, SHORTCUT PERFORMANCE METHODOLOGY, Boeing 
Vertol Company, lOM 8-7444-1-119, 22 October 1969. 

3. Low, E. M. II, WATFOR PROGRAMS FOR PERFORMANCE DETER- 
MINATION, Boeing Vertol Company, lOM 8-7444-1-188, 

18 August 1971. 

4. Mills, S., INCORPORATION OF ROTOR- ROTOR INTERFERENCE DATA 
FROM UHM TESTS INTO SHORTCUT METHODOLOGY, Boeing Vertol 
Company, lOM 8-7444-1-173, 9 March 1971. 

5. Lynn, R. R. , et al, TAIL ROTOR DESIGN, Part I - 
Aerodynamics, AHS Journal, Volume 15, No. 4, October 1970. 

6. Weisner, W. and Kohler, G., DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR TAIL 
ROTORS, Boeing Vertol Company, Report D210-10687-1, 
September 1973. 

7. Gabriel, E. A., DRAG ESTIMATION OF V/STOL AIRCRAFT 
Boeing Vertol Company, Report D8-2194-1, July 1969. 

8. Julian, D., HLH HUB DRAG REVIEW, Boeing Vertol Company, 
lOM 8-7444-1-200, 26 April 1972. 

9. MIL-C-SOllA, Military Specification: STANDARD AIRCRAFT 
CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMANCE CHARTS, PILOTED AIRCRAFT, 
November 5, 1961. 

10. Borst, H. v., A SHORT METHOD TO PROPELLER PERFORMANCE, 
Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Propeller Division. 

11. Federal Aviation Regulations, Part 25, AIRWORTHINESS 
STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES, Federal Avia- 
tion Agency, Washington, D.C. 

12. Livingston, C. L. and Murphy, M. R. , FLYING QUALITIES 
CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUEY 
COBRA, AHS Journal, Vol. 14, #1, January 1969. 

13. Brown, E. L. and Schmidt, P. S., THE EFFECT OF HELICOPTER 
PITCHING VELOCITY ON ROTOR LIFT CAPABILITY, AHS Journal, 
Vol. 8, #4, October 1963. 



R-1 



14. Drees, J. M. and McGuigan, M. J., HIGH SPEED HELICOPTERS 
AND COMPOUNDS IN MANEUVERS AND GUSTS, Proceedings of 21st 
Annual National Forum of AHS, May 1965. 

15. Drees, J. M. , ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HELICOPTER GUST 
RESPONSE AND HIGH FORWARD SPEEDS, AAVLABS TR69-1, 
September 1969. 



R-2